• Family-Centred Motivations for Agritourism Diversification: The Case of the Langhe Region, Italy.

      Lyon, Andrew; Canovi, Magali; University of Chester, ESCP Europe (Taylor and Francis, 2019-08-07)
      This paper examines the motivations underlying family wineries' decisions to diversify into agritourism. Empirical evidence is provided by a sample of North Italian family wineries that have recently engaged in agritourism. While the majority of studies have adopted an economic-noneconomic dichotomy approach when examining the motivations for agritourism diversification, this paper highlights the limitations of this approach, outlines the complexity of motivations and argues for the need to take the family context into account. Drawing on the socioemotional wealth (SEW) framework, we offer a conceptual model and derive a set of propositions to show how family owners' motivations for agritourism diversification are primarily driven by family-centred goals. This paper thus contributes to a better understanding of diversification in general, and of farming families' motivations for agritourism diversification in particular. Practical implications at the European and regional level are discussed. KEYWORDS: Agritourism, wine tourism, diversification, socioemotional wealth, family business
    • A review of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches on crime analysis

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (The University of the Basque Country, 2015-02-02)
      This review aims to summarize spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches for crime analysis. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis is a process that obtains knowledge from geoand- time-referenced data and creates knowledge for crime analysts. In practice, knowledge needs vary amongst different situations. In order to obtain relevant types of knowledge, different types of spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches should be used. However, there is a lack of related systematic review which discussed how to obtain related knowledge from different types of spatio-temporal crime pattern. This paper summarizes spatio-temporal patterns into five major categories: (i) spatial pattern, (ii) temporal pattern, (iii) frequent spatio-temporal pattern, (iv) unusual spatio-temporal pattern and (v) spatio-temporal effect due to intervention. In addition, we also discuss what knowledge could be obtained from these patterns, and what corresponding approaches, including various data mining techniques, could be used to find them. The works of this paper could provide a reference for crime analysts to select appropriate spatio-temporal pattern analysis approaches according to their knowledge needs.
    • FinTech (Financial Technology): What is it and how to use technologies to create business value in FinTech way?

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 2018-04-01)
      We define FinTech as a cross-disciplinary subject that combines Finance, Technology Management and Innovation Management. The definition had been presented to different audiences with different backgrounds, such as students and business professionals in various events, we found that the definition provides audiences better understanding on what is FinTech and its potential. Moreover, in order to discuss how FinTech would create value for businesses, we summarized various FinTech applications into four major categories: i) payment, ii) advisory service, iii) financing and iv) compliance. In addition, we also discuss what are the emerging technologies in FinTech and how they could possibility create business values. We believe that this study could serve as a reference for researchers, particularly from technology background, on how to identify and develop new Fintech solutions.
    • Work-based and vocational education as catalysts for sustainable development?

      Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Emerald Insight, 2018-08-13)
      A louder call Over a decade ago, the United Nations’ established the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative to prompt a radical overhaul of how responsibility, ethics and sustainability are treated in higher education, particularly in relation to the business, management and organisation studies fields (Wall, 2017). By 2017, although there are now a range of radical responses available (Akrivou and Bradbury-Huang, 2015; Wall and Jarvis, 2015; Wall, 2016; Wall, Bellamy, Evans, Hopkins, 2017; Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017; Wall, Russell, Moore, 2017; Wall, Clough, Österlind, Hindley, 2018), evidence suggests that little as has changed on a global or even national scale (Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017), and there remain urgent calls at the highest levels of the United Nations for higher education to help promote responsibility, ethics and sustainability in education (UNESCO, 2016; Wall, 2018).
    • Academic Integrity and Debt Literacy of Finance Students: A Cross-national Study

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Cwynar, Andrzej; Cwynar, Wiktor; Szuba, Przemysław; Ostrowska-Dankiewicz, Anna; Manuel Leite da Silva, Paulino; Martynyuk, Volodymyr; University of Chester, University of Economics and Innovation, Exacto Sp. z o.o, Politechnika Rzeszowska, ISCAP (Porto), Ternopil National Economic University (Mendel University in BRNO, 2018-03-22)
      The purpose of the paper is to assess – based on a cross-national survey – academic integrity and debt literacy of finance students vis a vis their non-finance peers. Financial crises can be driven by both unethical actions of finance professionals and low financial literacy on either side of financial markets, as shown by the recent global crisis. Therefore, we checked whether these two issues are addressed at universities, where finance students are prepared to become future financial professionals. Additional goal is to learn factors related to academic integrity and debt literacy among university students. The study is based on self-reports of 1,022 students from 5 countries on their academic integrity and debt literacy (convenience sample, self- administered survey). We used categorical regression models, along with non-parametric statistical tests, to analyse the survey responses. We did not find support for the hypothesis that finance students were more dishonest than their non-finance peers. Yet, we established that the debt literacy of finance students is alarmingly low, though higher than the debt literacy of other students. This raises many concerns regarding the preparedness of todayǯs students to make well-informed financial decisions and to perform as finance professionals in the future. The results of this study indicate shortcomings in the education of the finance elite and, therefore, call for a remedy.
    • A review of composite product data interoperability and product life-cycle management challenges in the composites industry

