• Are we any closer to sustainable development? Listening to active stakeholder discourses of tourism development in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa.

      Lyon, Andrew; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; Warnaby, Gary; University of Chester; University of Liverpool; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier, 2017-02-24)
      ‘Biosphere reserve’ is a United Nations (UN) designation stipulating that a region should attempt to follow the principles of sustainable development (SD). This paper adopts a stakeholder analysis framework to analyse the discourses of those tourism stakeholders who can actively affect SD in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve (WBR), South Africa. Adopting an inductive qualitative methodology generated multiple research themes which were subsequently analysed using critical discourse analysis (CDA) techniques. These themes indicate that seeking SD in biosphere reserves is problematical when there are distinct ideological differences between active stakeholder groups and power relations are unequal. Adopting CDA allows us to make some sense of why this is the case as the technique appreciates not only how tourism development occurs, but also why it occurs in a particular way. This paper adds to the literature on stakeholder analysis in tourism specifically and also has wider implications for SD more generally.
    • Do new first year students seek optimal distinctiveness in a new learning environment?

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; Acquaye, David; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      The learning experience of the first year student joining Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be examined from a number of perspectives and we focus upon the development of identity within that new learning environment. A conceptual framework is presented to argue that the tension between distinctiveness and social identification of the learner with the environment, contributes to how the learner engages in that environment through their processing style. A supporting empirical analysis explores this argument for a small sample of new first year students in two UK HEIs studying business modules. We determine that students exhibit cognitive dissonance through exercising a dominant processing style that is not primarily seeking to identify with that learning environment whilst also recognising the benefits of a more engaged processing style aligned with greater identification with their peer group. We propose therefore there is a need for the development of social identification capacity within new students.
    • Explaining the mixed outcomes from hosting major sporting events in promoting tourism

      Rojas-Mendez, Jose I.; Davies, Gary; Jamsawang, Jutatip; Sandoval Duque, José L.; Pipoli, Gina M.; Carleton University; University of Chester; University of Vienna; Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia; Universidad del Pacífico (Elsevier, 2019-04-15)
      We report on a study of the longitudinal effects of the 2014 World Cup on the host Brazil's overall image and for tourism intentions in three other countries (total sample = 207). Brazil's image declined significantly 2013–2014 on some but not all measures and improved amongst a significant minority. The mixed outcomes are explained by the moderating effects of respondent personality, their involvement in the event (rather than in the sport being hosted) and their perception of the news they had been exposed to. Those who held a relatively negative attitude towards Brazil before the event tended to be positively influenced by positive media, watching the closing ceremony and by searching for news about Brazil. Those relatively high in Openness to Experience were less likely to report a reduction in attitude. The net effect was an improvement in tourism intentions, mainly among those less likely to visit pre-event and a decline among most others.
    • Introducing experiences from African pastoralist communities to cope with climate change risks, hazards and extremes: Fostering poverty reduction

