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Ethical Issues of Consumer BehaviourThis chapter will consider the ethical issues of consumer behaviour, and frame them in relation to one of the key challenges of travel and tourism of our current times: the fact that travel causes both positive and negative impacts at the same time, and that all travel and tourism decisions are subject to trade-offs. The first section sets up the chapter by reviewing ethical theory, defining ethical consumption and ethical consumerism, and outlining the nature of the ethical business and the ethical consumer, as a brief overview of ethical theory and an introduction to the ethical dilemma. The second section reviews the role of society’s different actors in ethically responsible behaviour and outlines reasons for co-operative systems failing to meet a shared responsibility. This includes definitions of ethical consumption and ethical consumerism (which provide the context in which ethical businesses and ethical consumers exist in), followed by an overview of ethical business activities and the ethical consumer. The final section provides an overview of ethical tourism and of the ethical tourist and determines the barriers to change which impede responsible consumer behaviour, with particular regard to climate change and tourism.
The War to End All Wars: Reflections on the First World War and Public AffairsEditorial As I write this many of us are reflecting upon the outbreak and impact of the First World War on Europe and the World. It was declared during the Summer of 1914 in Europe, when much decision making was limited due to leaders being on holiday and was almost inevitable as some have argued, as the trains had been booked and troops were mobilised. Clearly political communications were not good and European Continental Entente fell apart under the pressures of ambition, greed, nationalism, a lack of trust and public affairs systems not being in place to build cooperation and stop mass destruction. As Margot Asquith the wife of the British Prime minister put it “War! War! – everyone at dinner discussing how long the war would last. The average opinion was 3 weeks to 3 months” (24th July 1914, Page 4 in Brock and Brock, 2014). Of course others, Kitchener, amongst them said it would be a year. It was not a short war but a long one, that lasted for over four years and sucked in every part of the world and destroyed a generation of youth and leaders, which Europe has taken almost a hundred years to fully recover from. Let us reflect, draw lessons and do all in our power to ensure it is never contemplated again and that political decision making and public affairs is never as in inadequate again The themes within this general issue of the JPA focus on climate change, corruption, environmental policy, lobbying, political marketing, public affairs, renewable energy and water policy. A range of critical areas of study and operation both for the modern researcher and practitioner in international public affairs. Countries covered include Belgium, Eire, Switzerland, UK, US and of course organisationally interesting in trade and regulation terms the WTO. Followed by various articles
Understanding tourists’ reactance to the threat of a loss of freedom to travel due to climate change: a new alternative approach to encouraging nuanced behavioural change.This article proposes that reactance theory can be used to better understand how tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect their travel decisions. Reactance theory explains how individuals value their perceived freedom to make choices, and why they react negatively to any threats to their freedom. We study the psychological consequences of threatening tourist’s freedoms, using a range of projective techniques: directly, using photo expression, and indirectly, through collage, photo-interviewing and scenarios. We find that reactance theory helps to explain the extent of travel to two destinations: Svalbard and Venice, providing a nuanced understanding of how travellers restore their freedom to travel through three incremental stages: denying the climate change threat , reducing tensions arising from travel and heightening demand particularly for the most visibly threatened destinations. The theory suggests a fourth stage, helplessness, reached when consumers dismiss the value of destinations once they can no longer be enjoyed, but for which we, as yet, have no data. Reactance theory questions the validity of awareness raising campaigns as behavioural change vehicles, provides alternative explanations of why the most self-proclaimed, environmentally aware individuals travel frequently, and helps identify nuanced, socially acceptable forms of sustainability marketing, capable of reducing resistance to change.
Values and motivations in tourist perceptions of last-chance tourismTourists’ perceptions of climate change affect decisions and choices to visit destinations, which are disappearing because of climate change impacts. Values and motivations are two of the personal variables underpinning tourists’ decisions. The study addresses both the limited values research in tourism and reveals unconscious motives by using projective techniques. Projective techniques avoid some of the social desirability bias present in much ethical research. Choice ordering technique and the list of values assist by assigning importance, with narrative responses providing meaning. The construction technique builds a story from a stimulus, with photo-elicitation using participants’ personal holiday photographs. A sample of pre, during and post visit tourists to the Arctic and Venice were interviewed. Results, which provide a more nuanced understanding of how the personal variables of values and motivations are underpinned by selfinterest, inform policies and the messages designed to influence pro-sustainability behaviour.