• An analysis of the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education

      Power, Michael; University of Chester (British Education Studies Association, 2021-12-01)
      This paper considers the question ‘what are the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education?’ This is an important question because understanding the characteristics of intervention strategies allows for a clearer understanding of the resource cost and unintended implications (Outhwaite, et al., 2020) of the use of intervention strategies in secondary schools. Although this paper doesn’t explore the resource cost or implications of these strategies it provides a framework through which practitioners can begin to analyse the intervention strategies used in their own settings. The study aims to identify the common characteristics of intervention strategies within a sample of intervention strategies taken from one comprehensive secondary school in the Northwest of England. This practitioner enquiry was conducted using thematic analysis to identify the characteristics of a sample of intervention strategies, alongside the study of commonality within the sample by looking at which characteristics are more prevalent when compared to the average number within the same sample. The research is situated within ‘post-positivism’ which “straddles both the positivist and interpretivist paradigms” (Grix, 2004) and makes use of both interpretivist and positivist methods through thematic analysis of characteristics and he statistical analysis of commonality. The two most common characteristics within the sample were found to be reactivity to a trigger or stimulus such as underperformance in a test, which was present in all 23 intervention strategies. Having a measurable outcome such as improving reading age, was present in 22 of the 23 intervention strategies in the sample making it the second most common characteristic from this sample. The least common characteristic was for intervention strategies to focus on child’s motivations – for example intervention strategies that make use of things students are interested in such as football. This was only present in 5 of the 23 intervention strategies.
    • Moving in the wrong direction: A critical history of citizenship education in England from the early twentieth century to the present day

      Egan-Simon, Daryn; University of Chester
      This article critically explores the development of citizenship education in England from the early twentieth century to the present day. Using Westheimer and Kahne’s (2004) citizenship education framework as a lens, it is argued that citizenship education in England, from the early twentieth century to the present day, has failed to move beyond education for personal responsibility and civic participation, towards a more justice-orientated conceptualisation. It is maintained that citizenship education during much of the twentieth century was framed around personal responsibility, deference and patriotism. However, with the election of the New Labour government in 1997 and the introduction of citizenship education as a statutory secondary school subject in 2002, there was a move towards the development of participatory dispositions and the enhancement of political literacy in young people. From 2010, however, there has been a retrograde shift towards citizenship education for personal responsibility and character education (Kisby, 2017; Starkey, 2018; Weinberg and Flinders, 2018), as well as an increased focus on Fundamental British Values. The article concludes by considering the recommendations from the House of Lords’ (2018) report on citizenship education and argues that, while they may help reposition citizenship education within a participatory framework, they still fail to move towards a justice-orientated conceptualisation of citizenship education which focuses on the solidarity of the global community and how best to take actions that benefit all of humankind.
    • Measuring emotions and empathy in educational leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester
      Educational leadership requires a combination of transformational and transactional leadership. However, this combination is not in equal parts, instead favouring transformational leadership. This approach to leadership is principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to those of others. Opposing this is transactional leadership which focuses on the processes necessary to achieve a desired outcome, regardless of the individuals involved (Psychogios & Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa et al., 2008). However, until recently the focus of determining an individual’s ability to recognise emotions has been through a self-reporting questionnaire. Yet these questionnaires can only be used to report emotional feelings, which are expressed emotional manifestations in our body, incurring sensational changes picked up by self-awareness, such as anger, sadness and joy. Therefore, what individuals are actually doing is reporting their awareness and externalising of the sensation based on what the person perceives the emotion to be. This chapter explores the use of neuroscientific techniques, primarily electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking to better understand empathy. What this chapter highlights are that these techniques are more accurate at measuring an individual's ability to recognise emotions than the traditional self-reporting questionnaire.
    • Religious Education in the Secondary School. An Introduction to Teaching, Learning and the World Religions

      Holt, James D.; University of Chester
      Religious Education in the Secondary School is a comprehensive, straightforward introduction to the effective teaching of Religious Education (RE) in the secondary classroom. Acknowledging the highly valuable yet often misunderstood contribution of RE, this text shows how the subject can be taught in a way that explores the impact of religion on the lives of people and society, engaging pupils and preparing them to become individuals who celebrate and respect diversity. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and includes a new chapter on ‘Religion and Worldviews’ and new material on the development and assessment of an RE curriculum. It is illustrated throughout with ideas for teaching at different key stages and offers expert chapters introducing you to both the World Religions and the core aspects of effective teaching and learning. With an emphasis on developing an understanding of the importance – and different ways – of meeting the learning needs of all pupils, key chapters cover: • The nature of Religious Education • What is religion and worldviews • Understanding different pedagogies of RE • Effective planning and assessment • An approach to teaching across the Key Stages • Core subject knowledge in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism. Written by an experienced teacher, teacher educator and examiner, Religious Education in the Secondary School is a succinct compendium and has a real classroom applicability offering all trainee RE teachers, as well as those teaching Religious Education as specialists or non-specialists, a wealth of support and inspiration.
    • Integrating theory and practice in physical education: Preservice Teachers' views on practitioner research

