• Teaching managers: Learning, research and workplace practice

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; University of Chester ; Hall Consultancy (Emerald, 2010-09-21)
      This article explores the way in which professional management programmes are informed by research and workplace practice. The focus is on the areas of motivation, appraisal and the management of change. A longitudinal study using a mixed methods approach was used. Middle and senior managers engaged on professional management programmes were surveyed on workplace practice. Literature reviewed included syllabus guidelines from professional bodies and selected core textbooks. A content analysis revealed that there was a lack of congruence between what is taught to managers and workplace practice. However, research was found to have an impact on teaching and indirectly it influenced individual beliefs if not organisational practice. Conclusions indicate that professional management programmes are still failing to bridge the gap between syllabus content current research and workplace practice. There is little to show that the needs of Business are being satisfied compared to successful models embedded in other professions.
    • Technology-Enabled Experiential Marketing

      Haenel, Thorben; Loibl, Wilhelm; Wang, Hui (IGI Global, 2017)
      In recent years, there has been an increased interest from both academia and practitioners in the topic of customer experience. Companies nowadays are transforming their attention and endeavour to focus on memorable or customer experiences rather than premium prices or superior quality of products and services. Importantly, the value generated by unique customer experiences has a significant impact upon business performance in terms of customer commitment and customer loyalty. Along with the rapid and continuous development of ICT, the travel experience is no longer limited to services encounters on-site but is extended and dynamically created in both physical and virtual experience spaces. With the continuous proliferation of smart technology, travel industry has seen a radical transformation from product and service orientation to a customer-experience driven approach.
    • The competing dynamics and relationships in corporate and local government agency constructions of place

      Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2014-01-01)
      This paper explores the dynamics of how private sector business entities and local government bodies perceive and interact with the identity of the locality in which they operate. It identifies tensions and differences in, and consequences of, the dynamics and relationships between how private sector business entities view constructions of ‘place’ and how government and publicly-funded place-marketing organisations portray and promote localities. These issues are examined through the phenomenon, brand and slogan of ‘visit, live, invest’ which is gaining credence in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world. The paper develops data using in-depth interviews and a smallscale survey set within an overall interpretivistic case study approach. The data and the case-study demonstrate that, despite the rebranding of the local government agencies as a placemarketing organisation committed to the new ‘live, visit, invest’ initiative and brand agenda, there is an ongoing ‘cultural hangover’ from previous place promotion policies. There are also serious impacts and consequences for relationships between the public and private sectors and with other stakeholders. The prevailing image of UKTown (real name anonymised) by business leaders is one that sees this town fundamentally as a historic, traditional and conservative town. This image has been the product of many years of older style promotion in this vein. While such an image may suggest pleasant aspects of the living environment, it has little to do with corporate image, values and concerns and many private sector business entities do not identity with it. In several instances it is even considered by certain business sectors to be ‘detrimental’ to the need for a dynamic business environment and the forms of relationships and activities these necessitate. The paper indicates a number of strategic moves that could be adopted in order to improve this predicament. Keywords: private business entities, local government agency, place identity, place marketing, branding, perception
    • The condition of smallness; how what it means to be small deters firms from getting bigger

      Anderson, Alistair; Ullah, Farid; University of Chester (Emerald, 2014-12-12)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain why most small firms remain small. A new conceptual framework – the condition of smallness – is proposed. Design/methodology/approach – A critical examination of the literature about the nature of being a small firm is first conducted. Employing an inductive analysis of responses from a survey of 2,521 small business owners about employment regulation, the nature and effects of smallness is examined. Findings – It was found that owners' choice making combines with perceptions about their resources to produce a condition of smallness. The condition of smallness is conceptualised as the circularity perceptions, attitudes and consequent practices that reflect lack of knowledge, time and capability. It is argued that this condition of smallness inhibits growth to create a wicked problem that explains why most small firms don't grow. Research limitations/implications – This work is largely conceptual, albeit the argument is grounded in, and illustrated by, empirical data. The findings may not be generalisable beyond this paper's data sets, but may be generalisable conceptually. Originality/value – The focus of much scholarly work has been on growth firms. Yet the typical small firm is excluded so that the issues of smallness are often overlooked. This paper, therefore contributes to understanding why small firms don't grow.
    • The Correspondence between Design Thinking and Human Resource Management and Its Application

