• Beyond learning by doing: an exploration of critical incidents in outdoor leadership education

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; UCLan and University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2015-08-03)
      This paper argues that outdoor leader education and training is generally characterized by the development of procedural skills at the expense of equally crucial but usually ignored, ‘soft skills’ (for example, contextualized decision making and reflection). Consequently, this risks producing practitioners with a potentially unsophisticated and limited awareness of the holistic outdoor environments and situations and an over-reliance on ‘how to’ skills which may, in turn, impede the development of links between theory and practice. This paper analyses a research project that undertook the application of critical incident theory to a study of undergraduates in a United Kingdom outdoor leadership degree programme in an attempt to promote and examine the processes of developing ‘softer’ reflective skills in the students. In addition, the paper’s argument and data, while not directly dealing with wider audiences (clients and national qualification bodies), provide inferences and allusions to potential consequent enhanced development and benefits of heightened reflective understanding and practice to these groups. Methodologically, the study examines a range of critical incidents in a purposive homogenous sample of 20 students from a vocational undergraduate outdoor studies course. Students were asked to identify and reflect on critical incidents in practice settings of their own choice. These settings spanned a range of contexts from outdoor centre work in the United Kingdom to assistant leadership positions on educational expeditions in remote locations overseas. Qualitative data analysis was carried out through the use of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The findings supported the conceptual premise and indicated that outdoor leadership programmes need to develop a broader and holistic skills base rather than persist with the extant predilection towards primarily physical and technical skills. Allusion is made to the suggestion that this could ultimately potentially enhance effectiveness with clients and employability prospects. In summary, a focus on critical incident method early in education and training processes has the potential to equip practitioners with the holistic and complex set of skills required in the contemporary outdoor workplace.
    • Business and organizational development: Global perspectives, cultures and domains

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2014)
      Recent years have seen an acceleration of alternative approaches to, and appreciations of, business and organisational development. Approaches focusing on cognitive elements, behavioural aspects and critical perspectives have emerged and become established in the mainstream. In turn, these approaches have facilitated and supported alternative domains, such as organisational learning, sustainability, social and environmental responsibility and gender issues. Contemporary organisational leaders are realising that, in order to cope with the complex and chaotic environments they face, alternative approaches and considerations are needed. This special issue provides space to explore and examine a number of these contexts through specific domains and issues. It achieves this by developing a range of perspectives, both epistemologically and geographically related, and presents case studies that focus on a range of emerging markets, sectors and approaches.
    • Dark Open Innovation in a Criminal Organizational Context: the Case of Madoff’s Ponzi Fraud

      Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Visser, Max; Rowland, Caroline A.; Tarba, Shlomo Y.; University of Chester; De Montfort University; Radboud University; University of Central Lancashire; University of Birmingham (Emerald, 2018-06-11)
      his paper investigates the processes of open innovation in the context of a fraudulent organization and, using the infamous Bernie L. Madoff Investment Securities (BLMIS) fraud case, introduces and elaborates upon the concept of dark open innovation. The paper’s conceptual framework is drawn from social capital theory, which is grounded on the socio-economics of Bourdieu, Coleman and Putnam and is employed in order to make sense of the processes that occur within dark open innovation. Given the self-evident access issues, this paper is necessarily based on archival and secondary sources taken from the court records of Madoff v New York—including victim impact statements, the defendant’s Plea Allocution, and academic and journalistic commentaries—which enable the identification of the processes involved in dark open innovation. Significantly, this paper also represents an important inter-disciplinary collaboration between academic scholars variously informed by business and history subject domains. Although almost invariably cast as a positive process, innovation can also be evidenced as a negative or dark force. This is particularly relevant in open innovation contexts, which often call for the creation of extended trust and close relationships. This paper outlines a case of dark open innovation. A key implication of this study is that organizational innovation is not automatically synonymous with human flourishing or progress. This paper challenges the automatic assumption of innovation being positive and introduces the notion of dark open innovation. Although this is accomplished by means of an in-depth single case, the findings have the potential to resonate in a wide spectrum of situations. Innovation is a concept that applies across a range of organization and management domains. Criminals also innovate; thus, the paper provides valuable insights into the organizational innovation processes especially involved in relation to dark open innovation contexts. It is important to develop and fully understand the possible wider meanings of innovation and also to recognise that innovation—particularly dark open innovation—does not always create progress. The Caveat Emptor warning is still relevant. The paper introduces the novel notion of dark open innovation.
    • Elite interviewing and the role of sector context: An organizational case from the football industry

      Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Emerald, 2012-08-31)
      Purpose – Elite individuals and groups constitute a distinctive, upper echelon and social grouping. In various shapes and forms, elites have been an enduring feature of many societies and in the contemporary era, the concept of elites and the related notion of celebrity have seen fresh interconnected developments. The purpose of the paper is to consider the literature on elite interviewing both generally and more specifically against a backdrop of an organization and management disciplinary setting. Importantly the paper examines and surfaces the role of context in relation to elite interviewing. In order to consider and illustrate this phenomenon the argument engages with the organizational environment and behaviours of the English professional football industry with the intention of offering fresh perspectives into the form and function of context in elite interviewing. Design/methodology/approach – The paper's examination of the literature feeds into the fieldwork stage which employs an inductive and interpretivistic methodology. The key method employed within the methodology is semi‐structured interviews tailored for elites and conjoined with participant observation. The approach is applied within an elite interviewing process in the specific organizational context of the professional football industry. Findings – The paper concludes that in relation to elite interviewing, there is scope to consider a contextualisation and recontextualisation of elite interviewing processes through the development of a potential range of novel conceptual and theoretical models. By engaging with interview frameworks, the paper draws heightened attention to the possibility of generating typologies for, and categorising elites operating within, those given contexts. The paper underlines the established notion of inter‐differences between elites in different sectors, and, more importantly, surfaces intra‐differences in elites within sectors. This issue of diversity of elites is currently not a factor that is clearly acknowledged or addressed in the extant literature. In the case of the present study this novel analysis and illustration are undertaken within the English professional football industry. Therein, the argument exemplifies how elites and elite interviewing may be understood in this specific context through the concepts of process, power and “positionality” and “knownness” identifying, for example, issues of arrogance, amateurism and the phenomenon of insider‐outsider. Social implications – Elites and celebrities constitute longstanding phenomena that have endured into the twenty‐first century and, as a consequence, merit on‐going close analysis. Equally replete in contemporary life are the multifarious organizational and managerial domains and contexts in which given elites reside and operate. Given the potential impact of elites and their actions on people, it would seem worthwhile and important to seek heightened understanding of them. The professional football industry is one particular instance for study given that it is high profile, represents a substantial business sector in its own right, and, plays a central role in the lives of many members of the public. Originality/value – The work is an original study of the contextual issues surrounding interviewing elites in the organizational and management setting of the English professional football industry. In a more specific sense, the paper contributes insights into the issue of typologies within elite interviewing, the role of elites in English professional football and makes progress in redressing a general paucity of commentary on elite in the overall business and management research methodology literature.
    • Entrepreneurial stories, narratives and reading – Their role in building entrepreneurial being and behaviour

      Manning, Paul; Stokes, Peter; Rodgers, Peter; Shlomo Yedidia, Tarba; University of Chester; De Montfort University; University of Birmingham; The University of Leicester (Sage, 2019-12-03)
      The article undertakes an innovative study focusing on the choices and manners of entrepreneur reading as a means of developing resilience and responding to the challenges and crises that entrepreneurial activity presents. The article explores predominant patterns of entrepreneurial learning and challenges the assumptions on which these are grounded. This allows original insights and perspectives to be developed with which to enhance understanding of entrepreneurial sense-making. The study employs a qualitative methodology involving purposive semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs to determine the ways in which they identify, engage with and operationalize entrepreneurial behaviour based on their reading. The ensuing fieldwork provided a range of findings and discussion themes centred on dynamic and non-linear behaviour, reading and transformative learning events, and social interaction and reading. The study concludes with a range of observations on the power of reading in assisting entrepreneurs to develop resilience and behaviours for coping with the challenges and crises which are an integral aspect of entrepreneurial activity.
    • The ethical challenge of Big Tech’s “disruptive philanthropy”

