• The use of projective techniques to circumvent socially desirable responses or reveal the subconscious.

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester; University of Surrey (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-07-27)
      Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.
    • The War to End All Wars: Reflections on the First World War and Public Affairs

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2015-02-03)
      Editorial As I write this many of us are reflecting upon the outbreak and impact of the First World War on Europe and the World. It was declared during the Summer of 1914 in Europe, when much decision making was limited due to leaders being on holiday and was almost inevitable as some have argued, as the trains had been booked and troops were mobilised. Clearly political communications were not good and European Continental Entente fell apart under the pressures of ambition, greed, nationalism, a lack of trust and public affairs systems not being in place to build cooperation and stop mass destruction. As Margot Asquith the wife of the British Prime minister put it “War! War! – everyone at dinner discussing how long the war would last. The average opinion was 3 weeks to 3 months” (24th July 1914, Page 4 in Brock and Brock, 2014). Of course others, Kitchener, amongst them said it would be a year. It was not a short war but a long one, that lasted for over four years and sucked in every part of the world and destroyed a generation of youth and leaders, which Europe has taken almost a hundred years to fully recover from. Let us reflect, draw lessons and do all in our power to ensure it is never contemplated again and that political decision making and public affairs is never as in inadequate again The themes within this general issue of the JPA focus on climate change, corruption, environmental policy, lobbying, political marketing, public affairs, renewable energy and water policy. A range of critical areas of study and operation both for the modern researcher and practitioner in international public affairs. Countries covered include Belgium, Eire, Switzerland, UK, US and of course organisationally interesting in trade and regulation terms the WTO. Followed by various articles
    • The ‘Fairness Paradox’ and ‘Small-Firm Growth Resistance Strategies’

      Ullah, Farid; Smith, Robert (Emerald, 2015-06-10)
      Purpose – We examine and explore why ‘Small-Businesses’ resist employing outside the immediate family and investigate the employee as an outsider and entrepreneurial resource. Design/methodology/approach – We review the literature on barriers to small-business growth concentrating on key empirical and theoretical studies. We use empirical data from the Federation of Small Business (FSB) in which informants commented on growth and employing outside the family. Findings – The findings suggest that small business owners adopt a polemical stance, arguing that a barrage of employment regulations deters them from employing outsiders because doing so brings trouble in terms of costs such as insurance, taxes, paperwork, leave (maternity and paternity) entitlement etc. They argue that employing from inside the family or ones peer group is much cheaper, convenient and less hassle. This ignores the entrepreneurial employee as a potential ingredient of growth and points to a paradox whereby the very values and emotions characterised by fairness of which of ‘smallness’ and ‘familialness’ is composed compound the issues of discrimination central to the debate. Research limitations/implications – We offer important insights for growth issues among small businesses and challenge the contemporary equilibrium in terms of small ‘family-orientated’ business philosophy relating to employment practices. Ideologically, the entrepreneur is an “outsider” fighting the establishment, yet paradoxically, in a small business context s/he becomes the establishment by employing outsiders. This results in the fairness versus unfairness paradox. Originality/value – We contribute to the existing knowledge and understanding on growth issues among small businesses by illuminating a paradoxical insider versus outsider tension.
    • The “new managerialism”: Experiences of introducing formal management education into the public sector through the mechanism of the MBA dissertation

      Page, Steve; Proctor, Tony; Webb, Paul; University of Chester (2007-06)
      This paper reflects upon the authors' experience of supervising dissertations on a public sector executive MBA programme run for a large metropolitan council. The research method is based on participant observation and reflection whilst directing the work undertaken by the MBA students in carrying out their dissertation. We assess the benefits that accrue to staff teaching on the programme and reflect on the new opportunities, in terms of career development and better management practice afforded to executives who have participated in the programme. Academic staff benefits include: interesting and stimulating work which sometimes leads to refereed publications at conferences and in journals; consultancy & significant applied teaching materials and improvements to the applied knowledge base of teaching staff. Lessons have also been learned about good practice in supervising dissertations. Executive benefits include progression to promoted posts & gaining new insights into better or best working practices. Organisational benefits include cross fertilisation of ideas produced through interaction between programme members. This paper discusses how the MBA programme meets the demands of various interested parties.
    • Through the looking glass: the factors that influence consumer trust and distrust in brands

