• Perceived unfairness in appraisal: Engagement and sustainable organizational performance

      Rowland, Caroline A.; Hall, Roger D.; University of Chester; Hall Consultancy, Manchester (EuroMed Journal of Business, 2013-09-13)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the contribution of appraisal systems to sustainable organizational effectiveness. It argues that competitive advantage is increasingly reliant on discretionary effort. As the emphasis of appraisal has shifted from a developmental to a performance focus, perceived unfairness in both procedures and outcomes threatens to undermine commitment and, therefore, sustainable performance. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on a range of theoretical frameworks, current practices and experiences are examined and future trends considered. Empirical research includes a ten-year study of practising managers and ethnography, questionnaires and interviews in two large organizations. Findings – Appraisal frequently creates actual and perceived injustice in terms of both procedures and rewards. It also generates tensions between managing performance and encouraging engagement. Research limitations/implications – This study indicates that further research in other sectors will contribute to the development of greater understanding of sustainable strategic approaches to HRM. Practical implications – Emphasis on performance in appraisal devalues developmental aspects and sometimes affects employee well-being. Separation of the two through mentorship schemes may help to address the paradox, whereby the performance management element of appraisal undermines rather than enhances organizational effectiveness. Originality/value – The conventional wisdom of the appraisal culture is challenged. We argue it is essential to expand the discourse between performance, justice and ethical value systems if sustainable competitive advantage and well-being are to be achieved.
    • Pictures, Colors and Emotions: Shaping the UK's E-Tourism Experience

      Schneider, Anke; Loibl, Wilhelm; Hindley, Ann; Vienna University of Economics and Business; University of Chester; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-03-27)
      The role of online media has become more important for tourism as DMOs try to differentiate through the use of pictures on digital channels, such as websites. The aim is to provide a positive image that has a positive impact on the consumer buying decision. Pictures draw significant amounts of attention and a pictures colour characteristics are critical in maintaining interest through emotional connections. These colour characteristics concern hue, saturation and luminance, which create a positive or negative emotional response in the prospective user. Due to this importance of a pictures colour characteristics on websites, this chapter explores these colour characteristics of pictures on UK DMO websites, in order to determine the positive or negative emotions conveyed to the viewer. Results show that most pictures are neutral but the amount of negatively perceived pictures is very high. It was found that the overall visual e-tourism experience can be improved with only small post-processing changes with minimal danger of distorting reality.
    • Political corruption in Africa: Extraction and power preservation

      Robberts, Theresa (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020-07-17)
    • Political Dissengagement and Political Hypocrisy: A Hidden Connection

      Prete, M. I.; Guido, Gianluigi; Harris, Phil; Piper, L.; University of Chester and University of Solento (Academy of Marketing, 2015-07-01)
      Best Paper in Track Political Marketing, Academy of Marketing Conference 2015, The Magic in Marketing, University of Limerick, Ireland. In recent elections, modern democracies have witnessed the growing phenomenon of political disengagement, which has produced as a direct consequence the decline or the inconstancy of voting turnout (Dermody and Scullion 2005; Teixeira 1992). This phenomenon is a real threat to the foundations of democratic systems, since the vote is the ultimate expression of legitimacy of candidates and parties, which should in fact be elected by the entire electorate and representing the same. Political engagement is one of the components that most involve the participation of citizens in public life, which also comprises trust in public institutions and politics, the interest in politics, and the active civic participation.
    • Political Marketing, Business & Management Video Collection, Sage Publications

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-08-01)
      Professor Phil Harris explains the place of marketing in the political process. He highlights how politicians use the media to hone their image, how marketing has changed since the 1950s
    • Primogeniture in Turkish Family Owned Businesses: An examination of daughter succession, the impact of national culture on gendered norms and leadership challenge.