      Jones, Luke; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2022-03-25)
      Practitioner enquiry is a well-established approach to professional learning that can facilitate teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and improve their educational practice. That said, practitioner enquiry is less frequently seen in physical education (PE) initial teacher education and in the general practice of PE teachers. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of 17 secondary PE preservice teachers (PTs) who completed a small-scale practitioner enquiry as part of their one-year postgraduate initial teacher education programme. A questionnaire and group interviews - conducted before, during, and at the end of the small-scale enquiry - were used to generate data. The findings revealed that the practitioner enquiry promoted greater collaboration between the PTs and their school-based mentors as they worked together to develop their shared understanding of the teaching and learning process. The practitioner enquiry also facilitated the PTs’ critical engagement with pedagogical research, enhanced their curricular knowledge and nurtured their independent professional identity.
    • The need for empathy in school leadership

      Lambert, Steve; Taylor, Michael G.; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University
      Hughes et al. (2005) state that empathy is an essential skill for leadership in any field of leadership. This paper reviews literature on the importance of empathy by exploring the applications of benefits in other professions such as nursing; transferrable lessons can be learned. For school leaders, having an emotionally intelligent understanding of what they need to perform successfully can also support how they manage their team to bring out the best in all team members. Finally, this paper aims to make recommendations for governing bodies and headteachers to identify what empathetic leadership might look like and how headteachers with the right empathy skills can be specified for future recruitment.
    • Arts-Aided Recognition of Citizens’ Perceptions for Urban Open Space Management

      Suomalainen, Sari; orcid: 0000-0003-4839-841X; email: sari.suomalainen@student.lut.fi; Kahiluoto, Helena; email: helena.kahiluoto@lut.fi; Pässilä, Anne; email: anne.passila@lut.fi; Owens, Allan; email: a.owens@chester.ac.uk; Holtham, Clive; email: c.w.holtham@city.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-12-23)
      Urban open spaces of local natural environments can promote the health and well-being of both ecosystems and humans, and the management of the urban spaces can benefit from knowledge of individuals’/citizens’ perceptions of such environments. However, such knowledge is scarce and contemporary inquiries are often limited to cognitive observations and focused on built environmental elements rather than encouraged to recognize and communicate comprehensive perceptions. This paper investigates whether arts-based methods can facilitate recognition and understanding perceptions of urban open spaces. Two arts-based methods were used to capture perceptions: drifting, which is a walking method, and theatrical images, which is a still image method and three reflective methods to recognize and communicate the perceptions. The results show related sensations and perceptions enabled by arts-based methods comparing them to a sticker map method. The main findings were perceptions, which included information about human−environment interaction, about relations to other people and about ‘sense of place’ in urban open spaces. The hitherto unidentified perceptions about urban open space were associations, metaphors and memories. The methods used offer initial practical implications for future use.
    • The Mistress turned Medicant

      Poole, Simon; University of Chester; Storyhouse (Plant Heritage, 2021-10-01)
      A foundational piece explaining the principles and interests of the National Plant Collection of Mentha and it's cultural positionality in relation to education, folklore, biodiversity, sustainability, and wellbeing.
    • Emotional empathy of postgraduate students

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Venerucci, Matteo; Taylor, Michael G.; University of Chester; University of York; Brian Propaganda
      This paper focuses on the leaders’ ability to recognise and empathise with emotions. This is important because leadership and particularly transformational leadership are principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to the emotions of others (Psychogios and Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa, et. al., 2008). To examine the extent to which those who work in jobs with a significant element of leadership education can recognise and empathise with emotions, ninety-nine part-time postgraduate executive MBA students took part in an emotional recognition test. First, all participants were shown a sequence of pictures portraying different human facial expressions and the electrical activity in the brain as a result of the visual stimuli were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG). The second stage of the research was for the participants to see the same seven randomised images, but this time, they had to report what emotion they believed they had visualised and the intensity of it on a self-reporting scale. This study demonstrated that the ability to recognise emotions is more accurate using EEG techniques compared to participants using self-reporting surveys. The results of this study provide academic departments with evidence that more work needs to be done with students to develop their emotional recognition skills. Particularly for those students who are or will go onto occupy leadership roles.
    • Empathic gaze: a study of human resource professionals

