• Through the looking glass: the factors that influence consumer trust and distrust in brands

      Mal, Carmen; Davies, Gary; Diers-Lawson, Audra (Wiley, 27/09/2018)
      This paper aims to identify the factors responsible for creating brand trust and brand distrust among consumers. It uses a grounded theory approach to guide the conduct and analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews that yielded 120 descriptions of consumer-brand interactions. The 3 stage model that emerged shows a process whereby consumers prioritize product/service quality information and subsequently consider how the company behind the brand behaves towards consumers in the name of the brand, specifically behaviors signalling its integrity and benevolence. Finally, consumers consider characteristics of the company behind the brand (e.g. its financial status) and how it behaves in its own name towards other stakeholder groups (e.g. employees). The process for distrust mirrors that for trust, implying the two are polar opposites. The data also show that trust and distrust in a brand can co-exist but within separate domains.
    • Challenges and Issues facing Ethnic Minority Small Business Owners: The Scottish experience

      Ullah, Farid; Rahman, Zillur; Thompson, Piers; University of Chester (SAGE, 23/01/2018)
      Abstract Studies investigating the challenges and barriers faced by ethnic minority entrepreneurs have often concentrated on areas where there is a large supportive ethnic minority community. Less work has been conducted on the experience of those entrepreneurs operating in cities where such ethnic resources may be less widely available. Considered from the perspective of mixed embeddedness framework, this study uses face-to-face interviews with 25 ethnic minority entrepreneurs to gain a greater understanding of the constraints experienced by the starting and running businesses in one such location, the Scottish city of Aberdeen in the United Kingdom. Although issues found by previous studies such as access to funding remain an issue, the entrepreneurs indicated problems with access to labour as United Kingdom Border Agency’s immigration rules and tightening of the Post Study Work visa have had a profound effect on these entrepreneurs. The results imply that the weakening of the ethnic resource microsphere has not opened up opportunities which are exploited by the entrepreneurs, but they have still been exposed to external forces from the regulatory macrosphere. Both entrepreneurs and policymakers need to think carefully about the retention, training and recruitment of staff. In particular, the wider ramifications of immigration rule changes need to be considered, but also whether entrepreneurs need to be more open to the potential of recruiting non-ethnic employees and if so what support is required to achieve this.
    • Exploiting the social fabric of networks: a social capital analysis of historical financial frauds

      Manning, Paul; The University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 21/10/2018)
      ABSTRACT The article will present two strategic cases of financial fraud that demonstrate the recurring reference points that conmen use to facilitate their white-collar crimes. The cases are constructed from the Ponzi and Madoff financial frauds, perpetrated by the most well swindlers of the twentieth and (so far) twenty-first centuries. The article will illustrate that their ‘modus operandi’ shared essential reference points, as it owed as much to their sophisticated socioeconomic insights and consequent exploitation of social capital processes, as it did to their sophisticated insights into criminal financial schemes and financial engineering. This article will demonstrate that social relations and the resources that inhere in these relations (social capital) can be negative. This contribution will add to an emerging field of analysis that considers deviant organizational behavior. For this article, the negatives of social capital will be described as its shadow aspect, which for financial fraud includes decision-making based on excessive in-group trust, as well as general credulity replacing due diligence. The article’s theoretical contribution will be to develop understanding of historical phenomenon, in this instance of financial fraud, with the application of the shadow side of the social capital concept.
    • Family-Centred Motivations for Agritourism Diversification: The Case of the Langhe Region, Italy.

      Lyon, Andrew; Canovi, Magali; University of Chester, ESCP Europe (Taylor and Francis, 2019-08-07)
      This paper examines the motivations underlying family wineries' decisions to diversify into agritourism. Empirical evidence is provided by a sample of North Italian family wineries that have recently engaged in agritourism. While the majority of studies have adopted an economic-noneconomic dichotomy approach when examining the motivations for agritourism diversification, this paper highlights the limitations of this approach, outlines the complexity of motivations and argues for the need to take the family context into account. Drawing on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) framework, we offer a conceptual model and derive a set of propositions to show how family owners' motivations for agritourism diversification are primarily driven by family-centred goals. This paper thus contributes to a better understanding of diversification in general, and of farming families' motivations for agritourism diversification in particular. Practical implications at the European and regional level are discussed. KEYWORDS: Agritourism, wine tourism, diversification, socioemotional wealth, family business
    • Explaining the mixed outcomes from hosting major sporting events in promoting tourism

