Now showing items 1-20 of 272

    • Active agents of change: A conceptual framework for social iustice-orientated citizenship education

      Egan-Simon, Daryn; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2022-05-03)
      Social justice–orientated citizenship education (SJCE) can help young people to develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to work collectively towards solutions to problems such as human rights violations, global poverty and environmental sustainability (DeJaeghere and Tudball, 2007; Banks, 2017; Hartung, 2017). Furthermore, SJCE can enable young people to think critically, consciously and compassionately and allow them to grow intellectually with a concern for equality and justice. This paper presents a conceptual framework for SJCE for educators and educational researchers wishing to explore citizenship education within social justice contexts. The framework is based on four constitutive elements: agency, dialogue, criticality and emancipatory knowledge, and has its philosophical foundations deeply rooted in the values and principles of critical pedagogy (Kincheloe, 2004; McLaren, 2014; Giroux, 2016). This conceptual framework for SJCE is ultimately concerned with developing justice-orientated active agents of change who are concerned with making the world more democratic, equitable and just.
    • Towards a Latter-day Saint Theology of Religions: Living theologically in a pluralist world

      Holt, James D.; University of Chester
      This article will draw on the experiences of the presenter as a Latter-day Saint who has been involved in teaching world religions and in inter-faith activities over the last 30 years in striving to accomplish two tasks. First, with regard to Latter-day Saint belief it seeks to formulate a theology of religions. To assist with the construction of a theology of religions the paper will utilize existing Christian scholarship on theology of religions. This will argue that the debate surrounding theologies of religion and engagement with other religions from the perspective of wider Christianity can be used to help to develop a Latter-day Saint approach to these issues. The role of any theology of religions should not be merely to inform a person’s belief but also to provide a basis for inter-faith relationships. Thus the second task of this paper is to explore how a Latter-day Saint theology of religions may influence the Church and its members’ engagement with other religions. The main argument will be that Latter-day Saint involvement in inter-faith conversation can continue to flourish, but must do so with a much firmer background and idea of intent. Establishing a theological background for dialogue will provide Latter-day Saints with a greater understanding of why these interactions are important, and will offer the principles that conversations should uphold and be guided by. This article begins an exploration of the framework for inter-faith dialogue within a pluralist world. The main writings within Mormonism with regard to other religions have tended to focus on surface convergence and have sometimes been apologetic in nature. Other writings have been of the attitude that Mormonism should stand independent from the world and its religions. This article attempts to posit a middle way, where both strands of Latter-day Saint teaching are respected. While some Mormon engagement with other religions has been taking place, the majority has been focused on particular traditions with no systematic development of a theological paradigm for such engagement.
    • Reaching Survivors Project - Final Report 2021

      Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester; Storyhouse
      An evaluation report on the 'Reaching Survivors project' run by CSASS
    • Pen-y-Graig Woodland Centre Final Evaluation Report March 2022 of a Welsh Government Pilot Programme

      Poole, Simon; University of Chester; Storyhouse (Pen-y-Graig Woodland Centre, 2022-06-01)
      This is a report that offers an evaluation of the Welsh Government funded Pilot Programme at Pen-y-Graig Woodland Centre.
    • Supporting beginning teachers to audit and develop their knowledge, skills and understanding in Religious Education

      Holt, James; Rushforth, Lucy; Harris, Lara; University of Chester
      This book helps mentors working with beginning teachers of religious education to develop their own mentoring skills, and to provide the essential guidance their mentee needs as they navigate the rollercoaster of their first years in the classroom. Offering tried and tested strategies, it covers the knowledge, skills and understanding every mentor needs. Practical tools offered include approaches for developing subject knowledge and lesson planning, as well as guidance for the effective use of pre- and post-lesson discussion, observations and target setting to support beginning religious education teachers.
    • Developing beginning teachers’ understanding of knowledge and skills in the RE curriculum

      Holt, James; University of Chester
      This book helps mentors working with beginning teachers of religious education to develop their own mentoring skills, and to provide the essential guidance their mentee needs as they navigate the rollercoaster of their first years in the classroom. Offering tried and tested strategies, it covers the knowledge, skills and understanding every mentor needs. Practical tools offered include approaches for developing subject knowledge and lesson planning, as well as guidance for the effective use of pre- and post-lesson discussion, observations and target setting to support beginning religious education teachers.
    • Religious Education

