• Shaping the future : A study using scenario analysis

      Pownall, Ian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
      Scenario analysis requires the integration of a diversity of concepts, views, data and practices for organisations. It is an analysis that draws upon current understanding of organizational and environmental contexts but also one that reflects creativity in the construction of future scenarios within which organisations could compete. This case study explores the application of scenario analysis using the ‘Field Anomaly Relaxation’ (FAR) technique by a group of regional stakeholders to understand and prioritize emergent futures in a UK seaside town. The discussion is focused on two phases of that research project; the series of stakeholder meetings to prioritize emergent futures and the factors shaping them; final analytical and interpretive phase that generated four distinctive scenarios which were used to frame ongoing strategic planning by local and regional organisations.
    • Sights and insights: Vocational outdoor students’ learning

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; University of Central Lancashire; University of Chester (Outdoor Council of Australia, 2016-02-18)
      Outdoor leader and adventure sport education in the United Kingdom has been characterized by an over-emphasis on technical skills at the expense of equally important, but often marginalized intra- and inter-personal skills necessary for contemporary outdoor employment. This study examined the lived experience of vocational outdoor students in order, firstly, to identify what was learned about the workplace through using reflective practice and, secondly, what was learned about reflective practice through this experience. The study used a purposive sample of students (n=15) who were invited to maintain reflective journals during summer work experience, and this was followed up with semi-structured interviews. Manual Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) revealed that in the workplace setting students used reflective practice to understand and develop technical proficiency, support awareness of the value of theory, and acted as a platform to express emergent concepts of ‘professionalism’. Lessons about reflective practice emphasized its value in social settings, acknowledging different ways of reflection, and understanding and managing professional life beyond graduation.
    • Signs and wonders: Exploring the effects and impact of the Investors in People logo and symbols

      Smith, Simon M.; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2015-05-06)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine and assess the reputational impact of the logo and symbols of the UK Standard Investors in People (IiP). The extant literature highlights differing opinions in terms of the likely benefits that IiP generates following achievement of the Standard. This paper focuses specifically on the perceptions of reputational claims made regarding existing employees, potential employees and customers. Design/methodology/approach – The debate is explored through 38 interviews using the perceptions of managers and frontline employees within six IiP-accredited firms and one non-accredited firm. Findings – The study indicates that the logo and symbols of the Standard have minimal meaning and significance for the interviewees and their outlook on potential employees and customers. There were some indications, however, that the wider reputational implications of carrying the logo may have some potentially beneficial effects. Originality/value – The paper concludes that the overarching findings present a potentially serious issue for IiP, and that there is a need to understand further the impact and value of the logo and symbols.
    • ‘Smart cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for 'old world' economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; et al. (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2015-10-01)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • Social Capital: A review from an ethics perspective

      Ayios, Angela; Jeurissen, Ronald; Manning, Paul; Spence, Laura J.; Ayios, A. Brunel University; Jeurissen, R. Nyenrode University; Mannin, P. Liverpool UNiverisrity; Spence, L. R., Royal Holloway, University of London. (Wiley & Sons, 2014-01-30)
      Abstract Social capital has as its key element the value of social relationships to generate positive outcomes, both for the key parties involved and for wider society. Some authors have noted that social capital nevertheless has a dark side. There is a moral element to such a conceptualisation, yet there is scarce discussion of ethical elements within the social capital literature. In this paper ethical theory is applied to four traditions or approaches to economic social capital: neo-capitalism; network/reputation; neo-Tocquevellian; and development. Each is considered in detail and subject to ethical analysis by the application of utilitarianism, Kantianism, justice and rights, and ethic of care. Accordingly the assumption that social capital is either value-neutral or a force for good is critiqued and a framework for understanding social capital from an ethics perspective presented.
    • Soft Power and International Political Marketing