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; McMillan, Alison J.; Swindells, Norman; Archer, Edward; McIlhagger, Alistair; Jones, Rhys; University of Chester, Glyndwr University, Ferroday Limited, Ulster University, Monash University, Axis Composites Limited (Taylor & Francis, 2017-10-30)
      A review of composite product data interoperability and product life-cycle management challenges is presented, which addresses “Product Life-cycle Management”, developments in materials. The urgent need for this is illustrated by the life-cycle management issues faced in modern military aircraft, where in-service failure of composite parts is a problem, not just in terms of engineering understanding, but also in terms of the process for managing and maintaining the fleet. A demonstration of the use of ISO 10303-235 for a range of through-life composite product data is reported. The standardization of the digital representation of data can help businesses to automate data processing. With the development of new materials, the requirements for data information models for materials properties are evolving, and standardization drives transparency, improves the efficiency of data analysis, and enhances data accuracy. Current developments in Information Technology, such as big data analytics methodologies, have the potential to be highly transformative.
    • Explaining the mixed outcomes from hosting major sporting events in promoting tourism

      Rojas-Mendez, Jose I.; Davies, Gary; Jamsawang, Jutatip; Sandoval Duque, José L.; Pipoli, Gina M.; Carleton University; University of Chester; University of Vienna; Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia; Universidad del Pacífico (Elsevier, 2019-04-15)
      We report on a study of the longitudinal effects of the 2014 World Cup on the host Brazil's overall image and for tourism intentions in three other countries (total sample = 207). Brazil's image declined significantly 2013–2014 on some but not all measures and improved amongst a significant minority. The mixed outcomes are explained by the moderating effects of respondent personality, their involvement in the event (rather than in the sport being hosted) and their perception of the news they had been exposed to. Those who held a relatively negative attitude towards Brazil before the event tended to be positively influenced by positive media, watching the closing ceremony and by searching for news about Brazil. Those relatively high in Openness to Experience were less likely to report a reduction in attitude. The net effect was an improvement in tourism intentions, mainly among those less likely to visit pre-event and a decline among most others.
    • Understanding U.K. ethnic minority entrepreneurship from an enterprise culture perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Yang, Sen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-08)
      Objectives: This paper is aimed at examining the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) in the United Kingdom. The research aims to investigate the interplay between individuals and their institutional context (especially social and cultural context) and how the different institutional contexts then shape the different enterprise cultures, leading to differentiated ethnic business characteristics and consequently different levels of entrepreneurial activity in different ethnic communities. Prior work: Unequivocal evidence shows that certain ethnic groups display higher levels of entrepreneurial activity than their White counterparts. Despite the large amount of work that has been dedicated to ethnic minority entrepreneurship, there is a lack of coherent conceptual and analytical framework that addresses the links between different factors contributing to ethnic minority entrepreneurship. This paper takes forward the available empirical evidence and theoretical constructs into a conceptual and methodological framework to aid understanding of ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Approach: A process‐oriented research framework to investigate the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) is proposed rather than one oriented primarily towards the differentiation of characteristics. Results: A large‐scale national survey in the United Kingdom is adopted. The findings of the quantitative fieldwork will form the central part of this paper. . Implications: Understanding how and why certain ethnic groups are more entrepreneurial may assist the different parties in different ways. First, learning from the more entrepreneurial subcultures may contribute to the development and implementation of more effective public policies and efficient service delivery programmes. Second, advancing understanding of ethnic communities helps to support more informed decisions by policymakers and local support agencies through improved anticipation and greater understanding of responses. Third, it helps entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs to have a better understanding of the nature of their perceived barriers and constraints by demonstrating potential solutions successfully employed by other subcultures. Value: The conceptual and methodological development of this study has the potential to build the link between relevant parties and pave the way forward for ethnic entrepreneurship research.
    • Understanding UK Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship from an Enterprise Culture Perspective