      Holt, James; University of Chester (Learning Matters, 2019-10-07)
      How can trainee teachers begin their careers with a clear understanding of all the curriculum subjects? This book addresses the nature of subject knowledge in all foundation curriculum subjects. It deconstructs the elements of each subject through an exploration of the nature of the subject, a coverage of the 'skills' a study of this subject develops and through detailed analysis of case studies from practice. At a time when concerns about the lack of breadth in the primary curriculum are being voiced, this book supports busy trainee teachers to truly understand and be ready to teach all curriculum areas.
    • Understanding Sikhism: A Guide for Teachers

      Holt, James; University of Chester
      Sikhism is often the religion that teachers have the least confidence in teaching, despite being the fifth largest religion in the world, and being commonly regarded as one of the six main religions to be taught in schools. This book fills that gap in knowledge and expertise by exploring the beliefs and practices of Sikhism as a lived religion in the modern world. It engages with Sikh beliefs and practices and provides students and teachers with the confidence to address misconceptions and recognise the importance of beliefs in the lives of believers, in a way that will enable readers to go forward with confidence. Aspects of Sikhism that it explores include the concepts that form the central beliefs of Sikhism, and then the expression of these beliefs in worship, daily life, and the ethics of Sikhs in the modern day. Each chapter includes authentic voices of believers today and provides opportunities for the reader to consider the concepts and how they can be respected and taught in the classroom.
    • To What Extent do the Approaches to Leadership of General Further Education College Principals Sustain a Culture that Enhances Institutional Outcomes?

      Lambert, Steve; Poole, Simon; McCarroll, Andrew S. (University of Chester, 2021-09-01)
      What educational leadership does - not what educational leadership is. This powerful benchmark statement supports me to tell the stories of principals, middle managers and teachers within different General Further Education College settings. In this interpretive hermeneutical examination of the concepts of leadership and culture from the perspectives of three levels of General Further Education College staff I consider and interpret what they think and believe about contemporary approaches to leadership and the establishment of organisational culture through an examination of their lived experiences. I use a thematic analysis to shine a light on the experiences of three principals, three middle managers and three teachers in three institutions. The impact of the Incorporation of General Further Education Colleges since April 1993 and the subsequent marketisation and significant increase in accountability is well documented over many decades. The recognition of the dichotomy which exists in the further education sector between competing business requirements and approaches to student learning have shaped approaches to leadership and the culture required in individual colleges and the further education sector. My analysis is framed by two leadership relationship models. Nietzsche’s master and slave morality is utilised in conjunction with Graen and Uhl-Bien’s leader-member exchange theory to examine present approaches to leadership and the relationships they produce to inform macro and institutional sub-cultures to meet the competing demands on the further education sector and individual General Further Education Colleges. This framework is supported by theorists concerned with the evolution of further education leadership type and cultural development in a sector driven by market forces and government policy. The thesis highlights the impact of leadership approaches on college direction and how these concepts impact on organisational outcomes.
    • The practical application on middle leaders of performing coaching interventions on others

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2022-05-31)
      The role of middle leaders in bringing about improvement in schools is well documented in the UK and abroad, with the ever-present demand for raising standards and achievement. At the same time, the benefits to individuals from receiving coaching or mentoring is also well documented. However, little is known about the benefit to those providing coaching. This article outlines some initial findings emerging from the first stage of a study exploring the benefits to middle leaders in secondary schools in England in their ability to recognise emotions having provided some coaching interventions to others. All participants were asked to complete an online emotional recognition test. After which a subset of the participants provided coaching to a member of staff from within the school for one academic term. After which participants resat the emotional recognition test. Most participants saw their ability to recognise emotions improve as a result of providing the coaching interventions. This is particularly important given existing literature that suggests due to the demands of the role, middle leaders have a deficit in their ability to recognise emotions, leading to a negative impact on those with whom they work.
    • “Hey you there!” An autoethnographic exploration of the impact of neoliberalism on the role and identity of the primary school teacher