      Sun, Henry; harris, Phil; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-06-28)
      Joseph Nye defines soft power as the ability of “getting others to want the outcomes that you want” through persuasion and attraction of one’s ideas or the ability to set the political agenda to shape the preferences of others. Nye further argues that in the international arena, besides the military and economic power, there is a third dimension which is characterized as indirect power, cooptive power, and intangible power in contrary to direct power, coercive power, and tangible power. Nye states, “The ability to establish references tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology and institutions. This dimension can be thought of as soft power, in contrast to the hard command power usually associated with tangible resources like military and economic strength.” Henry Sun defines international political marketing as following: International Political Marketing seeks to establish, maintain and enhance long-term relations among nation-states, political actors and organizations, so that the objectives of stakeholders involved are met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises through cross-border and cross-culture marketing strategy and management
    • Staging and managing match events in the English professional football industry: an SME learning perspective

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2016-06-01)
      Abstract: The English professional football industry has attracted considerable academic interest in relation to the tragedies that occurred during the 20th century. However, the bulk of this work has focused on historical, social and economic factors rather than match processes. Consequently, an in-depth view of contemporary football match event management processes does not exist. This paper aims to address this by examining small and medium enterprises (SME) and event literatures in order to surface the SME mentality evident in the majority of clubs. A Football Match Event Lifecycle Model is developed and then used to provide an insight into contemporary football event management issues and processes and demonstrate how clubs can generate, transfer and use knowledge to learn from the mistakes of the past. The paper adopts an interpretivist methodological approach and utilises qualitative primary data from semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation.
    • Stereotypical Notions of the Entrepreneur: An Analysis from a Perspective of Gender

      Hancock, Connie; University of Chester, University of Barcelona (Routledge, 2014-02-10)
      The principal objective of this paper is an analysis of the stereotypical figure of the entrepreneur in the Spanish context, from a perspective of gender. We provide evidence that the characteristics largely associated with an entrepreneurial individual are stereo-typically male or androgynous, with a notable absence of female typologies. Our findings suggest that this relationship has an influence on the continued predominance of male entrepreneurial activity. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on female entrepreneurship from an understudied perspective; gender stereotyping, demonstrating that socially constructed gender stereotyping persists in contemporary Spanish culture.
    • Structure of the public relations/communication department: Key findings from a global study

      Moss, Danny; Likely, Fraser; Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy; Ferrari, Maria; University of Chester; University of Ottawa; Purdue University; University of Sao Paulo (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This paper reports on some of the core findings from a program of research focused on the structure of public relations/communication departments. It draws on a recent major global study that was sponsored by the former Research Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC). Analyzing the results from interviews with 26 Chief Communication Officers (CCOs) located in each of the five continents and from a survey sample of some 278 CCOs based in organizations headquartered across the globe, the study found quite notable variations in the type of departmental structures. No one dominant structural model emerged. In effect, each organization appeared to adopt a structural design to suit their individual circumstances, although there were nevertheless some reasonably common component functional elements within each department. CCOs identified those variables that they believed most influenced the design of the public relations department structure. While recognizing department structure is situation dependent, the evidence suggests that CCOs create hybrid structures unique to the circumstances. What was perhaps most surprising was that department structure did not appear to be strongly influenced by department size, other than in terms of the vertical structural design. In short, there do not appear to be any common formulas or prescribed solutions for how organizations should or do orchestrate the design of the public relations department structure, rather CCOs appear to be able to exercise a degree of latitude in determining what works best for them.
    • Sustainable and responsible business: Focal cases, sectors and contexts

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Brooks, Simon; Caulfield, Paul; Wells, Jessica; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Swansea University ; Nottingham University (Emerald, 2013-09-13)
      This guest editorial for EuroMed Journal of Business discusses sustainable and .responsible business and management
    • Teaching managers: Learning, research and workplace practice

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; University of Chester ; Hall Consultancy (Emerald, 2010-09-21)
      This article explores the way in which professional management programmes are informed by research and workplace practice. The focus is on the areas of motivation, appraisal and the management of change. A longitudinal study using a mixed methods approach was used. Middle and senior managers engaged on professional management programmes were surveyed on workplace practice. Literature reviewed included syllabus guidelines from professional bodies and selected core textbooks. A content analysis revealed that there was a lack of congruence between what is taught to managers and workplace practice. However, research was found to have an impact on teaching and indirectly it influenced individual beliefs if not organisational practice. Conclusions indicate that professional management programmes are still failing to bridge the gap between syllabus content current research and workplace practice. There is little to show that the needs of Business are being satisfied compared to successful models embedded in other professions.
    • Technology-Enabled Experiential Marketing