      Mal, Carmen; Davies, Gary; Diers-Lawson, Audra (Wiley, 2018-09-27)
      This paper aims to identify the factors responsible for creating brand trust and brand distrust among consumers. It uses a grounded theory approach to guide the conduct and analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews that yielded 120 descriptions of consumer-brand interactions. The 3 stage model that emerged shows a process whereby consumers prioritize product/service quality information and subsequently consider how the company behind the brand behaves towards consumers in the name of the brand, specifically behaviors signalling its integrity and benevolence. Finally, consumers consider characteristics of the company behind the brand (e.g. its financial status) and how it behaves in its own name towards other stakeholder groups (e.g. employees). The process for distrust mirrors that for trust, implying the two are polar opposites. The data also show that trust and distrust in a brand can co-exist but within separate domains.
    • To Exit or Not To Exit: That is the Question: To Build or Retreat: That is another Question

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Wiley, 2016-08-11)
      Editorial. It has been a very interesting and tragic period for Europe over the last month. The UK voted to leave the EU in its Referendum, Its Prime Minister resigned and Teresa May has taken over as the Second female Conservative Prime Minister and formed a new government. The UK Economy took an initial battering in world markets but seems to have settled down now as global players perceive there are advantages and disadvantages for the UK in being in the EU, but the main thing is stability in global markets. It will also speed-up reform of the EU and its institutions, so this may be advantageous. We have also seen a sharp increase in horrific terror atrocities in Europe, notably France, Belgium and Germany which has pointed to the need for more effective management of our freedoms and security of our citizens. It has been a difficult Summer for Europe. We hope and pray that stability and safety will return as without that society will not be based on a balanced platform to provide for all We are also seeing the emergence of the two contenders for the US Presidency, Donald Trump versus Hilary Clinton. The non-establishment business candidate versus the female long serving politician and social reformer. Cleveland and Philadelphia have all given us insights into what is coming. In addition we will soon have elections in Germany and France, which could see major change, whilst growth in South East Asia continues steadily which can be seen in the positive meeting in Ulan Bator at the 11th ASEM Summit. World regulation and development now seems to be very much to the fore as we build and develop a truly global international economy accountable governmental and financial system, accountability, good governance and transparency will be the core underpinnings of that development This is a general issue of the Journal of Public Affairs
    • Tourism and health, risks and challenges

      Hindley, Ann; Marmion, Maeve; University of Chester (Springer, 2019-10-01)
      Whilst the entry ‘tourism, health and well-being’ articulates the consensus that tourism experiences can have health benefits for individuals and societies, there are also health risks involved when it comes to international travel. Tourists and tourism organisations need to be aware of and to manage such risks in order to mitigate the potentially far reaching health consequences. By its nature, tourism involves the movement of people from place to place and as such increases the unplanned exposure of tourism stakeholders to a variety of health related risks. This entry takes a tourism, tourist and community perspective rather than a health or medical practitioner stance, in order to highlight some of the risks and challenges that may emerge in the context of tourism and health.
    • Tourism, Health and Well-being

      Marmion, Maeve; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Springer, 2018)
      There is a well-established interrelationship between travel, tourism and health. Indeed, the motivations to participate in early forms of tourism related closely to ideas of well-being, wellness and health, and places or destinations that focus on offering perceived health benefits have long been recognised. Contemporary tourism continues to contribute to perceived health and well-being and this entry discusses the personal and social rationale for tourism in this context. For some, there are quite specific and pre-determined health reasons for travel, whereas for others it’s a more implicit sense of escape and relaxation that leads to a greater sense of well-being. If tourism experiences can potentially improve certain health indicators then the role tourism can play in fostering health and well-being should be recognised in order to advance the good health and well-being agenda.
    • Training and development: challenges of strategy and managing performance in Jordanian banking