      Moran, Paul; Hulse, Bethan; Duncan, Susan J. (University of Chester, 2021-10)
      The purpose of this thesis is to explore the agency of teachers in the development of their professional identities. The research is grounded in my lived experience as a primary teacher, senior leader and mentor of trainee and newly qualified teachers during the tumultuous three decades that followed the 1988 Education Reform Act. It is the result of an extensive period of research into and reflection on my experiences, actions and compromises during this period. Teacher identity is often seen as a dynamic and fluid process; one that is influenced by a range of factors and contexts (Beijaard et al, 2004). I conceptualise the influence and effects of neoliberalism as an example of a dominant ideology on the role and identity of primary teachers through the utilisation of Althusser’s theory of the interpellation of the subject by ideology (1971/2001). Although, Althusser saw schools as the major ideological state apparatus (ISA), he did not provide any detail on what takes place within the classroom (Macris, 2014). This research applies Althusserian theory to the experiences of teachers and explores the extent to which ideology can be seen as constituting teacher-subjects who in turn take up their interpellative roles within the educational ISA. An autoethnographic methodology is adopted making the author’s voice and experience central to the research while also conducting dialogue with professionals at the start of their careers. Data, gathered from a wide range of sources, are presented in the form of a series of vignettes focussing on three main areas which emerged from analysis - centralised curriculum control, Ofsted and performativity. From this emerge questions about the scope and nature of agency exercised by teachers during the course of their professional and personal development which are explored through an Althusserian lens. The findings show how ideology exisiting in the material practices of twenty first century schools have shaped the way teachers construct and communicate their professional identity but also that there exists within this the possibility of retaining personal values and convictions and using the two-way process on subjection in ever changing and innovative ways.
    • An analysis of the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education

      Power, Michael; University of Chester (British Education Studies Association, 2021-12-01)
      This paper considers the question ‘what are the common characteristics of intervention strategies used in secondary education?’ This is an important question because understanding the characteristics of intervention strategies allows for a clearer understanding of the resource cost and unintended implications (Outhwaite, et al., 2020) of the use of intervention strategies in secondary schools. Although this paper doesn’t explore the resource cost or implications of these strategies it provides a framework through which practitioners can begin to analyse the intervention strategies used in their own settings. The study aims to identify the common characteristics of intervention strategies within a sample of intervention strategies taken from one comprehensive secondary school in the Northwest of England. This practitioner enquiry was conducted using thematic analysis to identify the characteristics of a sample of intervention strategies, alongside the study of commonality within the sample by looking at which characteristics are more prevalent when compared to the average number within the same sample. The research is situated within ‘post-positivism’ which “straddles both the positivist and interpretivist paradigms” (Grix, 2004) and makes use of both interpretivist and positivist methods through thematic analysis of characteristics and he statistical analysis of commonality. The two most common characteristics within the sample were found to be reactivity to a trigger or stimulus such as underperformance in a test, which was present in all 23 intervention strategies. Having a measurable outcome such as improving reading age, was present in 22 of the 23 intervention strategies in the sample making it the second most common characteristic from this sample. The least common characteristic was for intervention strategies to focus on child’s motivations – for example intervention strategies that make use of things students are interested in such as football. This was only present in 5 of the 23 intervention strategies.
    • Moving in the wrong direction: A critical history of citizenship education in England from the early twentieth century to the present day

      Egan-Simon, Daryn; University of Chester
      This article critically explores the development of citizenship education in England from the early twentieth century to the present day. Using Westheimer and Kahne’s (2004) citizenship education framework as a lens, it is argued that citizenship education in England, from the early twentieth century to the present day, has failed to move beyond education for personal responsibility and civic participation, towards a more justice-orientated conceptualisation. It is maintained that citizenship education during much of the twentieth century was framed around personal responsibility, deference and patriotism. However, with the election of the New Labour government in 1997 and the introduction of citizenship education as a statutory secondary school subject in 2002, there was a move towards the development of participatory dispositions and the enhancement of political literacy in young people. From 2010, however, there has been a retrograde shift towards citizenship education for personal responsibility and character education (Kisby, 2017; Starkey, 2018; Weinberg and Flinders, 2018), as well as an increased focus on Fundamental British Values. The article concludes by considering the recommendations from the House of Lords’ (2018) report on citizenship education and argues that, while they may help reposition citizenship education within a participatory framework, they still fail to move towards a justice-orientated conceptualisation of citizenship education which focuses on the solidarity of the global community and how best to take actions that benefit all of humankind.
    • Measuring emotions and empathy in educational leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (IGI Global, 2021-11-30)
      Educational leadership requires a combination of transformational and transactional leadership. However, this combination is not in equal parts, instead favouring transformational leadership. This approach to leadership is principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to those of others. Opposing this is transactional leadership which focuses on the processes necessary to achieve a desired outcome, regardless of the individuals involved (Psychogios & Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa et al., 2008). However, until recently the focus of determining an individual’s ability to recognise emotions has been through a self-reporting questionnaire. Yet these questionnaires can only be used to report emotional feelings, which are expressed emotional manifestations in our body, incurring sensational changes picked up by self-awareness, such as anger, sadness and joy. Therefore, what individuals are actually doing is reporting their awareness and externalising of the sensation based on what the person perceives the emotion to be. This chapter explores the use of neuroscientific techniques, primarily electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking to better understand empathy. What this chapter highlights are that these techniques are more accurate at measuring an individual's ability to recognise emotions than the traditional self-reporting questionnaire.
    • Religious Education in the Secondary School. An Introduction to Teaching, Learning and the World Religions