      Manning, Paul; Baker, Nigel Timothy; Stokes, Peter; The University of Chester, The Thomson Institute, De Montfort University (Taylor and Francis, 2020-08-31)
      This article provides a review of research into global philanthropy and the disruptive practices of new technology companies. In this article we detail how “Big Tech” has created a new marketization of philanthropy, based on its sectoral values of innovation, entrepreneurialism and focus on financial and performance metrics. Consequently, we argue for a new ontology of philanthropy that acknowledges marketization as its guiding principle. The study examines and compares different market-focused, philanthropic paradigms, which have evolved through the business values of Big Tech and examines their moral motivations. The topic is viewed through the lens of ‘hybrid organizations’; a model for non-profit entities and social businesses which, in turn, are seeking a market-oriented pathway of balancing the twin demands of managing mission and money. A conceptual framework is then provided to inform practitioners in non-profit organizations about the issues and risks of engaging with the new types of philanthropy, to which we collectively refer as ‘disruptive philanthropy’. The article concludes by recommending further research into the ethics of Big Tech to understand the true motivations behind its philanthropic practices at a time when the sector is under intense governmental and media scrutiny.
    • Exploring the impact of Investors in People: A focus on training and development, job satisfaction and awareness of the Standard

      Smith, Simon M.; Stokes, Peter; Wilson, John F.; University of Central Lancashire ; University of Chester ; Newcastle University (Emerald, 2014-04-01)
      Purpose – Investors in People (IiP) is a UK government-backed scheme aimed at enabling organizations to develop their training and development cultures and, thereby, their competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions and understandings of individuals in six organizations undergoing IiP to explore recent claims within the literature concerning the Standard’s impact on training and development, and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Data from 35 semi-structured interviews among managers and employees of six diverse organizations were gathered and analysed. Findings – The paper identifies three key findings in response to recent literature: first, the findings do not support a causal relationship between IiP and training and development; second, the findings do not support a causal relationship between IiP and job satisfaction; third, and to support the other findings, the results indicate little employee awareness of IiP. Practical implications – If IiP – UKCES are to realize the potential of their Standard, it needs to find a way to ensure it has a direct and positive impact on skill development. Originality/value –While much of the previous research has identified associations between IiP and various outcomes, this paper seeks to identify the extent to which these associations can be considered to be causal.
    • Flexible Systems in HR

      Bamel, Umesh; Stokes, Peter; Indian Institute of Management Raipur; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-02-26)
      Research on the concept of ‘flexibility’ has produced a substantive scholarly in recent decades and has evolved as a focal area of management research (Mønsted 1991; Sushil 1994; Skipper et al. 2014; Krishna et al. 2015). According to Sushil (2001) ‘Flexibility offers freedom of choice and is highly context specific’. Here, ‘context specific’ refers to the role of contingencies within flexibility which might render it as a form of a firm’s dynamic capability. The dynamic capability scholarship argues that in order to achieve excellence, organizations should develop capabilities complementary to their competencies (Teece et al. 1997; Helfat and Peteraf 2009). Thus, flexible HR practices can help organizations in achieving sustainable competitiveness through creating, integrating, reconfiguring, and building on its human resource base. For example, organizations can achieve competitive edge by customizing training and development programs.
    • Globalization and International Students: Re-modelling Micro-international Aspects for the Entrepreneurial University

