• Innovation in family firms: an empirical taxonomy of owners using a mixed methods approach

      Salmon, Udeni; Allman, Kurt; University of Keele
      The increasingly competitive manufacturing sector has made innovation crucial for the continued survival of family-owned SMEs. However, family firm owners are highly heterogenous and their diverse characteristics influence their approach to innovation. The purpose of this paper is to provide solutions to two heterogeneity related innovation problems: first, the failure of generic innovation policy advice to address the specific types of family firm owners; and second, the difficulty for owners in understanding how their innovation approach compares to their competitors. The solution is to create a taxonomy of family firm owner-innovators which creates innovator types. This taxonomy addresses these two problems: first, the taxonomy enables policy advice to be tailored to a particular innovator types; and second, the taxonomy allows owners to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their particular approach to innovation.
    • Case Histories in Business Ethics by Megone, C. & Robinson, S. J., Book Review

      Manning, Paul; The University of Liverpool
      Book Review
    • The Contrarian’s Guide to Leadership, Book Review

      Manning, Paul; The University of Liverpool
      Book Review
    • Benchlearning; Good Examples as a Lever for Development, Book Review

      Manning, Paul; The University of Liverpool
      Book Review
    • The Entrepreneurial Personality: A Social Construction, 2nd ed., Book Review

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Book Review
    • Entrepreneurs and Friendship: the ties of Mutuality

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      The purpose of this paper is to present theoretically informed research into the significance of business friendships for entrepreneurs. The importance of social ties for economic success has been examined in depth from a number of academic perspectives. For example from a business ethics perspective, Jonathan Schonsheck has taken Aristotle’s classical analysis to argue that business friendships are an example of ‘incomplete friendships for utility’ (2000, pp. 897-910). Laura Spence has also argued that business friendships offer a positive contribution to the well-being of actors (2004). Network theory literature, which is extensive (see Nitin & Eccles, 1990, for an overview), has also considered business friendships and there is a further subset of network research focusing on entrepreneurial processes from a social network viewpoint (Blundel & Smith, 2001; O’Donnel, 2004; Shaw & Conway, 2000, pp. 367-383). Moreover, Mark Granovetter’s seminal article ‘The strength of weak ties’ (1973) can be thought of as theorising business friendships in network terms. Additional related research fields, such as social capital theory (Castiglione et al, 2008), have also considered the significance of social ties (business friendships) for success in the marketplace.
    • "On Mission and Leadership", Book Review

      Manning, Paul; The University of Liverpool
      Book Review
    • Economic Rationality and Corporate Social Irresponsibility: An Illustrative Review of Social Capital Theory.

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Purpose The purpose of this chapter is to argue that utility maximisa- AU:1 tion, taken from a narrow economic understanding of rationality, frames contemporary business school pedagogy and management theory. The chapter will illustrate this observation by detailing the rational framing assumptions in social capital literature. The chapter will argue that these framing rational notions foster a perspective that inclines towards excessive self-interest as well as a concomitant lack of fellow feeling or morality. Methodology Literature review Findings The chapter demonstrates that the narrow economic understanding of rationality that predominates as the framing notion in management theory tends towards amorality as it privileges individual self-interest. In consequence, the significance of ethics and cooperation are under-reported and under-emphasised which leads to CSI. These AU:2 observations are discussed with reference to social capital theory. Research implications To consider the significance of the underacknowledged rational background or framing perspectives in distorting theory and empirical research in social capital literature, and more generally in contemporary management literatures and business school pedagogy. Social implication There is a need to re-examine and challenge the validity and application of rational notions in contemporary management literatures and pedagogy. Originality The chapter identifies that a narrow utility maximising understanding of rationality frames and therefore inhibits current management literatures and pedagogy, including social capital literature.
    • The dark side of social capital: Lessons from the Madoff case

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Book chapter exploring the dark-side of the social capital concept.
    • Putnam and Radical Socio-Economic Theory.

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the social capital treatment of Robert Putnam, the most influential conceptual theorist. The paper will detail how Putnam’s treatment of social capital has evolved, examine the arguments of his critics and will also critique his socio-economic analysis. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken is a literature review that investigates Putnam’s social capital understanding and considers the reasons why this conceptual treatment “touched a nerve” and proved so influential and adaptable. Findings – Putnam’s social capital treatment belongs to a socio-economic communitarian tradition that can be traced to de-Tocqueville, which offers an alternative to both mainstream free market ideology and to leftwing socio-economics. Originality/value – The originality of this paper is to identify Putnam as a radical in a methodological sense, reinvigorating a Burkean, consensual interpretation of socio-economics. The value of this paper is to offer a critique of Putnam’s interpretation of social capital. Keywords Social capital, Social economics, Economic theory Paper type Literature review
    • Explaining and Developing Social Capital for Knowledge Management Purposes.