      Holt, James D.; University of Chester (Routledge, 2022-06-24)
      Religious Education in the Secondary School is a comprehensive, straightforward introduction to the effective teaching of Religious Education (RE) in the secondary classroom. Acknowledging the highly valuable yet often misunderstood contribution of RE, this text shows how the subject can be taught in a way that explores the impact of religion on the lives of people and society, engaging pupils and preparing them to become individuals who celebrate and respect diversity. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and includes a new chapter on ‘Religion and Worldviews’ and new material on the development and assessment of an RE curriculum. It is illustrated throughout with ideas for teaching at different key stages and offers expert chapters introducing you to both the World Religions and the core aspects of effective teaching and learning. With an emphasis on developing an understanding of the importance – and different ways – of meeting the learning needs of all pupils, key chapters cover: • The nature of Religious Education • What is religion and worldviews • Understanding different pedagogies of RE • Effective planning and assessment • An approach to teaching across the Key Stages • Core subject knowledge in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism. Written by an experienced teacher, teacher educator and examiner, Religious Education in the Secondary School is a succinct compendium and has a real classroom applicability offering all trainee RE teachers, as well as those teaching Religious Education as specialists or non-specialists, a wealth of support and inspiration.
    • Invisible but Exposed: The Lived Experience of Disabled Female Academics in Neoliberal Universities

      Bulkeley, Jane; Devarakonda, Chandrika; Brewer, Gayle (University of Chester, 2021-11)
      Neoliberal academia represents a challenging and competitive environment which privileges long working hours and performativity. Though previous research has addressed the experiences of female academics, there has been relatively little consideration of disabled faculty, who are often marginalised and poorly accommodated. In the present study, I focus on the lived experience of academics with long-term conditions that limit energy levels and / or impact on cognitive function. These conditions may be particularly inconsistent with the neoliberal academic culture and are not easily addressed by institutional accommodations. I interviewed ten female academics; all academics reported a condition that impacted on their energy levels and / or cognitive function (e.g., arthritis, depression). Academics were employed at British Higher Education Institutions, though institution type, role, and subject discipline varied. Due to COVID-19 restrictions, interviews were conducted online via the Zoom platform. Average length of interview was 55 minutes, ranging from 45 minutes to 69 minutes. I employed Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 1996) to analyse the interviews and six themes were identified. Identity and the Concept of Disability indicated that academics were often reluctant to describe themselves as disabled, with important consequences for the reporting and disclosure process. Dependence and Vulnerability highlighted a lack of institutional support and frequent dependence on individual Managers for access to appropriate accommodations. Legitimacy, Convention, and Conformity described the ‘hierarchy’ of health conditions that influences the acceptability of specific health issues and the privileging of specific forms of academic practice that may disadvantage those with disabilities. Workload, Intensification, and Marketisation focused on excessive academic workloads, the intensification of academic work, and the impact of this on faculty health and wellbeing. Insecurity, Competition, and Comparison highlighted the precarious and competitive nature of academia and the impact of this (e.g., on wellbeing, willingness to disclose), particularly when disabled academics are compared to those without disabilities. Perception, Othering, and Isolation described a lack of understanding of energy limiting conditions and / or those that impact on cognitive function and the extent to which the actions of individual colleagues were exacerbated by ableist policies and practice. I discuss each theme in relation to existing education and disability-oriented literature and make specific recommendations for education practice and policy.
    • Integrating theory and practice in physical education: Preservice Teachers' views on practitioner research

      Jones, Luke; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2022-03-25)
      Practitioner enquiry is a well-established approach to professional learning that can facilitate teachers’ pedagogical knowledge and improve their educational practice. That said, practitioner enquiry is less frequently seen in physical education (PE) initial teacher education and in the general practice of PE teachers. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of 17 secondary PE preservice teachers (PTs) who completed a small-scale practitioner enquiry as part of their one-year postgraduate initial teacher education programme. A questionnaire and group interviews - conducted before, during, and at the end of the small-scale enquiry - were used to generate data. The findings revealed that the practitioner enquiry promoted greater collaboration between the PTs and their school-based mentors as they worked together to develop their shared understanding of the teaching and learning process. The practitioner enquiry also facilitated the PTs’ critical engagement with pedagogical research, enhanced their curricular knowledge and nurtured their independent professional identity.
    • The need for empathy in school leadership

