• Dangerous liaisons: youth sport, citizenship and intergenerational mistrust

      Garratt, Dean; Piper, Heather; University of Chester and Manchester Metropolitan University (Taylor & Francis, 2014-03-24)
      This paper reflects on and offers a critical analysis of the relationship between youth sport and citizenship development, in practice and in the UK policy context of sports coaching and physical education. While deploying data and insights from a recently completed research project in England, which identified substantial tensions in intergenerational relationships in sport and coaching, the argument and analysis also invokes wider international concerns and more generally applicable implications for policy and practice. Drawing heuristically upon the philosophy of Dewey (2007 [1916]), it is recognised that the concept of citizenship as a form of social practice should seek to encourage the development of complementary traits and dispositions in young people. To develop socially and educationally thus entails engagement in meaningful social and cultural activity, of which one potentially significant component is participation in youth sport, both within and outside formal education. However, it is argued that any confident assumption that sporting and coaching contexts will necessarily foster positive traits and dispositions in young people should be considered dubious and misplaced. Deploying a Lacanian (1981) perspective to interpret our data, we contend that ‘liaisons’ and interactions between coaches and young people are often treated suspiciously, and regarded as potentially ‘dangerous’.
    • Decisions

      Owens, Allan (Chester College, 1996)
      This article discusses decisions - a process drama created to explore the concept of ethical decision making - which ran in October 1996 as part of the Decade of Evangelism mission run by the Chester and Wakefield dioceses. The project focused on the sharing of faith (in particular Christian beliefs relating to forgiveness), taking real risks, and changing attitudes.
    • Desperate Journeys

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-05-02)
      At a time of endemic xenophobia some artists have attempted to resistance by depicting its damaging consequences, revealing the inequalities that fuel its disfigurement of human relations and discourse, and which have now resulted in mass human displacement. Paul Dash’s recent paintings of refugees attempting dangerous and degrading sea crossings are the main subject of this paper, and these works are discussed in the context of his negative educational experiences as a child, and his salvation through painting in the sanctuary of his school’s art room. This school experience and the trajectory of his artistic career are contextualised by the current marginalisation of the arts in the curriculum and the increasing scarcity of critical and creative approaches to education.
    • Discourses of incapacity and emancipation: an autoethnographic study of CPD courses delivered by Western educators in an Ugandan context

      Owens, Allan; Devarakonda, Chandrika; Smith, Sharon (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-05-01)
      This thesis examines the complex nature of teacher-led professional development delivered by Western teachers in a Non-Western context. I use an autoethnographic approach and employ a range of reflective and reflexive methods, such as visual images, journals, interviews and sketches to expose and explore the tensions experienced when engaging with CPD in a culture vastly different to my own and within a post-colonial context. This thesis employs theories from Homi Bhabha to explore the key concepts of postcolonialism and decolonisation, Zygmunt Bauman to examine the concepts of community and identity, and Jacques Rancière and Etienne Wenger to explore theories of education and learning such as stultification and emancipation and communities of practice, all of which are pivotal in understanding the complexities and tensions of experience throughout this research. I scrutinise moments of dis-ease, a term borrowed from Sweetman (2003, p.528), whereby the programme appears rooted in a form of neo-colonialism fuelled by globalised models of education that reinforces little more than a discourse of incapacity and a reiteration of a single story of African Otherness. Conversely, I also observe moments where there emerges a community of practice that offers an emancipatory model of education and offers participants the opportunity to reinscribe their identities as part of a global community. I conclude that programmes such as this have the potential to be both positive and negative and that, unlike examples of voluntourism in which the participants serve to create and perpetuate deficit-models of colonialist thinking, there is a need to accept that participants engaging in professional discourse have the capacity to review and decide whether the positive impacts are valid and valued enough to make their pursuit worthwhile. It is critical to resist the urge to make a sweeping generalisation about CPD programmes in vastly different cultural contexts because too many variables exist to make such a broad stroke accurate, but there must be an onus on all involved to evaluate the ramifications of participation and to continue or desist in these programmes as is appropriate.
    • Diversity and inclusion