      Hancock, Connie; Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; University of Chester
      In the highly competitive higher education (HE) market for international students, the adoption of entrepreneurial approaches to internationalization by universities and higher education institutions (HEIs) is imperative in order to ensure a sustainable organizational future. Due to program popularity, HEI business schools often find themselves at the forefront of internationalization. While an appreciation of the need for ‘entrepreneurial’ behavior with regards to macro-aspects of internationalization (for example, international recruitment and market development) is longstanding, a developed understanding of, and the extension of ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches into the micro-contexts (i.e. student experience in the classroom setting) remains surprisingly understudied, particularly at the micro-operational level. This chapter adopts an inductive case study approach, focusing on a HEI business school undergraduate cohort in the United Kingdom (UK). The study collected data via semi-structured interviews, focus groups and questionnaires conducted with students and academic staff involved in internationalization. Overall, the study generates a micro-portrayal of the issues faced by a UK HEI business school as it attempts to develop ‘entrepreneurial’ approaches to, and models for, its internationalization strategy. Specifically, the chapter develops insights into the challenges associated with student experience and linguistic engagement, program design and delivery and highlights areas of potential development. These findings and their implications enable HEI business schools to rethink and remodel ways in which issues originating in macro-aspects of internationalization can be successfully addressed at the micro-level.
    • Historical and Contemporary Contexts: The Representation and Character of ‘Modern’ Organizations

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Kogan Page, 2016-04-01)
      Chapter 2: Historical and Contemporary Contexts: The Representation and Character of ‘Modern’ Organizations Peter Stokes Objectives This chapter aims to outline the modernistic and positivistic philosophies and paradigms which underpin contemporary markets, management and organizations by: • elaborating the historical context of the role of the enlightenment and the emergence of science; • explaining the development of the Industrial Revolution, the development of positivism and the recognition of modernism and its powerful implications for the shape and nature of organizations and management; • elaborating the nature and role of Taylorism and Fordism as consequences of the general modernistic movement and events; • contextualising modernism and positivism by developing a conceptual understanding of epistemology and frames of reference; • providing examples of modernistic effects in organizations such as hard and soft management and corporate cultures, key performance indicators and metrics, audit cultures, managerialism, McDonaldization and the role of fashions and fads in management thinking and ideas. Introduction Chapter One mapped out the contemporary nature of the work and organizations and their environments, in local and global terms, and underlined the contexts and issues which have become important for organizations. The Chapter now proceeds to examine modernism and the phenomena of, for example, managerialism, Taylorism and McDonaldization and how they have endured as powerful influences on contemporary work settings. The management of change and evolution have been a recurrent experience in business and organizations generally. It has become common to read in texts that, in the contemporary era, change is happening at an unprecedented rate and on a global scale. However, organizations and societies have always undergone change. At times, this change has seemed radical and unpredictable whilst at other times there have been periods which have provided a semblance of stability and continuity (Linstead, Fulop and Lilley, 2009:619). Historically, it is possible to cite many major events which have caused severe and extensive disruption to established society processes and structures which have caused companies and organizations to go bankrupt and disappear forever. Changes might be relatively small or, alternatively, may be on a continental scale. These might include major tragedies such as, for example, plagues and illnesses (the Black Death and the post-First World War influenza outbreak (1918-1919) both of which killed hundreds of thousands of people and brought about significant transformations in social hierarchies, land and wealth distributions); conflicts (such as World War I and II (1914-18 and 1939-1945)) and economic collapses and depressions (The Wall Street Crash (1929) and the ‘Credit Crunch’ Recession (2008)). Moreover, whatever changes are taking place in a period, different periods of history are characterised by particular values and beliefs regarding the drivers that shape the epoch. Such beliefs are likely to change over time and acknowledging this is important for contemporary managers and organizations because by generating an appreciation of this it will facilitate a better understanding of the energies and forces at play in the contemporary world and workplace. A key philosophy that has shaped the 20th and 21st Centuries has been that of modernism which can be considered to have followed on from pre-modernism. Modernism can be considered to have exerted influence from the mid-1600s until the contemporary era, whilst Pre-modernism embraces Ancient History (that is, for example, Ancient Greek, Roman and other civilizations of the surrounding eras) leading up towards the early Medieval period (Cummings, 2002). Modernism is important to understand because the values it embodies are very different from those that prevailed in the preceding pre-Modern and Medieval eras.
    • L’avenir du management et l’interculturalité: Vers un renouveau des recherches et des productions en GRH

