• Measuring emotions and empathy in educational leadership

      Lambert, Steve; University of Chester (IGI Global, 2021-11-30)
      Educational leadership requires a combination of transformational and transactional leadership. However, this combination is not in equal parts, instead favouring transformational leadership. This approach to leadership is principally focused on an individual’s social interactions and their ability to identify emotions and to react empathetically to those of others. Opposing this is transactional leadership which focuses on the processes necessary to achieve a desired outcome, regardless of the individuals involved (Psychogios & Dimitriadis, 2020). Many leadership theorists suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership (Bass, 1990; Walumbwa et al., 2008). However, until recently the focus of determining an individual’s ability to recognise emotions has been through a self-reporting questionnaire. Yet these questionnaires can only be used to report emotional feelings, which are expressed emotional manifestations in our body, incurring sensational changes picked up by self-awareness, such as anger, sadness and joy. Therefore, what individuals are actually doing is reporting their awareness and externalising of the sensation based on what the person perceives the emotion to be. This chapter explores the use of neuroscientific techniques, primarily electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking to better understand empathy. What this chapter highlights are that these techniques are more accurate at measuring an individual's ability to recognise emotions than the traditional self-reporting questionnaire.