      Manning, Paul; Leeds Metropolitan University
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the growing literature bridging social capital (SC) and knowledge management (KM). The paper seeks to identify the causal factors for this recent research into the connection between SC and KM, and also to explicate the relationship between the most relevant neo-capital theories and KM. Further, the paper aims to argue that Granovetter’s and Coleman’s socially embedded understanding of market activity is the most relevant for examining the SC and KM interface. Finally, the paper seeks to offer guiding approaches drawn from SC literature for enhancing KM performance. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews the SC literature from a KM perspective. Findings – First, interest in SC from KM scholars is driven by a number of inter-linked causal factors. Second, SC is significant for KM purposes and can be understood as being complementary to and parallel with other intangible capitalisations, such as human capital (HC) and intellectual capital (IC). Third, there are a number of guiding notions that organisations can adapt to construct and enhance SC for KM purposes. However, SC processes are complicated and context-dependent and therefore resistant to micro-management and ‘‘one size fits all’’ prescriptions. Originality/value – The paper examines the broader context of the SC and KM interdisciplinary meeting place. It argues for an ‘‘embedded’’ theoretical understanding of SC that is most relevant for KM performance, and also explicates the parallel nature of neo-capital theories from a KM perspective. The paper also suggests a number of guiding approaches that organisations can adapt to analyse and develop their SC for KM purposes.
    • An exploratory study of the FinTech (Financial Technology) education and retraining in UK

      Sung, Anna; Leong, Kelvin; Sironi, Paolo; O'Reilly, Tim; Mcmillan, Alison; University of Chester, IBM Industry Academy, Sage Qualifications, Glyndwr University
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore two identified knowledge gaps: first, the identification and analysis of online searching trends for Financial Technology (FinTech)-related jobs and education information in UK, and second to assess the current strength of the FinTech-related job distribution in terms of job titles and locations in UK, job market in UK and what is required to help it to grow. Design/methodology/approach Two sets of data were used in this study in order to fill the two identified knowledge gaps. First, six years’ worth of data, for the period from September 2012 to August 2018 was collected from Google Trends. This was in the form of search term keyword text. The hypothesis was designed correspondingly, and the results were reviewed and evaluated using a relevant statistical tool. Second, relevant data were extracted from the “Indeed” website (www.indeed.co.uk) by means of a simple VBA programme written in Excel. In total, the textual data for 500 job advertisements, including the keyword “FinTech”, were downloaded from that website. Findings The authors found that there was a continuously increasing trend in the use of the keyword “fintech” under the category “Jobs and Education” in online searching from September 2012 to August 2018. The authors demonstrated that this trend was statistically significant. In contrast, the trends for searches using both “finance” and “accounting” were slightly decreased over the same period. Furthermore, the authors identified the geographic distribution of the fintech-related jobs in the UK. In regard to job titles, the authors discovered that “manager” was the most frequently searched term, followed by “developer” and “engineer”. Research limitations/implications Educators could use this research as a reference in the development of the portfolio of their courses. In addition, the findings from this study could also enable potential participators to reflect on their career development. It is worth noting that the motivations for carrying out an internet search are complex, and each of these needs to be understood. There are many factors that would affect how an information seeker would behave with the obtained information. More work is still needed in order to encourage more people to enter to the FinTech sector. Originality/value In the planning stage prior to launching a new course educators often need to justify the market need: this analysis could provide a supporting rationale and enable a new course to launch more quickly. Consequently, the pipeline of talent supply to the sector would also be benefitted. The authors believe this is the first time that a study like this had been conducted to explore specifically the availability and opportunities for FinTech education and retraining in UK. The authors anticipate that this study will become the primary reference for researchers, educators and policy makers engaged in future research or practical applications on related topics.
    • Financial Technology for Sustainable Development

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Teissier, Cedric; University of Chester, Finexkap
      N/A
    • Emerging Technologies in Education for Sustainable Development

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Cunningham, Stuart; University of Chester; Manchester Metropolitan University
      N/A
    • The importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management

      Sung, Anna; Williams, Taylor; Flora, Sun; Leong, Kelvin; Andoniou, Constantine; University of Chester
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management and to encourage future discussion on related topic. Design/methodology/approach – Hypothesis was designed building on relevant literatures. Quantitative discrete data were collected through a mini-test activity in a lecture from students. The results were reviewed and evaluated by relevant statistical tool. Findings – The authors found consistent statistical significance results in the mini-test. The findings support that users prefer to choose the financial data presented in cool colours in business management context. Research limitations/implications – Gaining the understanding of colour’s influence on decision making and behaviour is subjected to complexity. There are many other contextual factors should be taken into consideration in practice. Although the design of the mini-test in this study is relatively simple, it still provides clues for the issue. With the discussions and findings of this paper, the authors shed some light on the direction of potential uses of colour on the communication of financial data in management context. The findings could also be used by management educators to facilitate related discussions among students regarding the complexity of business communication and the importance of perception in decision making. For example, decision making could be affected by various factors (such as colour) outside verbal and text. Originality/value – Managers often need to use financial data in communication for various purposes in work place. The authors believe this is the first time that a study like this had been conducted to specifically review and discuss the importance of colour on the communication of financial data in management. Hopefully, the work reported in this paper could be viewed as reference for management educators, researchers and managers in future research or practical applications on related topics.
    • The ethical challenge of Big Tech’s “disruptive philanthropy”