      Filho, Walter Leal; email: walter.leal2@haw-hamburg.de; Taddese, Habitamu; email: habtu1976@gmail.com; Balehegn, Mulubrhan; email: mulubrhan.balehegn@mu.edu.et; Nzengya, Daniel; email: dnzengya@yahoo.com; Debela, Nega; email: Nega.debela@gmail.com; Abayineh, Amare; email: abaytana82@gmail.com; Mworozi, Edison; email: emworozi@gmail.com; Osei, Sampson; email: sampsonosei96@gmail.com; Ayal, Desalegn Y.; email: desalula@gmail.com; Nagy, Gustavo J.; email: gnagy@fcien.edu.uy; et al.
      Abstract Pastoralist communities all over Africa have been facing a variety of social and economic problems, as well as climate risks and hazards for many years. They have also been suffering from climate change and extremes events, along with a variety of weather and climate threats, which pose many challenges to herders. On the one hand, pastoralist communities have little influence on policy decisions; however, on the other hand, they suffer to a significant extent from such policies, which limit their options for sustainable development and poverty alleviation. Also, the socio-cultural legacy of herders, and their role in food security and provision of ecosystem services, as well as their efforts towards climate change adaptation, are little documented, particularly in Eastern and Southern African countries. There is a perceived need for international studies on the risks and impacts of climate change and extreme events on the sustainability of pastoralist communities in Africa, especially in eastern and southern Africa. Based on the need to address this research gap, this paper describes the climate change risks and challenges that climate threats pose to the sustainability and livelihoods of pastoralist communities in eastern and southern Africa. Also, it discusses the extent to which such problems affect their well-being and income. Additionally, the paper reports on the socioeconomic vulnerability indices at country-level. Also, it identifies specific problems pastoralists face, and a variety of climate adaptation strategies to extreme events through field survey among pastoralist communities in a sample of five countries, namely Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The study has shown that the long-term sustainability of the livelihoods of pastoral communities is currently endangered by climate change and the risks and hazards it brings about, which may worsen poverty among this social group. Also, the study suggests that a more systematic and structured approach is needed when assessing the climate vulnerability of individual pastoral communities, since this may help in designing suitable disaster risk reduction strategies. Moreover, the paper shows that it is also necessary to understand better the socio-ecological systems (SES) of the various communities, and how their livelihoods are influenced by the changing conditions imposed by a changing climate.
    • Investor Regret, Share Performance and the role of Corporate Agreeableness

      Vohra, Shalini; Davies, Gary; Sheffield Hallam University and University of Chester (Elsevier, 2020-02-29)
      Drawing on regret and reputation literatures, the authors demonstrate how positive corporate associations can mitigate the effects of share performance on investor regret. Three studies are presented, the first involved the observation of six investment club meetings. The second is a survey of investors exploring some of the findings of the first study, specifically the relationship between investor regret and corporate associations. The final study uses an experimental design to test whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) messaging can influence regret in the context of disappointing share performance by influencing corporate agreeableness. The main findings are that a range of corporate associations are important to investors, more so than actual share performance, in their decision-making. Specifically, the more agreeable (e.g. trustworthy, supportive) the company is perceived to be, the lower will be any regret felt over share performance. Finally, CSR information was found to affect regret via an influence on agreeableness.
    • Making Great Minds Think Alike: Emerging market multinational firms’ leadership effects on targets’ employee psychological safety after cross-border mergers and acquisitions

      Rao-Nicholson, Rekha; Khan, Zaheer; Stokes, Peter; University of the West of England; University of Sheffield; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-10-09)
      Abstract This paper examines the impact of leadership on targets’ employee psychological safety (EPS), characterized by employees’ expectation of job and remuneration stability, during the cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging market multinational companies (EMNEs). The M&As by Indian and Chinese companies forms the empirical context of this study and the case survey method is used to examine the effect of leadership on EPS. The results show that the EMNEs’ leadership visibility during the M&A process has no impact on the EPS, whereas, the trust in the EMNEs’ leadership has positive effect on the EPS. The deal status has a moderating effect on the leadership visibility and positively affects the EPS. This research finds evidence of target country differences in terms of the effect of EMNEs’ leadership on EPS and limited evidence of such effect for acquirer nationality differences. Keywords: employee psychological safety, leadership, Emerging market multinational firms, M&As, India, China 
    • Structure of the public relations/communication department: Key findings from a global study

      Moss, Danny; Likely, Fraser; Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy; Ferrari, Maria; University of Chester; University of Ottawa; Purdue University; University of Sao Paulo (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      This paper reports on some of the core findings from a program of research focused on the structure of public relations/communication departments. It draws on a recent major global study that was sponsored by the former Research Foundation of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC). Analyzing the results from interviews with 26 Chief Communication Officers (CCOs) located in each of the five continents and from a survey sample of some 278 CCOs based in organizations headquartered across the globe, the study found quite notable variations in the type of departmental structures. No one dominant structural model emerged. In effect, each organization appeared to adopt a structural design to suit their individual circumstances, although there were nevertheless some reasonably common component functional elements within each department. CCOs identified those variables that they believed most influenced the design of the public relations department structure. While recognizing department structure is situation dependent, the evidence suggests that CCOs create hybrid structures unique to the circumstances. What was perhaps most surprising was that department structure did not appear to be strongly influenced by department size, other than in terms of the vertical structural design. In short, there do not appear to be any common formulas or prescribed solutions for how organizations should or do orchestrate the design of the public relations department structure, rather CCOs appear to be able to exercise a degree of latitude in determining what works best for them.
    • The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions

      Leal Filho, Walter; Doni, Frederica; Vargas, Valeria R.; Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Emblen-Perry, Kay; Boddy, Jennifer; Avila, Lucas V.; Hamburg University (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Worcester; Griffith University (Australia); University of Santa Maria (Brazil) (Elsevier, 2019-02-14)
      The demands placed on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to deliver sustainability initiatives alongside their long-standing social responsibility commitments has been recognised in literature. However, how these interrelate in practice continues to be relatively unexplored. The extant literature suggests that the integration of the two connected agendas can be problematic due to a range of factors, including a general lack of awareness or even misconceptions of the respective agendas. This paper explores the attitudes and practices related to the integration of social responsibility and sustainability initiatives at HEIs. Theoretically, this study highlights the ongoing relative positioning and importance of economic factors – as it relates to differentiation rather than integration – over others such as social responsibility and sustainability. The main implication of this study is that provide useful insights into how HEIs can closer integrate two contemporary but potentially competing agendas.
    • Trends in Scientific Publishing on Sustainability in Higher Education

      Filho, Walter L.; Wall, Tony; Salvia, Amanda L.; Frankenberger, Fernanda; Hindley, Ann; Mifsud, Mark; Brandli, Luciana; Will, Markus; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Passo Fundo; Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná-PUCPR; Positivo University-UP; University of Chester; University of Malta; University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz
      It is widely acknowledged that research and publications in peer reviewed journals offer important metrics in describing the academic outputs of higher education institutions on one hand, and their societal impacts on the other. Peer review is a well-tested method for quality control and has been successfully deployed over many decades in academic journals worldwide. But despite the fact that publications on matters related to sustainable development offer solid evidence of academic activity and excellence, there is a dearth of literature in this field. In order to address this need, the European School of Sustainability Science and Research (ESSSR) and the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) have undertaken the World Survey on Sustainability Publishing and Research in Higher Education (WSSSP-HEI). The paper has two main aims. The first is to document and showcase trends in scientific publishing on matters related to sustainable development. The second aim is to contribute to a greater understanding of this rapidly growing field, by describing the latest developments and the role played by some of the journals active in this area. Consistent with these aims, this paper focuses on publications on sustainability in higher education, describes the methods used in the study and some of its results. It can be seen that despite the intrinsic value of research on sustainable development in higher education as a whole, and of publications in this field in particular, such practices are not as widely developed as one could expect. This paper discusses the possible reasons and also outlines some measures via which higher education institutions may be able to take more advantage of the many opportunities that publishing on sustainability offers to them.
    • What content to post? Evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook communications in destinations.

      Molina, Arturo; Gomez Rico, Maria del Mar; Garcia, Evangelina; Lyon, Andrew; Loibl, Wilhelm; University of Castilla-La Mancha; University of Chester
      This study analyzes the marketing effectiveness of the social media posts of destination management organizations (DMOs) based on message format and content and the moderator effect of its message appeal in order to understand the users’ responses to destinations’ social media posts. The paper also discusses the most appropriate social media message strategy for Facebook campaigns for DMOs. The methodology is based on the content analysis of a sample of 3303 Facebook posts from 12 English and Spanish heritage city destinations. A Poisson regression was used to test the marketing effectiveness of the posts based on the number of Facebook reactions and message characteristics. Considering the particularities of each country, the results provide insights for DMOs for their social media message strategies. The results show that emotional messages tend to be more effective than informational messages in many cases, and several recommendations for Facebook usage are developed for the management of destinations through social media.