      Lambert, Steve; Taylor, Michael G.; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Chartered College of Teaching, 2022-05-09)
      Hughes et al. (2005) state that empathy is an essential skill for leadership in any field of leadership. This paper reviews literature on the importance of empathy by exploring the applications of benefits in other professions such as nursing; transferrable lessons can be learned. For school leaders, having an emotionally intelligent understanding of what they need to perform successfully can also support how they manage their team to bring out the best in all team members. Finally, this paper aims to make recommendations for governing bodies and headteachers to identify what empathetic leadership might look like and how headteachers with the right empathy skills can be specified for future recruitment.
    • Higher education is dead? A Nietzschean critique of the neoliberal higher education system and an exploration into the impact on academe

      Atherton, Frances; Hulse, Bethan; Turner, Ella L. (University of Chester, 2021-09)
      This thesis explores how academic and professional staff experience higher education. This research embraces a creative, ethnographic methodology to open up, through conversations and observations, how staff encounter HE in one university in the North West of England. Conversations with participants and observations of their university environs intertwine to reveal the seemingly multiple contradictory values within HE. These are analysed using Friedrich Nietzsche’s three concepts of Übermensch, amor fati and eternal recurrence. Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche’s imaginative and poetic writing style represented in Thus Spoke Zarathustra resulted in a retelling of my conversations and observations with participants in three narrative vignettes. The vignettes reveal and disturb the ideas of tradition and the neoliberal values that confront both academic and professional staff. The thesis offers insights into HE’s ‘will to truth’ (Nietzsche, 1886/2014), the structures that allow its convictions to flourish to form a beleaguered culture of oppositional values that serves to divide the academe. This thesis concludes by offering up the suffering of HE, as redemptive in this life, affirming an enduring joining together of multiplicities in the ring of existence (Nietzsche, 1883-5/1969). All this is necessary for HE to transcend itself in a constant becoming. I end the thesis with a call for the academe not to submit to a nihilistic looking back, nor to become the eager gravedigger (Nietzsche, 1874) for the death of HE, but to be the active, creative force in the revaluation of its values.
    • Exploring the involvement of Patients and Care Givers in Student Nurse Education in a Nursing College in India

      Owens, Allan; Bewley, Antoinette (University of Chester, 2021-08)
      India is the largest democracy in the world, but in contrast to other democracies, notably the UK, the role of patients and care givers in the formal education of student nurses appears to be less clear. The findings of this research demonstrated that despite there being little, or no formal education planned in India, to be delivered by patients and care givers, there is a lot of very useful informal education. A qualitative, case study methodology, was adopted with data collection methods including those of World Café style focus groups, art-based methods, semi structured interviews, and observational questioning. These approaches enabled student nurses across years one to four, in one nursing college, in India, to share their thoughts and reflect on their experiences of direct patient and care giver contact. Data was analysed using an inductive content analysis approach. The resultant overarching meta theme of ‘involvement’ acknowledged during data analysis, signifies not only that there is patient and care giver involvement in student nurse education in the nursing college, but that this is multi-faceted. This encompasses, a ‘tripartite identity’ with a mixed and interchanging role observed in the nurse, patient, and care giver. Education was enhanced by open access to care givers, constantly present in the clinical environment with the patient. The positive impact of this was multi fold, from the provision of assistance to nurses by care givers tending to the physical care of patients, and by enhancing and challenging nurses’ communication skills. This scaffolded the development of student’s emotional skill bases, acquired after reflection on and in situations with care givers, in which students at times felt harassed by care givers and even patients. The outcome, reach, impact, and value of this involvement is apparent by the transformative effect observed on student nurses learning, cultural sensitivity, and social consciousness. The educational philosophy of Paulo Freire underpinned this study, and findings concluded that by harnessing the naturalistic engagement with care givers in practice, student nurses can apply the Freirean pedagogy that states that education is a series of questioning. The findings indicate that it is important for students to recognise and acknowledge that their humanity and transformation is possible, if grounded in the reality of the social, economic, and political circumstances. The use of reflective activities associated with this, may in turn demonstrate how by the application of Freirean principles, students may transform themselves and others. Accordingly, it would be beneficial for student nurses to be tasked with listening to both patient and care givers experiences when they are in practice. This experience could be maximised in educational settings, by the student sharing their experiences with their peers, and reflecting on these.