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Venerucci, Matteo; Taylor, Michael; University of Chester; University of York; Brain Propaganda (Emerald, 2021-09-02)
      The purpose of this research paper is to explore the fixation of the eyes of HR professionals’ when identifying emotions in the context of workplace research, and to propose measures that might support them in their role. This paper combines a contemporary literature review with reflections from practice to develop a more nuanced understanding of 39 HR professionals’ ability to recognise emotions. This paper used eye-tracking technology more commonly used in laboratory based studies to explore the fixation of the eye when identifying emotions. The preliminary findings suggest that HR professionals with higher levels of emotional recognition principally focus on the eyes of the recipient. Whereas those with lower levels of emotional recognition focus more so the nose or the randomly across the face, depending on the level of emotional recognition. The data suggests that women are better than men, in the sample group at recognising emotions, with some variations in recognising specific emotions such as disgust. This research paper proposes a number of implications for middle leaders and suggests that middle leaders should proactively seek out opportunities to be engaged in activities that support the default mode network (DMN) function of the brain and subsequently the relationship-orientated aspects of leadership, for example, coaching other staff members. However, it has to be recognised that the sample size is small and further work is needed before any generalisations can be made. This paper offers a contemporary review underpinned by a preliminary study into HR professionals’ ability to recognise emotions.
    • The ‘Teacher Research Group’ as a collaborative model of professional learning

      Jones, Luke; University of Chester (Routledge, 2021-08-10)
      In this study, we adopted a Teacher Research Group model, a collaborative approach to teacher education that draws on the principles of numerous action research models of enquiry. More specifically, a teacher educator worked alongside an experienced physical education teacher over a three-month period to plan, teach and evaluate a series of classroom-based lessons. The Teacher Research Group adopted five teaching strategies that were thought to be significantly related to optimal learning and then refined their use in response to an evaluation of pupils’ learning in the classroom. This article outlines the context for this model, describes its application and finally reviews its value as a means of promoting shared professional learning. Adopting the Teacher Research Group model did lead to changes in teaching strategies and improvements in pupils’ learning outcomes. Moreover, the model was an effective approach to shared professional learning, one that could lead to desirable change among education professionals elsewhere.
    • Role of emotional intelligence in effective nurse leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (RCN Publishing, 2021-09-13)
      Leaders who practice emotional leadership demonstrate a sensitivity to their own and other’s feelings, wellbeing and emotional health. In this style of leadership, the person leads with emotional intelligence, directing others to common goals while developing solid and effective personal relationships. This article explores emotional leadership and argues that it is not only a key quality of effective leaders but has a particular relevance with the emotional burden created within the healthcare workforce by the recent COVID-19 pandemic.
    • How can we engage mathematics ITE students with research?

      Bamber, Sally; Bokhove, Christian; University of Chester; University of Southampton (British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 2021-03-06)
      In the Erasmus+ Research in Teacher Education (RiTE) project, student teachers are stimulated to use evidence from educational and scientific research to experiment and innovate their teaching and learning processes. In two case studies we use Engestrom’s expansive learning cycle. The first case study reports on the design and implementation of materials designed to enhance student teachers’ critical review of literature in the context of the post-graduate study that is incorporated within their teacher education. The second case study presents the design of collaborative lesson research that aims to foster authentic connections between school-based learning (teaching practice) and research that informs mathematics teaching and learning. We discuss the aims of research-informed mathematics teacher education at each site, demonstrate some of the approaches used and discuss tensions within the design and early implementation of the projects.
    • Associate Teachers’ views on dialogic mentoring

      Jones, Luke; Tones, Steven; Foulkes, Gethin; Jones, Rhys C.; University of Chester; Bangor University (Routledge, 2021-06-02)
      The aim of this paper is to examine Associate Teachers’ (ATs) views on dialogic mentoring. More specifically it consider, the views of 48 ATs who were involved in an Initial Teacher Education (ITE) partnership that has emerged in response to several changes that have occurred in Welsh education. Educational reforms in Wales have highlighted the value of mentoring and the new ITE partnership is uniquely committed to a dialogic approach. A questionnaire and three focus group interviews were used to generate data from the 48 ATs who were completing a one-year postgraduate programme. Thematic analysis was then used to interrogate the data and identify patterns of response. Adopting a dialogic approach was found to remove some of the anxiety around formal observations and help establish trusting collaborative relationships where ATs were willing to take risks. The dialogic approach was more democratic and gave ATs a stronger voice, but this also created some conflict as mentors’ own beliefs were more likely to be questioned. The dialogic approach relied on mentors being fully invested in the process and being committed to open conversations about learning.
    • Diversity and marginalization in childhood: A guide to inclusive thinking 0-11