      Plane, Jean-Michel; Stokes, Peter; Brown, Tim; Montpellier University ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Cairn Info, 2014-10)
    • Making Great Minds Think Alike: Emerging market multinational firms’ leadership effects on targets’ employee psychological safety after cross-border mergers and acquisitions

      Rao-Nicholson, Rekha; Khan, Zaheer; Stokes, Peter; University of the West of England; University of Sheffield; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-10-09)
      Abstract This paper examines the impact of leadership on targets’ employee psychological safety (EPS), characterized by employees’ expectation of job and remuneration stability, during the cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by emerging market multinational companies (EMNEs). The M&As by Indian and Chinese companies forms the empirical context of this study and the case survey method is used to examine the effect of leadership on EPS. The results show that the EMNEs’ leadership visibility during the M&A process has no impact on the EPS, whereas, the trust in the EMNEs’ leadership has positive effect on the EPS. The deal status has a moderating effect on the leadership visibility and positively affects the EPS. This research finds evidence of target country differences in terms of the effect of EMNEs’ leadership on EPS and limited evidence of such effect for acquirer nationality differences. Keywords: employee psychological safety, leadership, Emerging market multinational firms, M&As, India, China 
    • Managerial effectiveness: An Indian experience

      Bamel, Umesh; Rangnekar, Santosh; Stokes, Peter; Rastogi, Renu; SVKM’s Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies ; Indian Institute of Technology ; University of Chester ; Indian Institute of Technology (Emerald, 2015-03-02)
      The study conducts an investigation into the interaction of three factors: ownership (public and private sector organizations), gender (male and female) and level of manager (senior, middle, junior) in relation to the concept of effectiveness in the Indian context. The study is based on a data set of primary responses from 200 Indian executives. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was employed to retrieve and validate the instrument. Finally, 2×2×3 factorial ANOVA (GLM) was performed. First, the study proposes a valid and reliable measure of managerial effectiveness. Secondly, the interaction pattern of predictor variables in relation to managerial effectiveness provides further insights. Through its empirical evidence the study offers insight into issues of managerial effectiveness and provides suggestions for managerial action. The study attempted to gather the views of executives regarding issues of productivity, adaptability and flexibility as constructs of managerial effectiveness. Lastly, comparative analysis of different categories of managers (based on gender, organizational position, and institutional ownership status) provide an understanding of these issues in the Indian context.
    • Managing talent across advanced and emerging economies: HR issues and challenges in a Sino-German strategic collaboration

      Stokes, Peter; Liu, Yipeng; Smith, Simon M.; Leidner, Sarah; Moore, Neil; Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester, University of Birmingham; University of Southampton; (Taylor and Francis, 2015-10-19)
      The HR practices involved in global talent management continue to advance and evolve. A majority of talent management commentary is from multinational corporation (MNC) perspectives. However, the less commented small-to-medium sized enterprise (SME) also confronts challenges grounded in economic (i.e. resources, finance), organisational (i.e. size, scope and structure) and consequent behavioral rationales (i.e. mindsets and stances). This paper establishes and examines a number of propositions which consider how these factors impact on an advanced economy SME’s talent management in emerging economy collaborations. An interpretive qualitative methodology is employed using interviews conducted within two cases – SME and an MNC comparator case. The SME case is used as the driving force of the paper and its theoretical focus and findings. The MNC is used to develop issues as a comparator case. The findings show SME economic and organisational drivers producing behavioral dynamics in relation to mimesis of planned actions yet informal serendipitous responses in reality; a predilection for the proximate and familiar; design configurations of short-term expatriate visits and inpatriates; cumulating in on-going inpatriate acculturisation and re-acculturation oscillation. Consequently, the implication is that the SME needs a HR practices encompassing resignation to the situation, flexibility and resilience in order to survive and progress.
    • Moments like diamonds in space: savoring the ageing process through positive engagement with adventure sports