      Devarakonda, Chandrika; Powlay, Liz (Sage, 2016-05-14)
      This chapter aims to develop an understanding of the concept of inclusion and relate to children in early years and primary education
    • Diversity and inclusion in early childhood: An introduction

      Devarakonda, Chandrika; University of Chester (SAGE, 2014-03-18)
      This book offers an overview of current research, policy and practice in diversity and inclusion in the early years.
    • Drama and the global dimension

      Owens, Allan; University of Chester (Trenthan Books, 2008-09-01)
      This book chapter discusses drama activities that a primary school could use to inform pupils of the global dimension of drama.
    • Dramworks: Planning drama, creating practical structures, developing drama pretexts

      Owens, Allan; Barber, Keith; University College Chester ; Victoria Community High School, Crewe (Carel Press, 1996-04-01)
      This book focuses on planning drama, creating practical structures and developing drama pretexts. Methods of reflecting on and evaluating the work are built into the pretexts.
    • Drawing

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2017-10-12)
      This year’s conference took a fresh look at a fundamental element of art education: drawing. Drawing can be thought of in many different ways, not least as a direct and immediate means of rendering thought itself into form; conceived in this way drawing is a fundamental extension of the thinking process itself. The media of drawing are as varied as its modes of expression, and this is another reason for its enduring fascination for us: its potential is infinite, and although each mark and expression is necessarily culturally specific, there is no limit to its iterations, nor any to its potential for cultural appropriation.
    • Echo of dreams

      Owens, Allan; Green, Naomi; University of Chester, NEC Katayanagi Institute (2015-04)
      The Echo of Dreams Pre-text allows for consideration of sudden changes in life, the unpredictable , unforeseen and unknowable to create a space for the exchange of such understandings and to allow for a celebration of the human spirit in the face of loss
    • Editorial: Art for Life: Race, Gender, Disability and Class - Critical Discourses around Participation in Arts Education

      Adams, Jeff; University of Chester (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014-12-22)
      A paradox that art educators often encounter in their work is that the arts, just as they are recognised for their universal and inclusive values, may also inadvertently reinforce elite and exclusive practices. Similarly, while the development of pedagogies for critical approaches to culture has positively impacted on a broad and diverse range of learners in all phases of education, the apparently democratic space of arts studio or classroom can also be a space that is governed by assessment regimes and educational conventions, and one which may also be characterised by reproduction, routine and a reliance on entrenched pedagogic practices. Such are the ways in which current arts-based educational practices may on one hand enable and include, but on the other disable and exclude. Given this state of affairs, to what extent can arts education promote an inclusive participation in ‘art for life’, and in what ways can it widen this participation? These were the questions and issues that delegates from sixteen countries at the 2013 iJADE/NSEAD research conference, held 15–16 November 2013 at the University of Chester Research and Innovation Centre, assembled to explore.
    • Editorial: Young children and art education

      Adams, Jeff; Atherton, Frances; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-02-09)
      This special issue of iJADE is devoted to the art education of young children, and provides a timely platform for the dissemination of new research in this important area. For many young children their artistic experiences can prove to be some of the most profound and insightful of their early education. Although these creative moments are frequently integrated with a multitude of other educational experiences, nonetheless the artistic ones have a singularity, making them unique within the educational experience as a whole. It is the predominance of a visual epistemology that provides this specificity, and it hardly needs stating that knowing by means of the visual is of profound importance in our contemporary societies. The demonstration and the parole of this ‘knowing’ by young children should not be seen as peripheral, or as an adjunct to education. Fundamental to a well-informed art education are the critical expression of meaning and purpose, no matter how tentative these might appear. These practices entail a critical engagement with the languages of visual imagery, to which children readily adapt.
    • Education Policy Unravelled

      Forrester, Gillian; Garratt, Dean; Independent and University of Chester (Bloomsbury, 2016-10-06)
      Education Policy Unravelled
    • Ekphrastic Poetry Writing

