• A review of composite product data interoperability and product life-cycle management challenges in the composites industry

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; McMillan, Alison J.; Swindells, Norman; Archer, Edward; McIlhagger, Alistair; Jones, Rhys; University of Chester, Glyndwr University, Ferroday Limited, Ulster University, Monash University, Axis Composites Limited (Taylor & Francis, 2017-10-30)
      A review of composite product data interoperability and product life-cycle management challenges is presented, which addresses “Product Life-cycle Management”, developments in materials. The urgent need for this is illustrated by the life-cycle management issues faced in modern military aircraft, where in-service failure of composite parts is a problem, not just in terms of engineering understanding, but also in terms of the process for managing and maintaining the fleet. A demonstration of the use of ISO 10303-235 for a range of through-life composite product data is reported. The standardization of the digital representation of data can help businesses to automate data processing. With the development of new materials, the requirements for data information models for materials properties are evolving, and standardization drives transparency, improves the efficiency of data analysis, and enhances data accuracy. Current developments in Information Technology, such as big data analytics methodologies, have the potential to be highly transformative.
    • Critical discourse analysis and the questioning of dominant, hegemonic discourses of sustainable tourism in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

      Lyon, Andrew; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; University of Chester; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2019-01-14)
      The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how critical discourse analysis (CDA), an under-utilised methodological approach, can be used to critically question the dominant, hegemonic discourses surrounding sustainable development and sustainable tourism development. The Waterberg Biosphere Reserve in South Africa provides the study context. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide the framework for review, sustainable development an integral part of this framework. This research study examines three SDGs in particular: discourses surrounding SDG 4 (quality education), SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth) and SDG 15 (life on land). Interviews (n=35) were conducted, in South Africa, with multiple stakeholder groups. CDA techniques were applied to data analysis to examine the sustainable development/sustainable tourism discourses attached to the SDGs under review. Neoliberal discourses linked to the economy, the environment, and a sustaining of the tourism industry through top-down planning and unequal power distributions emerged. Conclusions reflect both upon the opportunities utilising a tool such as CDA presents, along with the limitations to take account of in applying it. CDA applications which explore SDGs by listening to the voices of the poor are suggested as one avenue for further research.
    • Exploiting the social fabric of networks: a social capital analysis of historical financial frauds

      Manning, Paul; The University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-21)
      ABSTRACT The article will present two strategic cases of financial fraud that demonstrate the recurring reference points that conmen use to facilitate their white-collar crimes. The cases are constructed from the Ponzi and Madoff financial frauds, perpetrated by the most well swindlers of the twentieth and (so far) twenty-first centuries. The article will illustrate that their ‘modus operandi’ shared essential reference points, as it owed as much to their sophisticated socioeconomic insights and consequent exploitation of social capital processes, as it did to their sophisticated insights into criminal financial schemes and financial engineering. This article will demonstrate that social relations and the resources that inhere in these relations (social capital) can be negative. This contribution will add to an emerging field of analysis that considers deviant organizational behavior. For this article, the negatives of social capital will be described as its shadow aspect, which for financial fraud includes decision-making based on excessive in-group trust, as well as general credulity replacing due diligence. The article’s theoretical contribution will be to develop understanding of historical phenomenon, in this instance of financial fraud, with the application of the shadow side of the social capital concept.
    • Knowledge and competitiveness in the aerospace industry: The cases of Toulouse, Seattle and north-west England

      Hickie, Desmond (Taylor & Francis, 2007-01-19)
      The study reviews the development of the aerospace industry in three regions over a 60 year period by analysing the extent to which regional development has been dependent upon knowledge related factors. The aerospace industry is of particular interest (a) as an assembly and high-technology industry that inevitably involves a high level of inter-company collaboration, (b) due to its dependence on government support, (c) given the internationalized character of aerospace industry, and (d) for its development in various regions. The examples of Toulouse, Seattle and the north-west of England present interesting contrasts in their roles in knowledge generation and dissemination.
    • Understanding tourists’ reactance to the threat of a loss of freedom to travel due to climate change: a new alternative approach to encouraging nuanced behavioural change.

      Font, Xavier; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-16)
      This article proposes that reactance theory can be used to better understand how tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect their travel decisions. Reactance theory explains how individuals value their perceived freedom to make choices, and why they react negatively to any threats to their freedom. We study the psychological consequences of threatening tourist’s freedoms, using a range of projective techniques: directly, using photo expression, and indirectly, through collage, photo-interviewing and scenarios. We find that reactance theory helps to explain the extent of travel to two destinations: Svalbard and Venice, providing a nuanced understanding of how travellers restore their freedom to travel through three incremental stages: denying the climate change threat , reducing tensions arising from travel and heightening demand particularly for the most visibly threatened destinations. The theory suggests a fourth stage, helplessness, reached when consumers dismiss the value of destinations once they can no longer be enjoyed, but for which we, as yet, have no data. Reactance theory questions the validity of awareness raising campaigns as behavioural change vehicles, provides alternative explanations of why the most self-proclaimed, environmentally aware individuals travel frequently, and helps identify nuanced, socially acceptable forms of sustainability marketing, capable of reducing resistance to change.