• Understanding emotional empathy at postgraduate business programs: What does the use of EEG reveal for future leaders?

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Taylor, Michael; Venerucci, Matteo; University of Chester; University of York; Brain Propaganda (Emerald, 2021-04-29)
      This paper focuses on the leaders’ ability to recognise and empathise with emotions. This is important because leadership and particularly transformational leadership are principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to the emotions of others (Psychogios and Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa, et. al., 2008). Design/methodology/approach To examine the extent to which those who work in jobs with a significant element of leadership education can recognise and empathise with emotions, ninety-nine part-time postgraduate executive MBA students took part in an emotional recognition test. First, all participants were shown a sequence of pictures portraying different human facial expressions and the electrical activity in the brain as a result of the visual stimuli were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG). The second stage of the research was for the participants to see the same seven randomised images, but this time, they had to report what emotion they believed they had visualised and the intensity of it on a self-reporting scale. Findings This study demonstrated that the ability to recognise emotions is more accurate using EEG techniques compared to participants using self-reporting surveys. The results of this study provide academic departments with evidence that more work needs to be done with students to develop their emotional recognition skills. Particularly for those students who are or will go on to occupy leadership roles. Originality The use of neuroscientific approaches has long been used in clinical settings. However, few studies have applied these approaches to develop our understanding of their use in social sciences. Therefore, this paper provides an original and unique insight into the use of these techniques in higher education.
    • How can we engage mathematics ITE students with research?

      Bamber, Sally; Bokhove, Christian; University of Chester; University of Southampton (British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 2021-03-06)
      In the Erasmus+ Research in Teacher Education (RiTE) project, student teachers are stimulated to use evidence from educational and scientific research to experiment and innovate their teaching and learning processes. In two case studies we use Engestrom’s expansive learning cycle. The first case study reports on the design and implementation of materials designed to enhance student teachers’ critical review of literature in the context of the post-graduate study that is incorporated within their teacher education. The second case study presents the design of collaborative lesson research that aims to foster authentic connections between school-based learning (teaching practice) and research that informs mathematics teaching and learning. We discuss the aims of research-informed mathematics teacher education at each site, demonstrate some of the approaches used and discuss tensions within the design and early implementation of the projects.
    • Integrating visual arts into post-diagnostic dementia support groups in Memory Services.

      Ponsillo, Nick; orcid: 0000-0003-1030-8028; Boot, Julia; Jones, Katy (2020-09-16)
    • Emotional awareness amongst middle leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Emerald, 2020-05-26)
      The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to explore middle leaders’ ability to recognise emotions in the context of workplace research, and to propose measures that might support them in their role. This paper combines a contemporary literature review with reflections from practice to develop more nuanced understandings of middle leadership. The paper applied the Geneva Emotional Recognition Test (GERT) to explore the level of emotional recognition of 86 individuals (teachers, to headteachers (equivalent to school principals)). The preliminary findings suggest that teachers and headteachers have higher levels of emotional recognition than middle and senior leaders. This paper subsequently argues that the task-orientated nature middle leadership compounds an individual’s ability to engage effectively in relationship-orientated tasks. This explains why middle leaders scored lower on the GERT assessment. This is further inhibited by the anti-correlation in the brain’s ability to deal with the TDM and DMN processing functions where individuals operate in one neural mode for long periods. The viewpoint paper proposes a number of implications for middle leaders and suggests that middle leaders should proactively seek out opportunities to engaged in activities that support the DMN function of the brain and subsequently the relationship-orientated aspects of leadership. For example, coaching other staff. However, it has to be recognised that the sample size is small and further work is needed before any generalisations can be made. This paper offers a contemporary review of the role of middle leaders underpinned by a preliminary study into individuals’ ability to recognise emotions.
    • Associate Teachers’ Learning Networks: A Figurational Analysis of Initial Teacher Education