      Poole, Simon E.; Storyhouse and University of Chester
      An chapter in the Erasmus Plus EU: Beyond Text Partnership eBook entitled: Ekphrastic Poetry Writing. In the book edited by Benmergui, R., Owens, A. & Passila, A.
    • Emotional awareness amongst middle leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (Emerald, 2020-05-26)
      The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to explore middle leaders’ ability to recognise emotions in the context of workplace research, and to propose measures that might support them in their role. This paper combines a contemporary literature review with reflections from practice to develop more nuanced understandings of middle leadership. The paper applied the Geneva Emotional Recognition Test (GERT) to explore the level of emotional recognition of 86 individuals (teachers, to headteachers (equivalent to school principals)). The preliminary findings suggest that teachers and headteachers have higher levels of emotional recognition than middle and senior leaders. This paper subsequently argues that the task-orientated nature middle leadership compounds an individual’s ability to engage effectively in relationship-orientated tasks. This explains why middle leaders scored lower on the GERT assessment. This is further inhibited by the anti-correlation in the brain’s ability to deal with the TDM and DMN processing functions where individuals operate in one neural mode for long periods. The viewpoint paper proposes a number of implications for middle leaders and suggests that middle leaders should proactively seek out opportunities to engaged in activities that support the DMN function of the brain and subsequently the relationship-orientated aspects of leadership. For example, coaching other staff. However, it has to be recognised that the sample size is small and further work is needed before any generalisations can be made. This paper offers a contemporary review of the role of middle leaders underpinned by a preliminary study into individuals’ ability to recognise emotions.
    • English and the global dimension

      Brien, Jackie; University of Chester (Trenthan Books, 2008-09-01)
      This book chapters suggests books that can be read to introduce a global dimension into foundation stage and key stage one English teaching.
    • Equality, difference and the absent presence of ‘race’ in citizenship education in the UK

      Garratt, Dean; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-03)
      This article examines the political and historical antecedents of the absent presence of ‘race’ in successive policies for citizenship education in contemporary Britain.
    • Evocative Report: Frodsham Goods Shed Brokerage Process

      Passila, A.; Owens, Allan; Chamberlain, O.; Lapeenranta University, Finland (2015-07-12)
      Frodsham Foundation together with the local town council had already conducted an online survey for use of the disused railways Goods Shed in the middle of the town ; a large number of responses provided strong evidence that the public wanted the building to be used, but the remoteness of this digital form of consultation had not engaged enough of the community to provide the momentum to take things forward in a way that would convince the larger county council who owned the building to hand it over on a long term lease to the Foundation and local town. We agreed on four-month period for the process and division of responsibilities. In the first month the foundation would identify and contact the focus groups they wanted us to work with; in the second the focus groups would be run; in the third the evocative report would be created and in the fourth the evocative report would be presented at an open public meeting in which the next concrete steps to be taken would be identified. Research Based Theatre as used in this case constituted a form of participatory, action and collaborative research. The data sources which formed the empirical evidence base, consisted primarily of narratives of involvement, and our reflexive narratives in response to this. The intention to research issues that surface within a community and then use the understandings that are generated from it for the benefit of those in that community has parallels with the function of applied drama and critical pedagogy. They are concerned with going beyond seeing the world as it is and creating spaces to think of it differently. A key question in this ‘connected’ approach to research is to ask how it is this possible and how are we to act in new and different ways (Schratz and Walker 1995, p.125). Nine focus group sessions took place over a one-week period, comprising a very wide range of participants: business and local entrepreneur groups, patient forums, community groups, school parent-teachers association members, community voluntary sector leaders, younger families and children, jobseekers and youngsters. The focus groups were run by our Anglo-Finnish team of four - two ABIs practitioners and two postgraduate students. Participants were aware from the outset that we were interested in not only the substantive topic of the focus group sessions, but also the ways in which we approach this, and were interested in what this allowed for. Each session began with an explanation of the research-based and arts nature of the brokerage process. The same aim informed each, which was to let as many voices as possible rub up against each other in the course of one and a half hours. The arts-based initiatives used in sessions varied according to context in order to realise this aim and the following three examples are presented to give a sense of the commonalities and differences in structure used across the nine focus groups. The Evocative Report makes transparent this process.
    • An examination of the lived experience of students passing through the eleven-plus grammar school selection process: An interpretation through a Bourdieuian lens.