      Haenel, Thorben; Loibl, Wilhelm; Wang, Hui (IGI Global, 2017)
      In recent years, there has been an increased interest from both academia and practitioners in the topic of customer experience. Companies nowadays are transforming their attention and endeavour to focus on memorable or customer experiences rather than premium prices or superior quality of products and services. Importantly, the value generated by unique customer experiences has a significant impact upon business performance in terms of customer commitment and customer loyalty. Along with the rapid and continuous development of ICT, the travel experience is no longer limited to services encounters on-site but is extended and dynamically created in both physical and virtual experience spaces. With the continuous proliferation of smart technology, travel industry has seen a radical transformation from product and service orientation to a customer-experience driven approach.
    • The competing dynamics and relationships in corporate and local government agency constructions of place

      Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Stokes, Peter; Scott, Peter; University of Chester ; University of Birmingham ; University of Chester ; Liverpool John Moores University (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2014-01-01)
      This paper explores the dynamics of how private sector business entities and local government bodies perceive and interact with the identity of the locality in which they operate. It identifies tensions and differences in, and consequences of, the dynamics and relationships between how private sector business entities view constructions of ‘place’ and how government and publicly-funded place-marketing organisations portray and promote localities. These issues are examined through the phenomenon, brand and slogan of ‘visit, live, invest’ which is gaining credence in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world. The paper develops data using in-depth interviews and a smallscale survey set within an overall interpretivistic case study approach. The data and the case-study demonstrate that, despite the rebranding of the local government agencies as a placemarketing organisation committed to the new ‘live, visit, invest’ initiative and brand agenda, there is an ongoing ‘cultural hangover’ from previous place promotion policies. There are also serious impacts and consequences for relationships between the public and private sectors and with other stakeholders. The prevailing image of UKTown (real name anonymised) by business leaders is one that sees this town fundamentally as a historic, traditional and conservative town. This image has been the product of many years of older style promotion in this vein. While such an image may suggest pleasant aspects of the living environment, it has little to do with corporate image, values and concerns and many private sector business entities do not identity with it. In several instances it is even considered by certain business sectors to be ‘detrimental’ to the need for a dynamic business environment and the forms of relationships and activities these necessitate. The paper indicates a number of strategic moves that could be adopted in order to improve this predicament. Keywords: private business entities, local government agency, place identity, place marketing, branding, perception
    • The condition of smallness; how what it means to be small deters firms from getting bigger

      Anderson, Alistair; Ullah, Farid; University of Chester (Emerald, 2014-12-12)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain why most small firms remain small. A new conceptual framework – the condition of smallness – is proposed. Design/methodology/approach – A critical examination of the literature about the nature of being a small firm is first conducted. Employing an inductive analysis of responses from a survey of 2,521 small business owners about employment regulation, the nature and effects of smallness is examined. Findings – It was found that owners' choice making combines with perceptions about their resources to produce a condition of smallness. The condition of smallness is conceptualised as the circularity perceptions, attitudes and consequent practices that reflect lack of knowledge, time and capability. It is argued that this condition of smallness inhibits growth to create a wicked problem that explains why most small firms don't grow. Research limitations/implications – This work is largely conceptual, albeit the argument is grounded in, and illustrated by, empirical data. The findings may not be generalisable beyond this paper's data sets, but may be generalisable conceptually. Originality/value – The focus of much scholarly work has been on growth firms. Yet the typical small firm is excluded so that the issues of smallness are often overlooked. This paper, therefore contributes to understanding why small firms don't grow.
    • The Correspondence between Design Thinking and Human Resource Management and Its Application

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Hebei GEO University,, 2018-04-15)
      As knowledge carrier of human resources is the most important resource of enterprise, how to better develop the staff’s creativity and improve the staff’s loyalty and motivation is the main target of the enterprise personal management. Through the analysis of human resource management face’s challenges in the new economy era, the article discusses the design thinking related principles, from three aspects of HRMP, all the staff and enterprise culture to discusses the application of design thinking in human resource management, come up with new ideas in the enterprise human resources management’s innovation and development, so as to provide references for the subsequent research and practice
    • The ends justifies the means: A global research agenda for political marketing and public affairs