      Lam, Wing; Harris, Phil; Yang, Sen; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-08)
      Objectives This paper is aimed at examining the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) in the United Kingdom. The research aims to investigate the interplay between individuals and their institutional context (especially social and cultural context) and how the different institutional contexts then shape the different enterprise cultures, leading to differentiated ethnic business characteristics and consequently different levels of entrepreneurial activity in different ethnic communities. Prior work Unequivocal evidence shows that certain ethnic groups display higher levels of entrepreneurial activity than their White counterparts. Despite the large amount of work that has been dedicated to ethnic minority entrepreneurship, there is a lack of coherent conceptual and analytical framework that addresses the links between different factors contributing to ethnic minority entrepreneurship. This paper takes forward the available empirical evidence and theoretical constructs into a conceptual and methodological framework to aid understanding of ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Approach A process‐oriented research framework to investigate the enterprise culture within different ethnic groups (i.e., the enterprise subcultures) is proposed rather than one oriented primarily towards the differentiation of characteristics. Results A large‐scale national survey in the United Kingdom is adopted. The findings of the quantitative fieldwork will form the central part of this paper. . Implications Understanding how and why certain ethnic groups are more entrepreneurial may assist the different parties in different ways. First, learning from the more entrepreneurial subcultures may contribute to the development and implementation of more effective public policies and efficient service delivery programmes. Second, advancing understanding of ethnic communities helps to support more informed decisions by policymakers and local support agencies through improved anticipation and greater understanding of responses. Third, it helps entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs to have a better understanding of the nature of their perceived barriers and constraints by demonstrating potential solutions successfully employed by other subcultures. Value The conceptual and methodological development of this study has the potential to build the link between relevant parties and pave the way forward for ethnic entrepreneurship research.
    • Demographic factors, personality and entrepreneurial inclination

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Guangxi Social Science Association, 2018-06-08)
      This paper looks at the demographic factors of undergraduate and postgraduate students and explore their psychological characteristics in different aspects that related to entrepreneurial intention. 根据选取的335名在校大学生和研究生,探讨4种人口统计学因素[包括性别、年龄、家庭背景、学院 (经管类和非经管类)]及6种心理特征(包括控制点、成就需求、模糊容忍度、风险偏好、自信和创新的)对创 业意愿的影响。结果表明:成就需求、模糊容忍度、自信和创新在区分企业家和非企业家时具有重要意义,而控 制点和风险偏好没有表现出显著差异。除这6种心理特征外,研究结果还强调了家庭背景和学院在创业意愿预 测中起决定作用。这项研究对我国教育体制政策制定产生了巨大影响,同时弥补了中国样本的缺失
    • Embracing business start-up programme in UK mainstream entrepreneurship education

      Lam, Wing; Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; University of Chester, Guangxi Normal University (Hunan University, 2018)
      The results of a research-informed-teaching project carried out by the author help to identify several key factors related to the content and delivery of a successful government initiative – New Entrepreneur Scholarship (NES, 2001-2008). This project aims to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these changes to undergraduate and postgraduate entrepreneurship programmes. The outcome of this research project helps to highlight deep-rooted issues related to entrepreneurship education and research.
    • The Correspondence between Design Thinking and Human Resource Management and Its Application

      Zhou, Jinbo; Tang, Xiao; Lam, Wing; Guangxi Normal University, University of Chester (Hebei GEO University,, 2018-04-15)
      As knowledge carrier of human resources is the most important resource of enterprise, how to better develop the staff’s creativity and improve the staff’s loyalty and motivation is the main target of the enterprise personal management. Through the analysis of human resource management face’s challenges in the new economy era, the article discusses the design thinking related principles, from three aspects of HRMP, all the staff and enterprise culture to discusses the application of design thinking in human resource management, come up with new ideas in the enterprise human resources management’s innovation and development, so as to provide references for the subsequent research and practice
    • Crowdfunding industry—History, development, policies, and potential issues