      Manning, Paul; Baker, Nigel Timothy; Stokes, Peter; The University of Chester, The Thomson Institute, De Montfort University
      This article provides a review of research into global philanthropy and the disruptive practices of new technology companies. In this article we detail how “Big Tech” has created a new marketization of philanthropy, based on its sectoral values of innovation, entrepreneurialism and focus on financial and performance metrics. Consequently, we argue for a new ontology of philanthropy that acknowledges marketization as its guiding principle. The study examines and compares different market-focused, philanthropic paradigms, which have evolved through the business values of Big Tech and examines their moral motivations. The topic is viewed through the lens of ‘hybrid organizations’; a model for non-profit entities and social businesses which, in turn, are seeking a market-oriented pathway of balancing the twin demands of managing mission and money. A conceptual framework is then provided to inform practitioners in non-profit organizations about the issues and risks of engaging with the new types of philanthropy, to which we collectively refer as ‘disruptive philanthropy’. The article concludes by recommending further research into the ethics of Big Tech to understand the true motivations behind its philanthropic practices at a time when the sector is under intense governmental and media scrutiny.
    • Soft Power and International Political Marketing

      Sun, Henry; harris, Phil; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-06-28)
      Joseph Nye defines soft power as the ability of “getting others to want the outcomes that you want” through persuasion and attraction of one’s ideas or the ability to set the political agenda to shape the preferences of others. Nye further argues that in the international arena, besides the military and economic power, there is a third dimension which is characterized as indirect power, cooptive power, and intangible power in contrary to direct power, coercive power, and tangible power. Nye states, “The ability to establish references tends to be associated with intangible power resources such as culture, ideology and institutions. This dimension can be thought of as soft power, in contrast to the hard command power usually associated with tangible resources like military and economic strength.” Henry Sun defines international political marketing as following: International Political Marketing seeks to establish, maintain and enhance long-term relations among nation-states, political actors and organizations, so that the objectives of stakeholders involved are met. This is done by mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises through cross-border and cross-culture marketing strategy and management
    • Family-owned businesses in the global marketplace: A taxonomy for generational evolution and directions for future research

      Ozdemir, Ozlem; harris, Phil; University of Chester; Regents University, London
      The words “global company” often conjure up images of large, publicly-traded organizations, while the words “family-owned business” may evoke images of small, tightly held companies. However, some of the world’s largest global companies are actually family-owned businesses. Global marketing research has paid little attention to investigating decision making and behavior in family-owned businesses. It has paid even less attention to the important role that women play in leading family-owned businesses. This chapter illuminates these gaps. The current study builds on extant theory about family business cultural impacts on succession using a multidimensional model of succession that adapts stewardship theory while including the previously under-researched perspectives of family-owned businesses. Keywords: Family-Owned Business, Succession, Women
    • Shaping the future : A study using scenario analysis

      Pownall, Ian; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-12-31)
      Scenario analysis requires the integration of a diversity of concepts, views, data and practices for organisations. It is an analysis that draws upon current understanding of organizational and environmental contexts but also one that reflects creativity in the construction of future scenarios within which organisations could compete. This case study explores the application of scenario analysis using the ‘Field Anomaly Relaxation’ (FAR) technique by a group of regional stakeholders to understand and prioritize emergent futures in a UK seaside town. The discussion is focused on two phases of that research project; the series of stakeholder meetings to prioritize emergent futures and the factors shaping them; final analytical and interpretive phase that generated four distinctive scenarios which were used to frame ongoing strategic planning by local and regional organisations.
    • Machiavelli at 550 — Reflections on his contribution to management, marketing, and public affairs

      Harris, Phil; University of Chester
      With the U.K. Elections upon us and manoeuvring for the U.S. Presidential Elections in November 2020 already started, it is time to reflect on power. It is always good to call upon Machiavelli to help make sense of the issues and people in the political arena. It is 550 years since Niccolo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469 of a very old Tuscan family. The young Machiavelli had a vigorous humanist education, was taught Latin by good teachers, and had access to the best of classical history and ideas. Little is known about the rest of his life until at the surprisingly young age of 29 in 1498, he was recognised by the Signory for his administrative talents and was elected to the responsible post of Chancellor of the Second Chancery. He is also given duties in the Council of the Ten of Liberty and Peace (formerly Ten of War), which dealt with Florentine foreign affairs.