      Harris, Phil; Sun, Henry; University of Chester (Wiley, 2017-12-18)
      Political marketing has developed into an increasingly mainstream discipline in universities globally over the last decade. There are many schools of political marketing with different approaches, such as the North American approach, the Western and Eastern European perspectives, and the Asian position. The study and application of political marketing has been categorised with different perspectives, such as electoral, governmental, and international aspects. It is becoming increasingly evident that political marketing needs further classification like any matured and established discipline. A close analysis of political marketing practices and academic research leads one to perceive two distinct areas of political exchanges in two different markets: the intranational market and the international market.
    • The High Sheriff’s Awards for Enterprise, Video, Sage Publications, Business & Management Video Collection

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-08-01)
      Professor Phil Harris discusses the High Sheriff's Award for Enterprise, the business environment of Cheshire, and importance of innovation in business.
    • The human factor in social capital management: The owner-manager perspective

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald, 2015-02-05)
      This book investigates the management of social capital processes as they are accomplished-understood, experienced and shaped-by owner-managers. The aim of the book is to develop a deeper understanding of the management of social capital processes, to achieve a greater congruence between real-life perspectives and experiences and social capital literature. The book argues that social capital is situational, and in the economic situation the theory has been bounded by rational choice framing assumptions. The research problem is that claims for the universality of the economic way of looking at life, and for looking at social capital processes are over-stated. Predicated on this insight the research investigates economic notions of rationality, and low and non-rationality, as well as their inter-dependence in the management of social capital processes. The research follows a qualitative approach for data collection, with flexible pre-coding to guide the research where to look, while retaining an inductive openness to emergent data. The research population is drawn from SME owner-managers in the service and retail sectors, who were researched over two years using semi-structured interviews, observation, and by researcher participant observation. The research presents a number of contributions to knowledge. First, the research offers an in-depth, single source review explicating the meaning of the economic form of social capital, with reference to its intellectual antecedents, conceptual debates and key theoretical authors. The second (emergent research) contribution is to identify the significance of ethics and autodidactic reading for managing social capital processes. The third (theoretical) contribution argues for an expanded social capital perspective, beyond the prevailing and over-confident rational framing assumptions, and also for a new holistic ontological understanding. The fourth contribution is to identify a number of generic processes that can guide the management of social capital processes.
    • The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Financing and Growth of Young and Established Technology-Based Small Firms in the United Kingdom in New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium book series

      Baldock, Robert; North, David; Ullah, Farid (emerald, 2015-11-20)
      This paper presents the findings of some recent UK research to assess the impact of the recent financial crisis on Technology-Based Small Firms (TBSFs). It reports on findings from an extended telephone survey with the owner-managers of 49 young and 51 more mature TBSFs, undertaken in 2010. It has commonly been thought that TBSFs face greater obstacles in accessing finance, than conventional SMEs. Even before the onset of the global financial crisis in 2007, research evidence indicated that the growth and development of TBSFs in the UK was hindered by a shortage of external finance. This is because banks have difficulty assessing the viability of new high technology business ventures due to information asymmetries, whilst other financiers such as venture capitalists and business angels may be unable to provide appropriate and sufficient funds on terms that are acceptable to entrepreneurs. It is therefore argued that the development of TBSFs is adversely affected by market failures and the existence of a finance gap, particularly affecting new and early stage TBSFs. Given the difficulties that SMEs in general have faced in obtaining external finance in recent years, it seems reasonable to expect that TBSFs have been particularly adversely affected by the financial crisis. Our research demonstrates that TBSFs exhibited a relatively strong demand for external finance over the 2007-2010 period, seeking finance mainly from banks, but also with younger TBSFs seeking business angel finance and innovation grants and more mature TBSFs seeking venture capital finance. The evidence is that both debt and equity finance became harder to access for TBSFs, particularly for early stage funding and for more R&D intensive firms. Moreover, where funding was offered, it was often insufficient or on unacceptable terms. The paper provides further evidence of a growing funding gap and concludes that the ability of TBSFs to respond to the economic recovery is being hampered by ongoing problems in obtaining the external finance needed for business growth.