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Hebei GEO University,, 2018-04-15)
      As knowledge carrier of human resources is the most important resource of enterprise, how to better develop the staff’s creativity and improve the staff’s loyalty and motivation is the main target of the enterprise personal management. Through the analysis of human resource management face’s challenges in the new economy era, the article discusses the design thinking related principles, from three aspects of HRMP, all the staff and enterprise culture to discusses the application of design thinking in human resource management, come up with new ideas in the enterprise human resources management’s innovation and development, so as to provide references for the subsequent research and practice
    • The ends justifies the means: A global research agenda for political marketing and public affairs

      Harris, Phil; Sun, Henry; University of Chester (Wiley, 2017-12-18)
      Political marketing has developed into an increasingly mainstream discipline in universities globally over the last decade. There are many schools of political marketing with different approaches, such as the North American approach, the Western and Eastern European perspectives, and the Asian position. The study and application of political marketing has been categorised with different perspectives, such as electoral, governmental, and international aspects. It is becoming increasingly evident that political marketing needs further classification like any matured and established discipline. A close analysis of political marketing practices and academic research leads one to perceive two distinct areas of political exchanges in two different markets: the intranational market and the international market.
    • The High Sheriff’s Awards for Enterprise, Video, Sage Publications, Business & Management Video Collection

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-08-01)
      Professor Phil Harris discusses the High Sheriff's Award for Enterprise, the business environment of Cheshire, and importance of innovation in business.
    • The human factor in social capital management: The owner-manager perspective

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald, 2015-02-05)
      This book investigates the management of social capital processes as they are accomplished-understood, experienced and shaped-by owner-managers. The aim of the book is to develop a deeper understanding of the management of social capital processes, to achieve a greater congruence between real-life perspectives and experiences and social capital literature. The book argues that social capital is situational, and in the economic situation the theory has been bounded by rational choice framing assumptions. The research problem is that claims for the universality of the economic way of looking at life, and for looking at social capital processes are over-stated. Predicated on this insight the research investigates economic notions of rationality, and low and non-rationality, as well as their inter-dependence in the management of social capital processes. The research follows a qualitative approach for data collection, with flexible pre-coding to guide the research where to look, while retaining an inductive openness to emergent data. The research population is drawn from SME owner-managers in the service and retail sectors, who were researched over two years using semi-structured interviews, observation, and by researcher participant observation. The research presents a number of contributions to knowledge. First, the research offers an in-depth, single source review explicating the meaning of the economic form of social capital, with reference to its intellectual antecedents, conceptual debates and key theoretical authors. The second (emergent research) contribution is to identify the significance of ethics and autodidactic reading for managing social capital processes. The third (theoretical) contribution argues for an expanded social capital perspective, beyond the prevailing and over-confident rational framing assumptions, and also for a new holistic ontological understanding. The fourth contribution is to identify a number of generic processes that can guide the management of social capital processes.
    • The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Financing and Growth of Young and Established Technology-Based Small Firms in the United Kingdom in New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium book series

      Baldock, Robert; North, David; Ullah, Farid (emerald, 2015-11-20)
      This paper presents the findings of some recent UK research to assess the impact of the recent financial crisis on Technology-Based Small Firms (TBSFs). It reports on findings from an extended telephone survey with the owner-managers of 49 young and 51 more mature TBSFs, undertaken in 2010. It has commonly been thought that TBSFs face greater obstacles in accessing finance, than conventional SMEs. Even before the onset of the global financial crisis in 2007, research evidence indicated that the growth and development of TBSFs in the UK was hindered by a shortage of external finance. This is because banks have difficulty assessing the viability of new high technology business ventures due to information asymmetries, whilst other financiers such as venture capitalists and business angels may be unable to provide appropriate and sufficient funds on terms that are acceptable to entrepreneurs. It is therefore argued that the development of TBSFs is adversely affected by market failures and the existence of a finance gap, particularly affecting new and early stage TBSFs. Given the difficulties that SMEs in general have faced in obtaining external finance in recent years, it seems reasonable to expect that TBSFs have been particularly adversely affected by the financial crisis. Our research demonstrates that TBSFs exhibited a relatively strong demand for external finance over the 2007-2010 period, seeking finance mainly from banks, but also with younger TBSFs seeking business angel finance and innovation grants and more mature TBSFs seeking venture capital finance. The evidence is that both debt and equity finance became harder to access for TBSFs, particularly for early stage funding and for more R&D intensive firms. Moreover, where funding was offered, it was often insufficient or on unacceptable terms. The paper provides further evidence of a growing funding gap and concludes that the ability of TBSFs to respond to the economic recovery is being hampered by ongoing problems in obtaining the external finance needed for business growth.
    • The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions

      Leal Filho, Walter; Doni, Frederica; Vargas, Valeria R.; Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Emblen-Perry, Kay; Boddy, Jennifer; Avila, Lucas V.; Hamburg University (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Worcester; Griffith University (Australia); University of Santa Maria (Brazil) (Elsevier, 2019-02-14)
      The demands placed on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to deliver sustainability initiatives alongside their long-standing social responsibility commitments has been recognised in literature. However, how these interrelate in practice continues to be relatively unexplored. The extant literature suggests that the integration of the two connected agendas can be problematic due to a range of factors, including a general lack of awareness or even misconceptions of the respective agendas. This paper explores the attitudes and practices related to the integration of social responsibility and sustainability initiatives at HEIs. Theoretically, this study highlights the ongoing relative positioning and importance of economic factors – as it relates to differentiation rather than integration – over others such as social responsibility and sustainability. The main implication of this study is that provide useful insights into how HEIs can closer integrate two contemporary but potentially competing agendas.
    • The international experience: Culture, sensitivity and expectations

      Sologashvili-Purcell, Nelly; Warhurst, Russell (2007-06-01)
      This presentation discusses the international student experience at the University of Chester, covering cultural differences, and students' expectations and behaviours.
    • The Janus dialectic of corporate social irresponsibility and corporate social irresponsibility – The role of micro-moments

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2012-11-14)
      This book chapter examines the central and potent role of ‘micro-moments’ in relation to the development and construction of corporately responsible cultures and environments.
    • ‘The long, brown path before me’: Story elicitation and analysis in identity studies

      Rostron, Alison I.; University of Chester (Academic Conferences and Publishing International (ACPI), 2014-11-01)
      This paper makes a renewed case for the value of the interview as a method for investigating the workplace identities of organisational actors. In particular it addresses interpretivist criticism that interviews merely tell us how the actor would like to be seen, rather than how they behave in practice. Adopting a narrative approach, the method combines story elicitation with analysis based on Levi-Strauss' concept of mythical thought, in which stories are analysed to not only reveal individual self-narratives but an underpinning social landscape constructed of selected oppositions within which the individual positions themselves. The paper illustrates the method and its potential by presenting the detailed analysis of one team leader's elicited story. It demonstrates how the method allows not only insight into the team leader's self-identity but insight into ongoing processes of identity work, by revealing the social landscapes that they construct, the discursive resources they select, reject, challenge and struggle with, and how they position themselves in relation to those resources through narrative. The revealed social landscape and narrative positioning also generates new insight into the particular organisational position of the team leader and the tensions inherent in their position between staff and the organisation.
    • The MBA Student and CSR: A Case Study from a European Business School  

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-07-19)
      Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to develop a deeper understanding of the CSR perspectives of MBA in the European context. The chapter will review literature from the US and Europe focused on business school ethics and the CSR. The chapter will then present the findings generated from research into MBA students’ ethics and CSR from a European business school research site. Methodology This was inductive research, and data was collected with qualitative semi-structured interviews. The research population was purposely selected from two cohorts of MBA students, one comprising P/T, the other F/T students. Findings The research confirmed that there are broad similarities between the US and Europe, in terms of a students’ experiences of business school scholarship and pedagogy. The research also confirmed however, that these European based students wanted a greater focus on CSR, for instance in terms of addressing the relationship between business and the environment, which students do not consider is adequately addressed in their programmes. Furthermore, and reflecting US experience, students reported at the completion of the MBA that they were conscious that they had become more focused on their individual ‘rational’ self-interest, with the goal of increasing their own material success. Not all of these students were content with this change, but they reported that it had been embedded within them, as a consequence of studying for an MBA. Social Implication US based research, and this example from the European context both point to the conclusion that there is dominant instrumental paradigm in HE business and management pedagogy. This paradigm needs to be challenged to restore society’s ethical and CSR expectations, and also to facilitate the moral education of more socially responsible MBA graduate managers. The research confirmed that students are very much in favour of CSR framed changes to the MBA programme Originality This chapter contributes to a developing research stream into MBA programmes and CSR in a European context.
    • The micro-dynamics of intraorganizational and individual behavior and their role in organizational ambidexterity boundaries

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Moss, Danny; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Liu, Yipeng; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Westminster University ; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham (Wiley, 2015-03-09)
      Organizational ambidexterity has emerged as a valuable contemporary lens on organizational design and action, examining the dynamic relationships between exploitative (extant) and explorative (evolving) resources within organizational contexts and environments. This article analyzes the literature pertaining to ambidexterity and underlines a number of recurrent preoccupations including definition of the nature, characteristics, and normative boundaries of organizational ambidexterity; a predilection toward considering interfirm/unit comparisons of large-scale corporate organizations; and a concentration on the significance of the managerialistic role of the senior management team’s disposition and action-orientations.
    • The performance of entrepreneurial ventures: Examining the role of marketing practices