      Moran, Paul; Atherton, Frances; Sheldrake, John, L (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2019-08)
      There are currently 153 grammar schools in England (Bolton, 2017). The option to attend a grammar school for secondary education is based on successfully passing the eleven-plus assessment. Government discourse when justifying the grammar school system has repeatedly highlighted the emancipatory nature of the selection process, citing increased opportunities for social mobility for those students from lower income households (Foster, Long, and Roberts 2016). Research has shown that there are potential dangers of high stakes testing on young people in terms of their mental health and wellbeing (Hutchins, 2015). Based on a review of the literature on selective education in England, there is a lack of research that focusses on the emotional impact of the eleven-plus on the young people who are in a selective system. This study aims to obtain accurate information about the very emotional personal experiences of children moving through the selection process for secondary school. The 'draw, write and tell' technique is used in order to gather the data. ‘Draw, write and tell’ involves the child drawing or constructing a piece of art using another medium such as clay and creating a piece of artwork which illustrates their thoughts or feelings about a particular research topic. The child is also encouraged to write words around the work and openly discuss their work with their peers which assists in the accurate interpretation of the work. The data obtained is from a sample of five students from a primary school based on the Wirral peninsula in the North West of England, this is a fully selective education authority. Using the tools of Pierre Bourdieu as a sociological lens through which to explore the selection process, the aim of this research is to highlight the significant socio-economic disparity between students who attend grammar schools and those who do not. Through the careful analysis of the children’s own narratives, many of Bourdieu’s key themes including habitus, capital, fields, doxa and symbolic violence are applied to the existence of the elevenplus and the reasons why students from deprived backgrounds are more likely to be unsuccessful in their endeavours to gain access to grammar schools. A clear emergent theme that comes from the analysis of the narratives within the context of the local data is that students who have access to capital in all its forms, are far more likely to pass the elevenplus. The study draws conclusions that support Bourdieu’s assertion that education serves to maintain the status quo in society and that despite the potential damaging effects of the selection process on the self-esteem of the students, individuals continue to behave as their habitus would predict and many strive to be a part of a field that they deem superior. On this basis it is recommended that if government want to address the issue of social mobility then the focus should be on promoting educational quality in all comprehensive schools in order to make them a more attractive destination. Efforts in improving outcomes from the comprehensive education system may reduce the desire for students to go through the selection process, which creates high levels of stress and anxiety for many, as well as public feelings of failure for the majority. The findings of the thesis suggest that whilst the selective education system does in fact largely maintain the status quo in society, the pressure experienced by students as they go through the selection process is largely dependent upon their socio-economic status and their familial habitus.
    • Exploring Inclusion and Diversity within Undergraduate Teacher Training Programmes in England

      Devarakonda, Chandrika; McGrath, Sarah; Chaudhary, Diksha; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-07)
      This research has been triggered by the consistent references to the increase in the number of children from ethnically diverse population in schools in England and lack of confidence and preparedness of teachers to teach children from diverse backgrounds. A government commissioned Newly Qualified Teachers (NQT) survey encouraged them to respond to questions related to their preparedness and confidence to teach children from all ethnic backgrounds and who have English as additional language, one year after gaining their Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). The aim of this research is to explore the perspectives and challenges of students (referred to as Associate teachers (ATs)) on teacher training programmes related to their knowledge and understanding of inclusion and diversity from the teacher training programmes. This research examined the perceptions of ATs on their final year of the three-year degree on initial teacher education programme and some teacher educators teaching this cohort of students who are programme leaders, year leaders, and other staff, who provide enriching experiences related to diversity. Data was collected through a survey consisting of open questionnaires for teacher educators and ATs were requested to volunteer to respond to questions on an online forum. The online survey was kept open for a short window of four weeks to enable ATs to respond in their own time and ensure anonymity. The responses provided by ATs and Teacher Educators (TEs) have been analysed using qualitative data analysis applying the three steps - Developing and Applying Codes, identifying themes, patterns and relationships and summarizing the data. The data resulted in four themes : concepts and contexts of diversity, experiences on the programme, preparedness to teach and challenges. The ATs and TEs articulate that there was significant impact of the teacher training programme on preparing them to teach children from diverse ethnic backgrounds. They acknowledged the lack of diversity in the placements to teach children from diverse backgrounds as one of the key challenges and barriers faced.