      Hickman, Mark; Stokes, Peter; Gammon, Sean; Beard, Colin; Inkster, Allison (Informa UK Limited, 2016-10-07)
    • NVQs and approaches to competence in the UK: Contexts, issues and prospects

      Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Springer, 2016-10-04)
      Chapter 15. NVQs and approaches to competence in the UK: Contexts, issues and prospects. Peter Stokes, University of Chester, UK Abstract Competence frameworks are a long-standing part of the (United Kingdom) UK training and development environment (Chang et al. 2013; CIPD, 2007, 2013, 2014; Sparrow and Bognanno, 1994). In the British context, competence-based approaches and qualifications evoke strong reactions both in terms of supporters and detractors regarding their worth, viability and relevance. Nevertheless, they have been repeatedly employed by governments and employers’ bodies as a means of responding to skills gaps in business sectors and the national economy. The Chapter examines these tensions and surfaces the underlying paradigms and drivers contributing a novel insight into competence in the UK context. The Chapter identifies prevalent characteristics in the UK competence domain. It explains these features through the impact of hegemonic modernistic and positivistic paradigms built on British socio-political traditions of empiricism, pragmatism and the valuing of the experiential. These, in turn, dominate large areas of management, organization thinking and competence approaches operating in connection with processes of commodification, marketization and socio-political issues. This context is illustrated with an ethnographically-styled case study on the implementation of a competence framework in a British semi-skilled employee organizational setting. Overall, the Chapter, in identifying and contextualising the paradigms which operate at the heart of competence in the UK, reveals implications linked to individual meaning, social class and professional identity and, also, potential future trajectories of competence in an increasingly complex world.
    • Organizations and organizing in a French context

      Stokes, Peter; Davoine, Eric; Oiry, Ewan; University of Chester ; University of Fribourg ; Univeristy of Poitiers (Emerald Publishing, 2014-12-22)
      This special issues consists of seven papers which present French organization from different styles and perspectives.
    • Organizations and organizing in an Indian context

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Balasubrahmanyam, Suram; Singh, Sanjay K.; University of Chester (Emerald, 2013)
      This special issue aims to deepen theoretical and empirical understanding of Indian organizations and Indian markets and comment on the unique challenges confronting organizations in emerging economies. In placing the focus on organizations and organizing in an Indian context, this special issue explores the proposition that these phenomena are qualitatively different from their manifestations in other parts of the world.
    • Recasting the 'technologies' of outdoor management development: An interpretivist perspective on the tools, models and processes used in the field

      Stokes, Peter; Moore, Neil; Hickman, Mark; Scott, Peter; Rowland, Caroline A.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Central Lancashire ; Liverpool John Moores University ; University of Chester (Inderscience Publishers, 2013-12-13)
      This paper investigates the models and tools commonly engaged in outdoor management development (OMD). The paper employs an interpretive methodology engaging participant observation and narrative techniques. A number of OMD providers were studied and this generated a rich body of data which is relayed and examined in the text. In spite of extensive theoretical contemporary debates and developments in wider human resource development domains, the study identifies that many practitioners working in experiential course settings continue to engage a predominantly positivistic, well–rehearsed, over–used, and indeed ageing, collection of models. The paper identifies linear and modernistic assumptions on which such models are predicated. OMD is a relatively longstanding form of training which continues to be used by a large number of individuals. The phenomenon therefore merits attention so as to better determine the social implications of the approach. The paper offers an original and innovative consideration of the tools generally employed in OMD programmes.
    • Rethinking talent management in organizations: Towards a boundaryless model

      Foster, Carrie; Moore, Neil; Stokes, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2013-07-26)