• Automated Hyperlink Text Analysis of City Websites: Projected Image Representation on the Web

      Weismayer, Christian; Pezenka, Ilona; Loibl, Wilhelm (Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016-01-23)
      The objective of this study is to identify the image representations of 75 European cities on the Web. As an effective image positioning strategy will result in successful differentiation from competitors, it is crucial for tourism destinations to regularly examine their image. This study focuses on the supply-side of destination image formation and is therefore concerned with analysing the projected destination image. Hyperlink text of DMO websites was collected automatically by a crawler. The text was then edited and filtered. Latent semantic dimensions were generated by applying PCA. A hierarchical cluster approach revealed different groups of hyperlink terms. Finally, the co-occurrence of terms and cities was displayed in a joint-map indicating which groups of hyperlink terms are over- or underrepresented for each of the cities. This information permits conclusions regarding the projected image of the cities.
    • Pictures, Colors and Emotions: Shaping the UK's E-Tourism Experience

      Schneider, Anke; Loibl, Wilhelm; Hindley, Ann; Vienna University of Economics and Business; University of Chester; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-03-27)
      The role of online media has become more important for tourism as DMOs try to differentiate through the use of pictures on digital channels, such as websites. The aim is to provide a positive image that has a positive impact on the consumer buying decision. Pictures draw significant amounts of attention and a pictures colour characteristics are critical in maintaining interest through emotional connections. These colour characteristics concern hue, saturation and luminance, which create a positive or negative emotional response in the prospective user. Due to this importance of a pictures colour characteristics on websites, this chapter explores these colour characteristics of pictures on UK DMO websites, in order to determine the positive or negative emotions conveyed to the viewer. Results show that most pictures are neutral but the amount of negatively perceived pictures is very high. It was found that the overall visual e-tourism experience can be improved with only small post-processing changes with minimal danger of distorting reality.
    • Technology-Enabled Experiential Marketing

      Haenel, Thorben; Loibl, Wilhelm; Wang, Hui (IGI Global, 2017)
      In recent years, there has been an increased interest from both academia and practitioners in the topic of customer experience. Companies nowadays are transforming their attention and endeavour to focus on memorable or customer experiences rather than premium prices or superior quality of products and services. Importantly, the value generated by unique customer experiences has a significant impact upon business performance in terms of customer commitment and customer loyalty. Along with the rapid and continuous development of ICT, the travel experience is no longer limited to services encounters on-site but is extended and dynamically created in both physical and virtual experience spaces. With the continuous proliferation of smart technology, travel industry has seen a radical transformation from product and service orientation to a customer-experience driven approach.
    • What content to post? Evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook communications in destinations.

      Molina, Arturo; Gomez Rico, Maria del Mar; Garcia, Evangelina; Lyon, Andrew; Loibl, Wilhelm; University of Castilla-La Mancha; University of Chester
      This study analyzes the marketing effectiveness of the social media posts of destination management organizations (DMOs) based on message format and content and the moderator effect of its message appeal in order to understand the users’ responses to destinations’ social media posts. The paper also discusses the most appropriate social media message strategy for Facebook campaigns for DMOs. The methodology is based on the content analysis of a sample of 3303 Facebook posts from 12 English and Spanish heritage city destinations. A Poisson regression was used to test the marketing effectiveness of the posts based on the number of Facebook reactions and message characteristics. Considering the particularities of each country, the results provide insights for DMOs for their social media message strategies. The results show that emotional messages tend to be more effective than informational messages in many cases, and several recommendations for Facebook usage are developed for the management of destinations through social media.