      Jones, Luke; Tones, Steven; Foulkes, Gethin; University of Chester (Emerald, 2020-04-24)
      Purpose of this paper: The aim of this paper is to use the lens of figurational sociology to analyse the learning networks of physical education (PE) associate teachers (ATs) in England. More specifically, it aims to develop a more adequate understanding of who is involved in the learning networks and how they influence ATs during their one-year postgraduate initial teacher education (ITE) programme. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 35 ATs within a university ITE partnership took part in the study during the final phase of their postgraduate programme. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to examine the nature and impact of the interdependent relationships that they had developed with other individuals and groups. A process of content analysis was used to identify and analyse patterns in the data. Findings: Mentors have the most influence over ATs. They support the inclusion of the ATs within the PE department, but elements of the mentors’ role are contradictory and can unintentionally hinder the ATs’ teaching. Mentors, teachers and tutors also share a common social habitus that ensures a degree of conformity within the PE community. New experiences tend to reinforce ATs’ existing beliefs about the nature and practice of teaching PE. Research limitations/implications (optional): Practical implications (optional): These findings have implications for providers of ITE in deciding who is involved in mentor training and how it is approached. If ATs are to be introduced to more innovative teaching approaches that promote change, then tutors need to collaborate with mentors and teachers to develop awareness of their often-unplanned influence. Social implications (optional): What is original/value of paper: Applying the distinctive, and more generally sociological, concepts that make up the figurational perspective helped to develop a more adequate understanding of the ATs’ learning networks. It provided an insight into the changing relationships that ATs have with their mentors and other individuals who work within the school and university context.
    • Cultural Antecedents of Sustainability and Regional Economic Development - A Study of SME ‘Mittelstand’ Firms in Baden-Württemberg (Germany)

      Kraus, Patrick; Stokes, Peter; Cooper, Sir Cary; Liu, Yipeng; Moore, Neil; Britzelmaier, Bernd; Tarba, Shlomo (Informa UK Limited, 2020-01-20)
    • Tertiary Education

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Springer, 2020-01-05)
      The phase of education proceeding compulsory education, including higher education. Typically there is no upper limit to the age at which an individual can participate in tertiary education. It is sometimes referred to as lifelong learning given the lack of upper age limit. Tertiary education often bridges the skills and knowledge gap between the general education that an individual receives at school and work.
    • Inspection and External Audit Mechanisms

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-11-16)
      Inspection and audit can broadly be defined as the external scrutiny by interested parties. This could be from government or public organizations such as funding agencies which are seeking assurances that public money is being used appropriately and services provided are to the requisite standard. Public services have always been the subject of external scrutiny and education is no exception from this. As traditional deliverers of services, local authority areas (equivalent to districts) gradually became commissioners of services due to continued pressure on public finances. Subsequently, inspection and audit have played a more central theme in ensuring organizations are fulfilling their responsibilities. This entry considers the need for inspection and audit in the delivery of education. In doing so the entry will first explore the development of the policy landscape that has resulted in a culture of inspection and audit, before considering the accountability frameworks which go with it.
    • Beyond the Big Six Religions: Expanding the Boundaries in the Teaching of Religion and Worldviews

      Holt, James D.; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2019-11-04)
      Beyond the Big Six is a timely addition to the body of work surrounding the teaching of Religious Education in schools. The book will build on research surrounding the desirability and possibility of expanding the breadth of religious and non-religious worldviews within the classroom. Although it will be recognized that there are challenges in the existing circumstances to the inclusion of ‘smaller’ religions this book will articulate the importance of such an inclusion in today’s society. It will also explore how such religions might be used within the RE classroom; one distinctive quality of this book is the focus it will have on classroom applicability. While it will draw on research, there will be chapters to help teachers adopt an approach to the teaching of the major world religions, and particular Key Stages
    • Religious Education

      Holt, James D.; University of Chester (Learning Matters, 2019-10-12)
      An exploration of pedagogical subject knowledge and the teaching of RE in the primary school
    • Science

      Pope, Deborah; University of Chester (Learning Matters, Sage, 2019-10-12)
      The chapter explores and deconstructs the nature of subject knowledge for teaching primary science from integrated theoretical and practice-based perspectives.
    • Introduction

      Pope, Deborah; University of Chester (Learning Matters, Sage, 2019-10-07)
      The introductory chapter provides the theoretical framework of subject knowledge for primary teaching that is then adopted through the remainder of this edited volume.
    • Making connections

      Pope, Deborah; University of Chester (Learning Matters, Sage, 2019-10-07)
      This final chapter of the book draws together the subject-specific chapters and considers the role of subject knowledge in cross-curricular approaches.
    • Applied fantasy and wellbeing