      Zhao, Ying; Harris, Phil; Lam, Wing; University of Chester (Wiley, 2019-03-14)
      Crowdfunding has gained a great deal of attention from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the history and development of the industry and discusses different types of crowdfunding and their public policies. It is identified that the operation of peer‐to‐peer lending and equity‐ based crowdfunding is regulated by the Financial Authority; the reward‐based crowdfunding (RBC) and donation‐based crowdfunding (DBC) is yet to be regulated, neither in the United Kingdom or United States. The lack of rules and regulations in the latter two models highlights the burning issues such as potential fraud and mal- practice. Therefore, we suggest that it is timely to consider regulating the two types of crowdfunding possibly by governance mechanism with reporting requirements to keep track of the fund and to provide timely information. Additionally, it is advisable that practitioners to work on an agreed framework to establish industry standard, so potential investors can compare and assess the quality of projects easily. Finally, the management of crowdfunding platforms especially the RBC and DBC platforms should be improved. The ease of launching campaigns has made it difficult for both initiators and investors to succeed in the crowdfunding process. Further research to develop some form of assessment framework would be useful to both parties.
    • The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Financing and Growth of Young and Established Technology-Based Small Firms in the United Kingdom in New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium book series

      Baldock, Robert; North, David; Ullah, Farid (emerald, 2015-11-20)
      This paper presents the findings of some recent UK research to assess the impact of the recent financial crisis on Technology-Based Small Firms (TBSFs). It reports on findings from an extended telephone survey with the owner-managers of 49 young and 51 more mature TBSFs, undertaken in 2010. It has commonly been thought that TBSFs face greater obstacles in accessing finance, than conventional SMEs. Even before the onset of the global financial crisis in 2007, research evidence indicated that the growth and development of TBSFs in the UK was hindered by a shortage of external finance. This is because banks have difficulty assessing the viability of new high technology business ventures due to information asymmetries, whilst other financiers such as venture capitalists and business angels may be unable to provide appropriate and sufficient funds on terms that are acceptable to entrepreneurs. It is therefore argued that the development of TBSFs is adversely affected by market failures and the existence of a finance gap, particularly affecting new and early stage TBSFs. Given the difficulties that SMEs in general have faced in obtaining external finance in recent years, it seems reasonable to expect that TBSFs have been particularly adversely affected by the financial crisis. Our research demonstrates that TBSFs exhibited a relatively strong demand for external finance over the 2007-2010 period, seeking finance mainly from banks, but also with younger TBSFs seeking business angel finance and innovation grants and more mature TBSFs seeking venture capital finance. The evidence is that both debt and equity finance became harder to access for TBSFs, particularly for early stage funding and for more R&D intensive firms. Moreover, where funding was offered, it was often insufficient or on unacceptable terms. The paper provides further evidence of a growing funding gap and concludes that the ability of TBSFs to respond to the economic recovery is being hampered by ongoing problems in obtaining the external finance needed for business growth.
    • The condition of smallness; how what it means to be small deters firms from getting bigger

      Anderson, Alistair; Ullah, Farid; University of Chester (Emerald, 2014)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain why most small firms remain small. A new conceptual framework – the condition of smallness – is proposed. Design/methodology/approach – A critical examination of the literature about the nature of being a small firm is first conducted. Employing an inductive analysis of responses from a survey of 2,521 small business owners about employment regulation, the nature and effects of smallness is examined. Findings – It was found that owners' choice making combines with perceptions about their resources to produce a condition of smallness. The condition of smallness is conceptualised as the circularity perceptions, attitudes and consequent practices that reflect lack of knowledge, time and capability. It is argued that this condition of smallness inhibits growth to create a wicked problem that explains why most small firms don't grow. Research limitations/implications – This work is largely conceptual, albeit the argument is grounded in, and illustrated by, empirical data. The findings may not be generalisable beyond this paper's data sets, but may be generalisable conceptually. Originality/value – The focus of much scholarly work has been on growth firms. Yet the typical small firm is excluded so that the issues of smallness are often overlooked. This paper, therefore contributes to understanding why small firms don't grow.
    • The ‘Fairness Paradox’ and ‘Small-Firm Growth Resistance Strategies’