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; Altarawneh, Ikhlas; University of Chester; Hall Consultancy; Al-Hussein Bin Talal University (Emerald, 2017-05-02)
      Structured Abstract: Purpose: This paper explores the relationship between organisational strategy, performance management and training and development in the context of the Jordanian banking sector. Design and methodology: Models of strategic human resource management developed in the West are considered for their relevance in Jordan. A mixed methods approach is adopted employing interviews with senior managers and training and development managers, employee questionnaires and documentary analysis. It examines all banks in Jordan including foreign and Islamic banks. Findings: Findings indicate that training and development is not driven by human resource strategy and that it is reactive rather than proactive. Training and development does improve skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours but there is little evidence that it increases commitment and satisfaction nor that it contributes to strategic aims in any significant way. The linkages between strategy and training and development are not explicit and strategies are not interpreted through performance management systems. Consequently there is a lack of integration in organisational HR systems and the measurable contribution of training and development to competitive advantage is minimal Practical implications: The paper offers suggestions as to how greater integration between strategy, performance management and training and development might be achieved in the Jordanian context. Originality: This paper is the first detailed empirical study of training and development in Jordan to include considerations of transferability of western models to an Arab culture.
    • Trends in Scientific Publishing on Sustainability in Higher Education

      Filho, Walter L.; Wall, Tony; Salvia, Amanda L.; Frankenberger, Fernanda; Hindley, Ann; Mifsud, Mark; Brandli, Luciana; Will, Markus; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Passo Fundo; Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná-PUCPR; Positivo University-UP; University of Chester; University of Malta; University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz
      It is widely acknowledged that research and publications in peer reviewed journals offer important metrics in describing the academic outputs of higher education institutions on one hand, and their societal impacts on the other. Peer review is a well-tested method for quality control and has been successfully deployed over many decades in academic journals worldwide. But despite the fact that publications on matters related to sustainable development offer solid evidence of academic activity and excellence, there is a dearth of literature in this field. In order to address this need, the European School of Sustainability Science and Research (ESSSR) and the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) have undertaken the World Survey on Sustainability Publishing and Research in Higher Education (WSSSP-HEI). The paper has two main aims. The first is to document and showcase trends in scientific publishing on matters related to sustainable development. The second aim is to contribute to a greater understanding of this rapidly growing field, by describing the latest developments and the role played by some of the journals active in this area. Consistent with these aims, this paper focuses on publications on sustainability in higher education, describes the methods used in the study and some of its results. It can be seen that despite the intrinsic value of research on sustainable development in higher education as a whole, and of publications in this field in particular, such practices are not as widely developed as one could expect. This paper discusses the possible reasons and also outlines some measures via which higher education institutions may be able to take more advantage of the many opportunities that publishing on sustainability offers to them.
    • Turkish delight a public affairs study on family business: The influence of owners in the entrepreneurship orientation of family-owned businesses

      Ozdemir, Ozlem; Harris, Phil; University of Chester; Regents University, London
      Family-owned businesses (FOBs) are as unique as the families that own and control them. As reported by Miller, Steier, and Le Breton-Miller (2003, p.513), the founders of many of these businesses try to continue their legacy and ensure continued family control via intergenerational succession, as when they hand over leadership to their children. The initial statistics suggest only approximately one third of FOBs survive into the second generation, with just 12% remaining “viable” by the third, and only about 3% operating into the fourth generation or beyond. Thus, one of the central problems for FOBs is this inability to ensure competent cross-generational family leadership through successful transfer of ownership and management to the next family generation. This is a core issue for the modern public affairs practitioner and policy maker, nationally and internationally, and the Turkish case is a good example of the multicomplex issues evident in succession planning and leadership for business founders and leaders in these organisations. A firm's strategic orientation is an indicator of the processes developed to integrate new information, to coordinate decisions, to examine the evolution of environmental factors, and to assess new projects (Escriba-Esteve, Sanchez-Peinado & Sanchez-Pei- nado, 2009). However, few studies have provided a framework that jointly analyses the FOB owner characteristics, the mediating processes and attitudes by which owners shape the direction of their family firms, and the effect of these postures on firm performance. This paper addresses the influence of family business owner, over the behaviour of FOBs. By treating FOB owners' characteristics as predictors of a firm's strategic ori- entation, we seek to provide a deeper understanding of how the characteristics of FOB owners shape decision making process and FOBs' behaviours in order to suc- cessfully survive in generations. This study introduced the concept of FOB's entre- preneurship orientation (EO) as a variable that mediates between FOB owners' characteristics and business performance. The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to identify the demographic predictors FOBs' EO and (b) to analyse the role of EO as a mediator of the relationship between FOB owners' characteristics and FOBs' performance.
    • Understanding tourists’ reactance to the threat of a loss of freedom to travel due to climate change: a new alternative approach to encouraging nuanced behavioural change.