      Hamilton, Paula; University of Chester
      This core text offers students an accessible foundation to the topics of diversity, inclusion and marginalisation. Not only will they develop an understanding of how marginalisation happens, they will be encouraged to question and challenge policy and practice through case studies, reflective questions and activities. The book analyses issues encountered by marginalised groups and the impact these may have on the lives of those concerned, together with how practitioners can help to empower these individuals and groups. With key chapters bringing attention to less cited marginalised groups such as transgender children, children with mental health conditions and looked after children, the author critically analyses the difficulties and challenges of inclusive ideology in practice, the role of mass media in reinforcing prejudice and examines theoretical frameworks and concepts related to marginalisation, inclusion and diversity.
    • Planting Critical Ideas

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester
      Jeff Adams discusses ideas about art education and artists tackling the environmental crisis, using the theory of anti-mimesis. The video features drawings by the author of pine trees in Wirral and Bethlehem. The video is based on the paper: Adams, J. (2020) Planting Critical Ideas: Artists Reconfiguring the Environmental Crisis, International Journal of Art and Design Education, 39.2, pp. 274-279. DOI: 10.1111/jade.12293.
    • Making the most of crafts in Merseyside schools

      Adams, Jeff; Rhodes, Sam; Smith, Claire; University of Chester; Bluecoat Display Centre, Liverpool
      During 2018/19 the Bluecoat Display Centre (BDC) in Liverpool set out to undertake a review of best-practice models for integrating craft-makers into secondary education to support research-informed practice in creative education. The project took us into a number of local secondary schools around Merseyside to meet teachers who had integrated artist-led working and residencies into their curriculums, to help us build a detailed picture of the conditions and resources that are essential for a productive long-term collaboration between the schools and the craft-maker.
    • Planting critical ideas: Artists reconfiguring the environmental crisis

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester
      This article looks at possible artistic responses to the environmental crisis, using the theory of anti-mimesis as a means to rethink and reconfigure the ways that the crisis is understood. Initially using the nineteenth-century idea of anti-mimesis, or life imitating art, where art brings nature into existence in people’s minds, the article looks at the work of contemporary artists and writers who are challenging existing assumptions about human interventions into the natural world and the ways in which thinking may be reconfigured by these responses. In particular the sluggish response of governments towards tree preservation and planting is used as an example of the potential for artist educators to revivify the thinking around this issue through their creative insights, hence the metaphor of planting critical ideas, with the aim of creating a momentum of consciousness about the preciousness and fragility of our natural environment.
    • Art and Solidarity

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester
      In many countries state support for the arts is declining, for both the arts in general and for the arts in education specifically. The creative and critical thinking that often accompanies the arts is a significant asset for schools in these turbulent times. The increased social awareness and co-operation that arises from the creative juxtaposition of people from different cultures brought together under the auspices of the arts, and who are prepared to overcome traditional differences through a common endeavour, is a form of creative solidarity.
    • Understanding emotional empathy at postgraduate business programs: What does the use of EEG reveal for future leaders?

      Lambert, Steve; Dimitriadis, Nikolaos; Taylor, Michael; Venerucci, Matteo; University of Chester; University of York; Brain Propaganda (Emerald, 2021-04-29)
      This paper focuses on the leaders’ ability to recognise and empathise with emotions. This is important because leadership and particularly transformational leadership are principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to the emotions of others (Psychogios and Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa, et. al., 2008). Design/methodology/approach To examine the extent to which those who work in jobs with a significant element of leadership education can recognise and empathise with emotions, ninety-nine part-time postgraduate executive MBA students took part in an emotional recognition test. First, all participants were shown a sequence of pictures portraying different human facial expressions and the electrical activity in the brain as a result of the visual stimuli were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG). The second stage of the research was for the participants to see the same seven randomised images, but this time, they had to report what emotion they believed they had visualised and the intensity of it on a self-reporting scale. Findings This study demonstrated that the ability to recognise emotions is more accurate using EEG techniques compared to participants using self-reporting surveys. The results of this study provide academic departments with evidence that more work needs to be done with students to develop their emotional recognition skills. Particularly for those students who are or will go on to occupy leadership roles. Originality The use of neuroscientific approaches has long been used in clinical settings. However, few studies have applied these approaches to develop our understanding of their use in social sciences. Therefore, this paper provides an original and unique insight into the use of these techniques in higher education.