      Harris, Phil; Ozdemir, Ozlem; University of Chester; Regents University, London
      Family owned and controlled businesses, which may be owned, controlled or operated by various family members, account for an enormous percentage of global employment, revenues and GDP. Although the majority of well-known companies are family owned, research indicates that unfortunately, only thirty percent of family businesses survive to the second generation. Therefore, successful transfer of the business to the next generation is an important issue for the family business literature. However, although succession is a vital issue for Family Owned Businesses (FOBs), the process is unfortunately very gender biased in most societies, with boys being generally favoured over girls so daughters are always excluded as candidates and other women are seldom considered as successors in family businesses. In many cases, especially in certain cultures, female members of the next generation are not even perceived as a viable option. Even in today’s rapidly changing business climate, primogeniture continues to dominate the value system of family businesses. Primogeniture is an accepted approach to family business succession planning; daughters are only considered for family business succession when all descendants are female or the daughter is the first born. This study aims to identify the reasons behind the primogeniture in Turkish FOBs. The objectives of the study were to examine the key factors identified by the incumbents related with the primogeniture. In this research study, an interpretive methodology was adopted to explore, interpret and to understand meanings of knowledge. For this research, qualitative data were gathered via in-depth open-ended interviews with 20 male FOB owners who have at least one daughter and 20 daughters working at their FOB with their fathers. The questions were designed to measure different facets of FOB demographics and culture to understand their effects on the selection process within Turkish FOBs and gender norms in the context of FOB norms, which influence both family members and the business it. This study investigated daughters’ succession in FOBs in Turkey, a developing country where women are less likely than men to engage in entrepreneurial activities and show that gendered norms are still considered when choosing the successor, in other word, primogeniture still dominates the family business succession process.
    • Project management CPD: Combining higher education and externally produced training

      Terry, Helen (2007-06-01)
      Unpublished conference presentation given at the University of Chester staff conference in Chester, 1 June 2007.
    • Public relations: A managerial perspective

      Moss, Danny; DeSanto, Barbara; University of Chester ; Maryville University (SAGE, 2011-12-15)
      This book explores public relations from a managerial perspective. It includes chapters on public relations and other managerial functions, management and leadership, strategic management, corporate branding and corporate reputation, public affairs and lobbying, public relations and government, financial public relations, public relations consultancy, public relations and the internet, public relations and ethics, corporate social responsibility, public relations and the law, and managing global public relations.
    • Putnam and Radical Socio-Economic Theory.

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the social capital treatment of Robert Putnam, the most influential conceptual theorist. The paper will detail how Putnam’s treatment of social capital has evolved, examine the arguments of his critics and will also critique his socio-economic analysis. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken is a literature review that investigates Putnam’s social capital understanding and considers the reasons why this conceptual treatment “touched a nerve” and proved so influential and adaptable. Findings – Putnam’s social capital treatment belongs to a socio-economic communitarian tradition that can be traced to de-Tocqueville, which offers an alternative to both mainstream free market ideology and to leftwing socio-economics. Originality/value – The originality of this paper is to identify Putnam as a radical in a methodological sense, reinvigorating a Burkean, consensual interpretation of socio-economics. The value of this paper is to offer a critique of Putnam’s interpretation of social capital. Keywords Social capital, Social economics, Economic theory Paper type Literature review
    • Re-thinking the management of team performance: No longer disingenuous or stupid

      Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2015-04-01)
      This chapter deals with the topic of team performance and current management practice. In a challenging and turbulent economic climate, characterised by pressures to improve productivity and reduce costs, performance management has taken a more central role in helping to ensure competitive advantage. The challenge for managers is to bring about commitment to discretionary effort, which is increasingly a crucial feature in gaining competitive advantage. This chapter examines current theory and practice and offers a new way to approach team management that requires a radical re-think of management practice.
    • Recasting the 'technologies' of outdoor management development: An interpretivist perspective on the tools, models and processes used in the field

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Hickman, Mark; Scott, Peter; Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Central Lancashire ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2013-12-13)
      This paper investigates the models and tools commonly engaged in outdoor management development (OMD). The paper employs an interpretive methodology engaging participant observation and narrative techniques. A number of OMD providers were studied and this generated a rich body of data which is relayed and examined in the text. In spite of extensive theoretical contemporary debates and developments in wider human resource development domains, the study identifies that many practitioners working in experiential course settings continue to engage a predominantly positivistic, well–rehearsed, over–used, and indeed ageing, collection of models. The paper identifies linear and modernistic assumptions on which such models are predicated. OMD is a relatively longstanding form of training which continues to be used by a large number of individuals. The phenomenon therefore merits attention so as to better determine the social implications of the approach. The paper offers an original and innovative consideration of the tools generally employed in OMD programmes.
    • Reflections on 20 years of the Journal of Public Affairs: Public affairs in a rapidly changing and globalising world