      Font, Xavier; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-16)
      This article proposes that reactance theory can be used to better understand how tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect their travel decisions. Reactance theory explains how individuals value their perceived freedom to make choices, and why they react negatively to any threats to their freedom. We study the psychological consequences of threatening tourist’s freedoms, using a range of projective techniques: directly, using photo expression, and indirectly, through collage, photo-interviewing and scenarios. We find that reactance theory helps to explain the extent of travel to two destinations: Svalbard and Venice, providing a nuanced understanding of how travellers restore their freedom to travel through three incremental stages: denying the climate change threat , reducing tensions arising from travel and heightening demand particularly for the most visibly threatened destinations. The theory suggests a fourth stage, helplessness, reached when consumers dismiss the value of destinations once they can no longer be enjoyed, but for which we, as yet, have no data. Reactance theory questions the validity of awareness raising campaigns as behavioural change vehicles, provides alternative explanations of why the most self-proclaimed, environmentally aware individuals travel frequently, and helps identify nuanced, socially acceptable forms of sustainability marketing, capable of reducing resistance to change.
    • Understanding U.K. Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship from an Enterprise Culture Perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Yang, Sen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-08)
      Objectives This paper is aimed at examining the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) in the United Kingdom. The research aims to investigate the interplay between individuals and their institutional context (especially social and cultural context) and how the different institutional contexts then shape the different enterprise cultures, leading to differentiated ethnic business characteristics and consequently different levels of entrepreneurial activity in different ethnic communities. Prior work Unequivocal evidence shows that certain ethnic groups display higher levels of entrepreneurial activity than their White counterparts. Despite the large amount of work that has been dedicated to ethnic minority entrepreneurship, there is a lack of coherent conceptual and analytical framework that addresses the links between different factors contributing to ethnic minority entrepreneurship. This paper takes forward the available empirical evidence and theoretical constructs into a conceptual and methodological framework to aid understanding of ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Approach A process‐oriented research framework to investigate the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) is proposed rather than one oriented primarily towards the differentiation of characteristics. Results A large‐scale national survey in the United Kingdom is adopted. The findings of the quantitative fieldwork will form the central part of this paper. . Implications Understanding how and why certain ethnic groups are more entrepreneurial may assist the different parties in different ways. First, learning from the more entrepreneurial subcultures may contribute to the development and implementation of more effective public policies and efficient service delivery programmes. Second, advancing understanding of ethnic communities helps to support more informed decisions by policymakers and local support agencies through improved anticipation and greater understanding of responses. Third, it helps entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs to have a better understanding of the nature of their perceived barriers and constraints by demonstrating potential solutions successfully employed by other subcultures. Value The conceptual and methodological development of this study has the potential to build the link between relevant parties and pave the way forward for ethnic entrepreneurship research.
    • Using Critical Management Approaches in Managing People and Organizations

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Kogan Page, 2016-04-01)
      Chapter 3: Using Critical Management Approaches in Managing People and Organizations Peter Stokes Objectives • Providing an outline and understanding of the approaches to organization and management which have emerged and been developed during the last century and presenting a number of ongoing theoretical developments; • Providing introductions to philosophical stances such as postmodernism, post-structuralism, critical realism and related approaches such as discourse analysis and social constructionism; • Providing a counterpoint and alternative perspective on managing and organizing to the predominant modernistic casting and view of these areas; • Offering ideas and techniques to facilitate better understanding of issues such as organizational relationships, interpersonal and team dynamics, identity and power and their impact on work and practice. Introduction Chapter 2 outlined modernistic and positivistic outlooks which have represented the dominant manner of approaching and understanding organizational and managerial situations in many contexts during the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century. The discussion also indicated the limitations that may exist with such approaches and, in particular, how they might not always reflect or respond to the complexities of the human conditions and situations in which human beings often create and find themselves in work and other contexts. Critical management studies and critical perspectives are approaches which have developed over recent decades and, in many ways, have challenged and provided a response to modernistic constructions and representations of the workplace. Knowledge of critical perspectives provides people in work situations, with alternative and deeper insights and understandings of the complex dynamics and operation of work settings. It may even be postulated that such knowledge assists in enabling people to become more rounded managers.
    • Values and motivations in tourist perceptions of last-chance tourism