      Rojas-Mendez, Jose I.; Davies, Gary; Jamsawang, Jutatip; Sandoval Duque, José L.; Pipoli, Gina M.; Carleton University; University of Chester; University of Vienna; Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia; Universidad del Pacífico (Elsevier, 2019-04-15)
      We report on a study of the longitudinal effects of the 2014 World Cup on the host Brazil's overall image and for tourism intentions in three other countries (total sample = 207). Brazil's image declined significantly 2013–2014 on some but not all measures and improved amongst a significant minority. The mixed outcomes are explained by the moderating effects of respondent personality, their involvement in the event (rather than in the sport being hosted) and their perception of the news they had been exposed to. Those who held a relatively negative attitude towards Brazil before the event tended to be positively influenced by positive media, watching the closing ceremony and by searching for news about Brazil. Those relatively high in Openness to Experience were less likely to report a reduction in attitude. The net effect was an improvement in tourism intentions, mainly among those less likely to visit pre-event and a decline among most others.
    • Cognitive Influences shaping Grade Decision Making

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Emerald, 2019-04-01)
      Whilst the marking process is a well explored area, there is limited analysis of the influences that shape the intention grading decision at the point at which it is made. This can be particularly important when those influences may vary during the marking process making reflective analyses also difficult to explore. We draw upon a small sample of assessed scripts from two UK HEIs and undertake a factor analysis of potentially important influences that shape the grading decision at the cognitive point it is made. Our findings indicate that for the sample analysed, the markers most important influences were those associated with the normative view of marking although they also suggest potential influences from when the script was graded and the fatigue of the marker concerned. Our findings indicate that for the sample analysed, the markers most important influences were those associated with the normative view of marking although they also suggest potential influences from when the script was graded and the fatigue of the marker concerned. The work is confined to undergraduate management students and limited by the sample size.A factor analysis reveals the cluster of influences that contribute to observed grade outcomes, but provides less clarity upon relative interdependencies between those factors.There are additional constraints in that the constructed data collection tool was self administered. The data collection instrument (VBA Excel workbook) is we believe, quite innovative in capturing immediate cognitive reflections. It could be developed for other decision making research. We also believe there are staff developmental outcomes from the work, to sustain and enhance assurance in the grading process. As far as we can determine, research that has explored the influences shaping grading and mark allocation tends to be reflective or after the event. Our research data is constructed at the same time as the grade / mark is determined.
    • Do new first year students seek optimal distinctiveness in a new learning environment?

      Pownall, Ian; Kennedy, Victoria; Acquaye, David; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Elsevier, 2019-03-30)
      The learning experience of the first year student joining Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be examined from a number of perspectives and we focus upon the development of identity within that new learning environment. A conceptual framework is presented to argue that the tension between distinctiveness and social identification of the learner with the environment, contributes to how the learner engages in that environment through their processing style. A supporting empirical analysis explores this argument for a small sample of new first year students in two UK HEIs studying business modules. We determine that students exhibit cognitive dissonance through exercising a dominant processing style that is not primarily seeking to identify with that learning environment whilst also recognising the benefits of a more engaged processing style aligned with greater identification with their peer group. We propose therefore there is a need for the development of social identification capacity within new students.
    • Crowdfunding industry—History, development, policies, and potential issues

