• ‘Smart cities’ – Dynamic sustainability issues and challenges for 'old world' economies: A case from the United Kingdom

      Stokes, Peter; Larson, Mitchell J.; Russell, Natalie; Adderley, Simon; Moore, Neil; Mathews, Martin V. C.; Smith, Simon M.; Lichy, Jessica; Scott, Peter; Ward, Tony; et al. (Slovenian Academy of Management, 2015-10-01)
      The rapid and dynamic rate of urbanization, particularly in emerging world economies, has resulted in a need to find sustainable ways of dealing with the excessive strains and pressures that come to bear on existing infrastructures and relationships. Increasingly during the twenty-first century policy makers have turned to technological solutions to deal with this challenge and the dynamics inherent within it. This move towards the utilization of technology to underpin infrastructure has led to the emergence of the term ‘Smart City’. Smart cities incorporate technology based solutions in their planning development and operation. This paper explores the organizational issues and challenges facing a post-industrial agglomeration in the North West of England as it attempted to become a ‘Smart City’. In particular the paper identifies and discusses the factors that posed significant challenges for the dynamic relationships residents, policymakers and public and private sector organizations and as a result aims to use these micro-level issues to inform the macro-debate and context of wider Smart City discussions. In order to achieve this, the paper develops a range of recommendations that are designed to inform Smart City design, planning and implementation strategies.
    • The Role of Embedded Individual Values, Belief and Attitudes and Spiritual Capital in Shaping Everyday Postsecular Organizational Culture

      Baker, Chris; Stokes, Peter; Lichy, Jessica; University of Chester; IDRAC (Wiley, 2016-01-08)
      This paper investigates the values, beliefs and attitudes (VBA) held by individual employees within business environments which motivate and shape behaviour in the workplace, and the extent to which VBA reveal roots and drivers linked to spiritual capital (and associated capitals). Building on early authorial work (Authors, 2011), and referring to literature from theology and religion, as well as business organization and management, the paper discusses the critical and dialectical relationship between different forms of capital (for example, social, human, economic), modernistic, ‘hard’ cultures and issues of managerialism and alternative critical, ‘soft’ frameworks and sources of ethics and values - and their impact on the business setting. It will do this primarily by proposing a new typological model showing the dynamic and potentially progressive interplay between spiritual, human, bridging and linking forms of social capital within corporate and public settings and explores their implications for management. This typological model is derived from original research using in-depth semi-structured interviews from three different organizations in NW England and Wales, to determine the extent to which notions of the postsecular and spiritual capital may operate in workplaces.