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2015-11-26)
      Tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect decisions and choices to visit destinations, which are disappearing because of climate change impacts. Values and motivations are two of the personal variables underpinning tourists’ decisions. The study addresses both the limited values research in tourism and reveals unconscious motives by using projective techniques. Projective techniques avoid some of the social desirability bias present in much ethical research. Choice ordering technique and the list of values assist by assigning importance, with narrative responses providing meaning. The construction technique builds a story from a stimulus, with photo-elicitation using participants’ personal holiday photographs. A sample of pre, during and post visit tourists to the Arctic and Venice were interviewed. Results, which provide a more nuanced understanding of how the personal variables of values and motivations are underpinned by selfinterest, inform policies and the messages designed to influence pro-sustainability behaviour.
    • What content to post? Evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook communications in destinations.

      Molina, Arturo; Gomez Rico, Maria del Mar; Garcia, Evangelina; Lyon, Andrew; Loibl, Wilhelm; University of Castilla-La Mancha; University of Chester
      This study analyzes the marketing effectiveness of the social media posts of destination management organizations (DMOs) based on message format and content and the moderator effect of its message appeal in order to understand the users’ responses to destinations’ social media posts. The paper also discusses the most appropriate social media message strategy for Facebook campaigns for DMOs. The methodology is based on the content analysis of a sample of 3303 Facebook posts from 12 English and Spanish heritage city destinations. A Poisson regression was used to test the marketing effectiveness of the posts based on the number of Facebook reactions and message characteristics. Considering the particularities of each country, the results provide insights for DMOs for their social media message strategies. The results show that emotional messages tend to be more effective than informational messages in many cases, and several recommendations for Facebook usage are developed for the management of destinations through social media.
    • What I'm passionate about

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Benham Publishing, 2017-12-01)
      Reflections on why understanding China is so important to modern business and people.
    • What influences ethnic entrepreneurs’ decision to start up: Some evidence from Aberdeen, Scotland

      Ullah, Farid; Rahman, Md Zillur; Smith, Robert; Beloucif, Ahmed; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-11-21)
      ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influences ethnic entrepreneurs decision making to start a new business in Aberdeen, Scotland. By doing so, this paper investigates the motives, drivers and attitudes of ethnic minorities towards entrepreneurship opportunities in Aberdeen, Scotland. Using qualitative data, we explore the motivational factors of 25 ethnic entrepreneurs by conducting in depth face to face interviews with them. Our results reveal some interesting motivational factors which influences ethnic entrepreneurs decision to dive in and starting up a new venture in Aberdeen, Scotland. Some of these include a positive mind set or attitude, self-efficacy, strong determination, market research knowledge (due diligence), good financial management, and knowing the local business culture along with others.
    • What UK graduate employers think they want and what university business schools think they provide

      Harper, Andrea; Nolan, Terry; Warhurst, Russell; University of Chester ; Auckland University of Technology ; University of Chester (Inderscience Enterprises, 2009-02-20)
      This paper evaluates the increasing focus on the development of students' competencies and skills for management, in university business schools. The debate suggests that deeper understandings, concerning the role of managers are being sacrificed at the hands of an instrumentalist/technicist agenda focusing on competencies and skills. The paper adds to the discussion by scrutinising and applying theory from the literatures of occupational practice, knowledge and learning. Data is presented from sixty four job advertisements stipulating the competencies and skills required of applicants and which illustrate the premium put upon personal practice knowledge. By taking a critical management perspective students can begin to understand the social context and power-based nature of management practice in the workplace. While universities may try to further fulfil the 'narrow', industry-led, competency focus, early indications suggest that universities may possess a good deal of freedom in designing pedagogies supportive of a critical agenda.