      Zhao, Ying; Harris, Phil; Lam, Wing; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-14)
      Crowdfunding has gained a great deal of attention from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the history and development of the industry and discusses different types of crowdfunding and their public policies. It is identified that the operation of peer‐to‐peer lending and equity‐ based crowdfunding is regulated by the Financial Authority; the reward‐based crowdfunding (RBC) and donation‐based crowdfunding (DBC) is yet to be regulated, neither in the United Kingdom or United States. The lack of rules and regulations in the latter two models highlights the burning issues such as potential fraud and mal- practice. Therefore, we suggest that it is timely to consider regulating the two types of crowdfunding possibly by governance mechanism with reporting requirements to keep track of the fund and to provide timely information. Additionally, it is advisable that practitioners to work on an agreed framework to establish industry standard, so potential investors can compare and assess the quality of projects easily. Finally, the management of crowdfunding platforms especially the RBC and DBC platforms should be improved. The ease of launching campaigns has made it difficult for both initiators and investors to succeed in the crowdfunding process. Further research to develop some form of assessment framework would be useful to both parties.
    • Understanding U.K. ethnic minority entrepreneurship from an enterprise culture perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Yang, Sen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-08)
      Objectives: This paper is aimed at examining the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) in the United Kingdom. The research aims to investigate the interplay between individuals and their institutional context (especially social and cultural context) and how the different institutional contexts then shape the different enterprise cultures, leading to differentiated ethnic business characteristics and consequently different levels of entrepreneurial activity in different ethnic communities. Prior work: Unequivocal evidence shows that certain ethnic groups display higher levels of entrepreneurial activity than their White counterparts. Despite the large amount of work that has been dedicated to ethnic minority entrepreneurship, there is a lack of coherent conceptual and analytical framework that addresses the links between different factors contributing to ethnic minority entrepreneurship. This paper takes forward the available empirical evidence and theoretical constructs into a conceptual and methodological framework to aid understanding of ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Approach: A process‐oriented research framework to investigate the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) is proposed rather than one oriented primarily towards the differentiation of characteristics. Results: A large‐scale national survey in the United Kingdom is adopted. The findings of the quantitative fieldwork will form the central part of this paper. . Implications: Understanding how and why certain ethnic groups are more entrepreneurial may assist the different parties in different ways. First, learning from the more entrepreneurial subcultures may contribute to the development and implementation of more effective public policies and efficient service delivery programmes. Second, advancing understanding of ethnic communities helps to support more informed decisions by policymakers and local support agencies through improved anticipation and greater understanding of responses. Third, it helps entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs to have a better understanding of the nature of their perceived barriers and constraints by demonstrating potential solutions successfully employed by other subcultures. Value: The conceptual and methodological development of this study has the potential to build the link between relevant parties and pave the way forward for ethnic entrepreneurship research.
    • Understanding UK Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship from an Enterprise Culture Perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Yang, Sen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-08)
      Objectives This paper is aimed at examining the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) in the United Kingdom. The research aims to investigate the interplay between individuals and their institutional context (especially social and cultural context) and how the different institutional contexts then shape the different enterprise cultures, leading to differentiated ethnic business characteristics and consequently different levels of entrepreneurial activity in different ethnic communities. Prior work Unequivocal evidence shows that certain ethnic groups display higher levels of entrepreneurial activity than their White counterparts. Despite the large amount of work that has been dedicated to ethnic minority entrepreneurship, there is a lack of coherent conceptual and analytical framework that addresses the links between different factors contributing to ethnic minority entrepreneurship. This paper takes forward the available empirical evidence and theoretical constructs into a conceptual and methodological framework to aid understanding of ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Approach A process‐oriented research framework to investigate the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) is proposed rather than one oriented primarily towards the differentiation of characteristics. Results A large‐scale national survey in the United Kingdom is adopted. The findings of the quantitative fieldwork will form the central part of this paper. . Implications Understanding how and why certain ethnic groups are more entrepreneurial may assist the different parties in different ways. First, learning from the more entrepreneurial subcultures may contribute to the development and implementation of more effective public policies and efficient service delivery programmes. Second, advancing understanding of ethnic communities helps to support more informed decisions by policymakers and local support agencies through improved anticipation and greater understanding of responses. Third, it helps entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs to have a better understanding of the nature of their perceived barriers and constraints by demonstrating potential solutions successfully employed by other subcultures. Value The conceptual and methodological development of this study has the potential to build the link between relevant parties and pave the way forward for ethnic entrepreneurship research.
    • The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions

      Leal Filho, Walter; Doni, Frederica; Vargas, Valeria R.; Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Emblen-Perry, Kay; Boddy, Jennifer; Avila, Lucas V.; Hamburg University (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Worcester; Griffith University (Australia); University of Santa Maria (Brazil) (Elsevier, 2019-02-14)
      The demands placed on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to deliver sustainability initiatives alongside their long-standing social responsibility commitments has been recognised in literature. However, how these interrelate in practice continues to be relatively unexplored. The extant literature suggests that the integration of the two connected agendas can be problematic due to a range of factors, including a general lack of awareness or even misconceptions of the respective agendas. This paper explores the attitudes and practices related to the integration of social responsibility and sustainability initiatives at HEIs. Theoretically, this study highlights the ongoing relative positioning and importance of economic factors – as it relates to differentiation rather than integration – over others such as social responsibility and sustainability. The main implication of this study is that provide useful insights into how HEIs can closer integrate two contemporary but potentially competing agendas.
    • Markets, Festivals and Shows: Sustainable Approaches to Gastronomic Tourism Through Collaboration