      Harris, Phil; Moss, Danny; University of Chester
      As we commence the twentieth year of publication of the Journal of Public Affairs [JPA],we reflect on having published 20 volumes of the journal, comprising 80 issues with over 1000 academic articles and close to 10 million words of text and illustrations. This endeavour has been superbly supported by a network of 1500 authors and 2000 reviewers contributing from across the world. This remarkable body of work has been generated by an international collection of academics, aficionados, businesses, experts, governments, interest groups, practitioners associated with the vast industry of public affairs. The editorial team would like to acknowledge and thank all our contributors and reviewers for their support over the past two decades.
    • Reflections on the Impact of Coronavirus on Public Affairs

      Harris, Phil; Moss, Danny; University of Chester (Wiley, 2020-06-28)
      As the editorial team considered how we might best mark the 20th anniversary year of the publication of the Journal of Public Affairs and reflected on what significant developments have occurred in the world of public affairs over the past two decades, none of us around that table could have possibly imagined how the world of politics and society as a whole could and would change in just a few short months. Yes we all witnessed the horrible effects of Ebola in Africa, and of SARS in the Far East and in the UK we experienced the nationwide lockdown of countryside during the infamous foot and mouth disease that ravaged the countryside in 2001. However devastating each of these disease outbreaks that we might think of as contagions have been, none can really compare or have prepared us fully for a the rapidity and impact that the recent coronavirus pandemic has had across the world, not only in terms of the scale of the infection rising death rate, but in the profound impact it has had on the economy and on people's lives and livelihoods
    • The relationship between employee propensity to innovate and their decision to create a company

      Hancock, Connie; Hormiga, Esther; Jaume, Valls-Pasola; University of Chester; University of Barcelona
      The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the decision by employees’ to initiate a new venture, whilst continuing in employment. Based on survey data collected from employees working for a public organization, we provide evidence that an analysis of individuals’ propensity to innovate, provides an insight into entrepreneurial intention which increases in probability where there is a lower opportunity cost. This study contributes to the growing empirical literature on entrepreneurial intentions which currently lacks focus on employed potential entrepreneurs.
    • The resistance in management accounting practices towards a neoliberal economy

      Nagirikandalage, Padmi; Binsardi, Ben; Kooli, Kaouther; Anh Ngoc Pham; University of Chester; Glyndwr University; Bournemouth University; Glyndwr University
      Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the resistance in management accounting practices (MAPs) in a developing economy in the manufacturing and service sectors in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach – Data collection was carried out using survey questionnaires in Vietnamese language. The questionnaires were distributed to selected respondents from the manufacturing and service organisations in Vietnam. Textual structuralism was used to analyse different categories of data, i.e. survey questionnaires, photos and qualitative texts obtained from the literature. Findings –The findings indicate that the usage of MAPs is more prevalent in the manufacturing sector than in the service sector. In addition, various traditional and contemporary MAPs are being used concurrently in Vietnam, which challenges the classical twofold dichotomy between mere socialism and mere neoliberalism. Research limitations/implications – The textual and photographic structuralism is used in this study to analyse primary data (geography and society and time) in a static setting. Hence, it does not analyse the research phenomena in a dynamic equilibrium setting to view the development of the research phenomena over time. Further research could expand data collection to include longitudinal and dynamic settings. Practical implications – MAPs can be implemented in economic systems ranging from command to capitalist systems. Although most countries in the world follow a mixed economic system, specific MAPs could be designed for a transitional economic system such as that of Vietnam. This affects both theorists and practitioners in Vietnam applying sustainable MAPs to boost a country’s competitiveness during transition. Originality/value – This study expands understanding of the conformity of MAPs in relation to economic systems under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) – the ruling party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Understanding the differences in the way these MAPs are utilised constitutes an essential area of the accounting discipline to advance MAPs in Vietnamese enterprises and progress theoretical development of sustainable MAPs.
    • Rethinking talent management in organizations: Towards a boundaryless model

      Foster, Carrie; Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2013-07-26)
    • A review of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches on crime analysis