      Jayawarna, Dilani; Jones, Ossie; Lam, Wing; Phua, Sabrina; University of Liverpool; Durham University; Manchester Metropolitan University (Emerald, 2014-11-11)
      Purpose – Despite the importance of marketing to the success of entrepreneurial ventures very few researchers have studied the links with new business performance. The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of marketing practices in relation to the performance of new firms. Furthermore, the study considers the moderating influence of market competitiveness on the marketing practice-performance relationship. Design/methodology/approach – Both postal and web surveys were utilized to collect responses from 128 entrepreneurs in the early stages of business creation. The data were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factory analyses to establish the marketing practices in new ventures. These results were then subjected to hierarchical regression analysis to study the marketing-performance relationship. Further analysis was conducted to explore the moderation hypotheses. Findings – The results demonstrate that some practices generally associated with marketing – selective distribution, market segmentation and advertising – have limited impact on performance in new ventures. In contrast, other practices such as product/service innovation, market research and service quality and functionality – do help establish competitive advantage. The results suggest that marketing practices associated with “entrepreneurial behaviour” and not “hard” marketing techniques drive new venture success. The results also support the moderation hypotheses confirming that market conditions help explain the role of marketing in new venture success. Research limitations/implications – The paper offers a new theoretical framework to better understand the marketing-performance relationship in new ventures and offers suggestions as to the specific conditions for effective use of various marketing practices. Originality/value – This is one of the first attempts to explore the underlying mechanisms that support marketing practices in new ventures. It reveals the hidden dimensions of the marketing-performance relationship and thereby makes a contribution to both the marketing and entrepreneurship literatures.
    • The Role of Embedded Individual Values, Belief and Attitudes and Spiritual Capital in Shaping Everyday Postsecular Organizational Culture

      Baker, Chris; Stokes, Peter; Lichy, Jessica; University of Chester; IDRAC (Wiley, 2016-01-08)
      This paper investigates the values, beliefs and attitudes (VBA) held by individual employees within business environments which motivate and shape behaviour in the workplace, and the extent to which VBA reveal roots and drivers linked to spiritual capital (and associated capitals). Building on early authorial work (Authors, 2011), and referring to literature from theology and religion, as well as business organization and management, the paper discusses the critical and dialectical relationship between different forms of capital (for example, social, human, economic), modernistic, ‘hard’ cultures and issues of managerialism and alternative critical, ‘soft’ frameworks and sources of ethics and values - and their impact on the business setting. It will do this primarily by proposing a new typological model showing the dynamic and potentially progressive interplay between spiritual, human, bridging and linking forms of social capital within corporate and public settings and explores their implications for management. This typological model is derived from original research using in-depth semi-structured interviews from three different organizations in NW England and Wales, to determine the extent to which notions of the postsecular and spiritual capital may operate in workplaces.
    • The Sage Handbook of International Corporate and Public Affairs

      Harris, Phil; Fleisher, Craig; University of Chester and Aurora WDC (SAGE, 2017-02-01)
      The management and oversight of public affairs (PA) is a critical boardroom skill that resides with the Chief Executive and those engaged in multi-complex strategic political management work, particularly those working at and across the international business, government and politics interface. This has become of paramount importance to modern business in a very competitive and rapidly globalizing world where strong and focused leadership on corporate communication, issues management, governmental and regulatory issues and soft power (Nye, 2004) can often be pivotal to whether an organization fails or succeeds (Griffin, 2016, Sun and Harris, 2014, Fleisher, 2012; Titley, 2003). As one senior executive commented in a conversation with one of the authors, there are 1) those who are good at public affairs and politics and their businesses succeed, and 2) those who do not understand the subject and they are either no more or in decline.
    • The Social Capital Concept in Management and Organizational Literature: A Synthesis and Critical Discussion of Contemporary Applications and Research Directions

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald, 2017-11-06)
      Social capital (SC) is a contemporary management and organizational concept that has yet to reach definitional agreement. In response, and to fully grasp the meaning of SC in its management and organizational context, the paper will review its intellectual antecedents, and then synthesise the causal factors for the concept’s recent prominence. The paper will further explicate the meaning of the concept by proposing two categories of benefits for classifying the economic returns of SC. First in terms of ‘bonding capital’s’ role in facilitating knowledge management (KM); and second in terms of ‘bridging capital’s’ role in facilitating reputation management (RM).
    • The use of projective techniques to circumvent socially desirable responses or reveal the subconscious.

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester; University of Surrey (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-07-27)
      Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.