      Hindley, Ann; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      This chapter reveals how and why gastronomy has been used as a tourist attraction by markets, festivals and shows in Cheshire (England). It demonstrates how gastronomy can be used to increase visitor footfall and provide an economic stimulus in rural and urban areas. It considers how gastronomy can also be used to provide the solution to or raise the profile of social and environmental factors. The Nantwich Food Festival is used as the main case study, supported by examples from the Foodies Festival Tatton Park, The Royal Cheshire County Show and the Rode Hall Farmers’ Market. The aim is to understand how varying needs within the local and wider community were identified and then met through farming-related events, which expanded or metamorphosed into their present form with gastronomy used as a pull-factor. Contemporary trends towards healthy eating, sustainable consumption, experiences and collaboration are acknowledged. UK consumers are increasingly seeking local, organic, non-GM, free-range, free-from and quality assured produce that is ethically produced, safe and traceable. ‘Foodies’ and culinary tourists continue to be drawn to unique and authentic food experiences, while gastronomic tourism events increasingly boost visitor numbers through the regular appearance of reality TV and celebrity chefs.
    • Critical discourse analysis and the questioning of dominant, hegemonic discourses of sustainable tourism in the Waterberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa

      Lyon, Andrew; Hunter-Jones, Philippa; University of Chester; University of Liverpool (Taylor & Francis, 2019-01-14)
      The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how critical discourse analysis (CDA), an under-utilised methodological approach, can be used to critically question the dominant, hegemonic discourses surrounding sustainable development and sustainable tourism development. The Waterberg Biosphere Reserve in South Africa provides the study context. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide the framework for review, sustainable development an integral part of this framework. This research study examines three SDGs in particular: discourses surrounding SDG 4 (quality education), SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth) and SDG 15 (life on land). Interviews (n=35) were conducted, in South Africa, with multiple stakeholder groups. CDA techniques were applied to data analysis to examine the sustainable development/sustainable tourism discourses attached to the SDGs under review. Neoliberal discourses linked to the economy, the environment, and a sustaining of the tourism industry through top-down planning and unequal power distributions emerged. Conclusions reflect both upon the opportunities utilising a tool such as CDA presents, along with the limitations to take account of in applying it. CDA applications which explore SDGs by listening to the voices of the poor are suggested as one avenue for further research.
    • Getting past the language in the assessment of the International Student in UK HE

      Pownall, Ian (Queens English Society, 2018-12)
      A short positional paper on the language and assessment of international students.
    • A Preliminary Situational Analysis of the Queen's English Society

      Pownall, Ian; Chester Business School (2018-11-06)
      The Queen’s English Society (QES), founded in 1972, is a small charity organisation operating within the UK. This report was requested by the Organising Committee (OC) as a situational analysis. It therefore seeks to offer initial recommendations for the OC to reflect upon based upon a mix of secondary data, author observations and convenience sampling on competitive data. The findings and recommendations presented in the report are as follows: 1) Seek collaborative arrangements with complementary voluntary organisations that can provide access to much needed capabilities in both marketing and digital activities. 2) Develop an attractive ‘hard’ offer in the marketplace whilst also developing supportive strategies to maximise available human resources that are currently under-utilised. 3) Develop as a matter of urgency alternative revenue streams – with patrons and corporate clients in particular. 4) Secure a clear understanding of member motivations for joining and leaving QES. Presently there is no information available on the market segment served by the society. 5) Revisit the membership structure so that it aligns with the actual social group operations of QES
    • Role of attitudes in Brazil's country brand image

      Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia; Maheshwari, Vishwas; Mariutti, Fabiana; Konstantopoulou, Anastasia; University of Sao Paulo, University of Chester, Univeristy of Sao Paulo, Edge Hill University (Inderscience Publishers, 2018-10-09)
      For past three decades, the academic community has sought to advance the analysis relating to the image of several countries around the world. In relation, several studies have since been published on contemporary relevance of the image of a given country, and its subsequent effects on product evaluations and purchase intentions, among other behavioural outcomes. Nonetheless, despite the importance of the theory of attitude in evaluating the image of a country, the majority of papers in the field has focused on the cognitive component of attitude only, having the other components, affective and conative, not thoroughly being examined. As a result, with an aim to extend our current understanding into the role of attitudes on country brand image, this paper considers the conations more broadly such as, the predisposition for traveling, doing businesses, investing, working in the country, as well as, the willingness for either buying products made in the Brazil or shopping in the Brazil. Additionally, the purpose of this paper is to investigate Brazil's country brand image, based on the three-attitudinal categories "cognitive", "affective", and "conative". The methodological approach taken in this study is a quantitative method via an online survey. The study population consisted of the 427 undergraduate students at foreign institutions partaking agreements with a Brazilian public university. Attitudes were analysed using exploratory factor analysis to correlate potential impact on Brazils' country brand image. The country's image refers to a construct derived from the concept of attitudes, being comprised of cognitive, affective, and conative components. Results of this study indicate that the conative dimension received the highest scores of the respondents implying strong behavioural intentions in relation to Brazil's country brand image. It is also noteworthy that the technical dimension presented a more negative assessment in comparison to all other dimensions of Brazil's image, indicating that such a cognitive element to be adequately developed to highlight better brand assurance.
    • Brexit Background Report - Meadow Foods

      Pownall, Ian; Chester Business School (2018-08-15)
      This is a Brexit briefing paper written for Meadow Foods. It offers a context for the senior staff meeting (15th August 2018) and to provide insights into the current known state of Brexit negotiations so that it might inform Meadows’ senior staff on potential contingency planning and implications. The paper seeks to adopt the goals of scenario analysis that challenge and prompt mindsets so as to encourage senior staff to reflect on patterns of understanding and thinking. The paper adopts a largely political economic viewpoint whilst also stressing potential trade impacts. It does this specifically to convey an understanding of the negotiating positions adopted by the UK and European Union (EU). Where possible and feasible, specific market insights are offered.
    • Work-based and vocational education as catalysts for sustainable development?

      Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Emerald Insight, 2018-08-13)
      A louder call Over a decade ago, the United Nations’ established the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative to prompt a radical overhaul of how responsibility, ethics and sustainability are treated in higher education, particularly in relation to the business, management and organisation studies fields (Wall, 2017). By 2017, although there are now a range of radical responses available (Akrivou and Bradbury-Huang, 2015; Wall and Jarvis, 2015; Wall, 2016; Wall, Bellamy, Evans, Hopkins, 2017; Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017; Wall, Russell, Moore, 2017; Wall, Clough, Österlind, Hindley, 2018), evidence suggests that little as has changed on a global or even national scale (Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017), and there remain urgent calls at the highest levels of the United Nations for higher education to help promote responsibility, ethics and sustainability in education (UNESCO, 2016; Wall, 2018).
    • The MBA Student and CSR: A Case Study from a European Business School  

      Manning, Paul; University of Chester (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-07-19)
      Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to develop a deeper understanding of the CSR perspectives of MBA in the European context. The chapter will review literature from the US and Europe focused on business school ethics and the CSR. The chapter will then present the findings generated from research into MBA students’ ethics and CSR from a European business school research site. Methodology This was inductive research, and data was collected with qualitative semi-structured interviews. The research population was purposely selected from two cohorts of MBA students, one comprising P/T, the other F/T students. Findings The research confirmed that there are broad similarities between the US and Europe, in terms of a students’ experiences of business school scholarship and pedagogy. The research also confirmed however, that these European based students wanted a greater focus on CSR, for instance in terms of addressing the relationship between business and the environment, which students do not consider is adequately addressed in their programmes. Furthermore, and reflecting US experience, students reported at the completion of the MBA that they were conscious that they had become more focused on their individual ‘rational’ self-interest, with the goal of increasing their own material success. Not all of these students were content with this change, but they reported that it had been embedded within them, as a consequence of studying for an MBA. Social Implication US based research, and this example from the European context both point to the conclusion that there is dominant instrumental paradigm in HE business and management pedagogy. This paradigm needs to be challenged to restore society’s ethical and CSR expectations, and also to facilitate the moral education of more socially responsible MBA graduate managers. The research confirmed that students are very much in favour of CSR framed changes to the MBA programme Originality This chapter contributes to a developing research stream into MBA programmes and CSR in a European context.
    • The use of projective techniques to circumvent socially desirable responses or reveal the subconscious.

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester; University of Surrey (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-07)
      Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.