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (The University of the Basque Country, 2015-02-02)
      This review aims to summarize spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches for crime analysis. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis is a process that obtains knowledge from geoand- time-referenced data and creates knowledge for crime analysts. In practice, knowledge needs vary amongst different situations. In order to obtain relevant types of knowledge, different types of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches should be used. However, there is a lack of related systematic review which discussed how to obtain related knowledge from different types of spatio-temporal crime pattern. This paper summarizes spatio-temporal patterns into five major categories: (i) spatial pattern, (ii) temporal pattern, (iii) frequent spatio-temporal pattern, (iv) unusual spatio-temporal pattern and (v) spatio-temporal effect due to intervention. In addition, we also discuss what knowledge could be obtained from these patterns, and what corresponding approaches, including various data mining techniques, could be used to find them. The works of this paper could provide a reference for crime analysts to select appropriate spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches according to their knowledge needs.
    • A review of the trend of microlearning

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Blanchard, Claire; Au, David; University of Chester; The Chinese University of Hong Kong; University of Wales Trinity Saint David (Emerald, 2020-12-17)
      Purpose Microlearning has been considered as a promising topic in work-based learning. This paper aims to review the trends of microlearning in terms of related publications and internet searches. Hopefully, the findings can serve as a reference for the education sector, government, business and academia, to promote, design and use microlearning. Design/methodology/approach In this study, two sets of analysis were conducted. Firstly, we analysed the publication trend of microlearning. Second, we analysed the trend of internet searches related to microlearning. More specifically, we analysed 14-years real-world data obtained from Scopus and Google Trends for the purpose. These data include the first relevant publication found in the database. Findings In total, 476 relevant publication have been identified during 2006 to 2019. According to the findings from analysing the identified publications, microlearning is a relevant new and emerging global topic involving authors, affiliations and funding sponsors from different countries. Moreover, many microlearning related publications were conducted from perspectives of elearning or mobile learning. Furthermore, we notice higher education was the most frequently mentioned education level in the identified publications. On the other hand, language learning (i.e. second language, vocabulary learning) had been mentioned more times in the titles and abstracts then other subject areas. Overall, the increasing trend of publications on ‘microlearning’ (as a knowledge supply) is in line with the established increasing internet searches of ‘microlearning’ (as a practical demand) in recent years. Practical implications From the work-based learning perspective, microlearning has been considered as one of the key topics in talent development topics. Policymakers, educators, researchers and participators, have the responsibility to explore how to promote, design and use microlearning to help people to learn in the right direction through valid knowledge with ethical consideration. Originality/value Although many works had been done on microlearning, there is a lack of comprehensive studies reviewing the trends of microlearning in terms of related publications and internet searches. This study aims to fill this gap by analysing real-world data obtained from Scopus and Google Trends - these data include the first relevant publication found in the database. We believe this is the first time that a study has been conducted to comprehensively review the development trends of microlearning. Hopefully, this study can shed some light on related research.
    • Role of attitudes in Brazil's country brand image

      Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia; Maheshwari, Vishwas; Mariutti, Fabiana; Konstantopoulou, Anastasia; University of Sao Paulo, University of Chester, Univeristy of Sao Paulo, Edge Hill University (Inderscience Publishers, 2018-10-09)
      For past three decades, the academic community has sought to advance the analysis relating to the image of several countries around the world. In relation, several studies have since been published on contemporary relevance of the image of a given country, and its subsequent effects on product evaluations and purchase intentions, among other behavioural outcomes. Nonetheless, despite the importance of the theory of attitude in evaluating the image of a country, the majority of papers in the field has focused on the cognitive component of attitude only, having the other components, affective and conative, not thoroughly being examined. As a result, with an aim to extend our current understanding into the role of attitudes on country brand image, this paper considers the conations more broadly such as, the predisposition for traveling, doing businesses, investing, working in the country, as well as, the willingness for either buying products made in the Brazil or shopping in the Brazil. Additionally, the purpose of this paper is to investigate Brazil's country brand image, based on the three-attitudinal categories "cognitive", "affective", and "conative". The methodological approach taken in this study is a quantitative method via an online survey. The study population consisted of the 427 undergraduate students at foreign institutions partaking agreements with a Brazilian public university. Attitudes were analysed using exploratory factor analysis to correlate potential impact on Brazils' country brand image. The country's image refers to a construct derived from the concept of attitudes, being comprised of cognitive, affective, and conative components. Results of this study indicate that the conative dimension received the highest scores of the respondents implying strong behavioural intentions in relation to Brazil's country brand image. It is also noteworthy that the technical dimension presented a more negative assessment in comparison to all other dimensions of Brazil's image, indicating that such a cognitive element to be adequately developed to highlight better brand assurance.