      Wall, Tony; MacKenzie, Anna; Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester and Storyhouse (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      Applied Fantasy is a new, innovative approach to wellbeing that demonstrates the significant potential within fantasy literature and media to provide effective and sustainable coping strategies for positive mental health. Emerging at the intersection of fantasy literature and media, mental health and wellbeing, and fan studies, the benefits from Applied Fantasy are two-fold. First, the concept of an individual being part of a wider fandom is a positive step towards a) combating isolation and b) subverting the stigma surrounding mental health; and second, the contents of the fantasy works themselves provide solid examples and guidance on how to manage mental health concerns while not overtly discussing coping strategies for mental health.
    • Informal Music-Making and Well-Being

      Solé i Salas, Lluís; Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester and Storyhouse (Springer, 2019-09-26)
      In order to define the nature of informal music, specifically music making and its multidimensional connections with one’s wellbeing. A brief history of how music making is understood is first offered in order to delineate associated research, and music learning models. It is hoped that this will provide some detailed definition of the contemporary context of music making, so that the approach of ‘Universal Design’, amongst others, in the making of music might be understood as a paradigm shift that might have benefits for wellbeing. Informal music making is in short defined as categorically separate from formal music making, but their overlapping and dynamic relationship is nonetheless recognised and also further expanded upon. Informal music making is also aligned to understandings of the intuitivist and rationalist composer.
    • Exploring Inclusion and Diversity within Undergraduate Teacher Training Programmes in England

      Devarakonda, Chandrika; McGrath, Sarah; Chaudhary, Diksha; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-07-31)
      This research has been triggered by the consistent references to the increase in the number of children from ethnically diverse population in schools in England and lack of confidence and preparedness of teachers to teach children from diverse backgrounds. A government commissioned Newly Qualified Teachers (NQT) survey encouraged them to respond to questions related to their preparedness and confidence to teach children from all ethnic backgrounds and who have English as additional language, one year after gaining their Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). The aim of this research is to explore the perspectives and challenges of students (referred to as Associate teachers (ATs)) on teacher training programmes related to their knowledge and understanding of inclusion and diversity from the teacher training programmes. This research examined the perceptions of ATs on their final year of the three-year degree on initial teacher education programme and some teacher educators teaching this cohort of students who are programme leaders, year leaders, and other staff, who provide enriching experiences related to diversity. Data was collected through a survey consisting of open questionnaires for teacher educators and ATs were requested to volunteer to respond to questions on an online forum. The online survey was kept open for a short window of four weeks to enable ATs to respond in their own time and ensure anonymity. The responses provided by ATs and Teacher Educators (TEs) have been analysed using qualitative data analysis applying the three steps - Developing and Applying Codes, identifying themes, patterns and relationships and summarizing the data. The data resulted in four themes : concepts and contexts of diversity, experiences on the programme, preparedness to teach and challenges. The ATs and TEs articulate that there was significant impact of the teacher training programme on preparing them to teach children from diverse ethnic backgrounds. They acknowledged the lack of diversity in the placements to teach children from diverse backgrounds as one of the key challenges and barriers faced.
    • Leverage Leadership: A new paradigm for further education

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Further Education Trust for Leadership, 2019-07-19)
      he purpose of this article is to review existing models of leverage leadership which are currentlyapplicable to schools to establish whether they are appropriate for further education colleges. Due to the complexities of the environment in which further education colleges operate and the scale of the organisations involved, models of leverage leadership have not currently been applied to this sector. The paper proposes that a new model Distributed Leverage Leadership is more suitable to further education colleges. Unlike existing models which are predicated on the head of the organisation adopting the principles of leverage leadership, Distributed Leverage Leadership suggests a shared responsibility between senior and middle leaders. The model is predicated on a notion of forensic analysis of data, regular observations of learning, building a culture of high expectations and accountability.
    • Leverage Leadership: Lessons from further education

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Further Education Trust for Leadership, 2019-07-17)
      The purpose of this article is to review the models of leverage leadership which are currently available in the compulsory sector to establish whether the models are appropriate for post compulsory education, and in particular for general further education colleges. In addition the article explores how a further education institution has gone about implementing leverage leadership. The article does this through a series of semi-structured interviews with senior and middle leaders and teachers on the aspects that they have implemented. Due to the complexities of the environment in which further education colleges operate, models of leverage leadership have not yet been extensively applied to this sector. What was derived was the emphasis of leverage leadership has been placed on a shift in approach to seeking assurances around the quality of teaching, learning and assessment. Moreso, then the use of data, which the institution in this article recognises that they are still some way of achieving, within the spirit of the proposed model.