      Ullah, Farid; Smith, Robert (Emerald, 2015-06-10)
      Purpose – We examine and explore why ‘Small-Businesses’ resist employing outside the immediate family and investigate the employee as an outsider and entrepreneurial resource. Design/methodology/approach – We review the literature on barriers to small-business growth concentrating on key empirical and theoretical studies. We use empirical data from the Federation of Small Business (FSB) in which informants commented on growth and employing outside the family. Findings – The findings suggest that small business owners adopt a polemical stance, arguing that a barrage of employment regulations deters them from employing outsiders because doing so brings trouble in terms of costs such as insurance, taxes, paperwork, leave (maternity and paternity) entitlement etc. They argue that employing from inside the family or ones peer group is much cheaper, convenient and less hassle. This ignores the entrepreneurial employee as a potential ingredient of growth and points to a paradox whereby the very values and emotions characterised by fairness of which of ‘smallness’ and ‘familialness’ is composed compound the issues of discrimination central to the debate. Research limitations/implications – We offer important insights for growth issues among small businesses and challenge the contemporary equilibrium in terms of small ‘family-orientated’ business philosophy relating to employment practices. Ideologically, the entrepreneur is an “outsider” fighting the establishment, yet paradoxically, in a small business context s/he becomes the establishment by employing outsiders. This results in the fairness versus unfairness paradox. Originality/value – We contribute to the existing knowledge and understanding on growth issues among small businesses by illuminating a paradoxical insider versus outsider tension.
    • Funding the growth of UK technology-based small firms since the financial crash: are there breakages in the finance escalator?

      North, David; Baldock, Robert; Ullah, Farid; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2013-07-04)
      This paper presents recent research assessing the impact of the financial crisis on young and established Technology-Based Small Firms (TBSFs) and considers whether their ability to contribute to economic growth is being affected by ongoing problems in obtaining external finance. It reports on original findings from a survey of 100 TBSFs undertaken in late 2010 as well as 20 in-depth interviews with a range of finance providers. The surviving TBSFs exhibited considerable demand for external finance since 2007, particularly for working capital and early stage R&D, sought mainly from banks, but also with younger TBSFs seeking business angel finance and innovation grants and more mature TBSFs seeking venture capital finance. However, both debt and equity finance have become harder to access for TBSFs, particularly for early stage funding and for more R&D intensive firms, hampering their growth potential. Where external finance has been available, the terms and conditions set by providers were often unacceptable to business owners. The paper concludes that the smooth operation of the finance escalator has proved difficult to achieve under recent financial conditions and identifies a number of breakpoints relating to TBSFs which government policy needs to address.
    • An Institutional Perspective on Entrepreneurship in a Conflict Environment: Evidence from Pakistan

      Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Farid; Warren, Lorraine; Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute (GIKI) Pakistan; University of Chester; Massey University, New Zealand (Emerald, 2016-06-02)
      Purpose In this paper, an institutional perspective is used to examine the different kinds of pressures on entrepreneurs manifest in a conflict environment. The study investigates how they respond to the conflict and establish legitimacy for their entrepreneurship in the challenging context of the north western areas of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach In this study, a qualitative approach is taken based on semi-structured interviews from 16 different firms in the SWAT valley. Findings The entrepreneurs undertake different strategies towards dealing with conflict and establishing legitimacy. These strategies are identified and examined in relation to the interactions between entrepreneurial behaviour and institutional pressures. Research limitations/implications Qualitative research on a small sample inevitably presents a limitation on the generalisability of this work. Further research could employ quantitative methods to address this issue. One particular location is studied, so future research could be carried out in other countries or regions with similar problems. Practical implications The study may have value for policy makers who need to know more about how to support ongoing businesses in conflictual regions. Social implications Better understanding of the needs of small business may in time contribute to a better business climate in conflictual regions. Originality/value A new dimension is added to institutional theory through its application in the very uncertain environment between all out war and ongoing violence, identifying the possibility of weak agency for institutional change. Further, the study contributes to the growing body of literature on entrepreneurship in conflict environments. Keywords: Conflict, institutions, SMEs, Pakistan, entrepreneur, legitimacy Paper Type: Research paper
    • Factors influencing ethnic minority entrepreneur’s decision in starting up: Some evidence from Aberdeen, Scotland.

      Ullah, Farid; Rahman, Md Zillur; Smith, Robert; Ahmed, Beloucif; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-11-15)
      ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that influences ethnic entrepreneurs decision making to start a new business in Aberdeen, Scotland. By doing so, this paper investigates the motives, drivers and attitudes of ethnic minorities towards entrepreneurship opportunities in Aberdeen, Scotland. Using qualitative data, we explore the motivational factors of 25 ethnic entrepreneurs by conducting in depth face to face interviews with them. Our results reveal some interesting motivational factors which influences ethnic entrepreneurs decision to dive in and starting up a new venture in Aberdeen, Scotland. Some of these include a positive mind set or attitude, self-efficacy, strong determination, market research knowledge (due diligence), good financial management, and knowing the local business culture along with others.
    • Getting past the language in the assessment of the International Student in UK HE

      Pownall, Ian (Queens English Society, 2018-12)
      A short positional paper on the language and assessment of international students.