• Ethical Issues of Consumer Behaviour

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester; Leeds Beckett University (Routledge, 2017-04-03)
      This chapter will consider the ethical issues of consumer behaviour, and frame them in relation to one of the key challenges of travel and tourism of our current times: the fact that travel causes both positive and negative impacts at the same time, and that all travel and tourism decisions are subject to trade-offs. The first section sets up the chapter by reviewing ethical theory, defining ethical consumption and ethical consumerism, and outlining the nature of the ethical business and the ethical consumer, as a brief overview of ethical theory and an introduction to the ethical dilemma. The second section reviews the role of society’s different actors in ethically responsible behaviour and outlines reasons for co-operative systems failing to meet a shared responsibility. This includes definitions of ethical consumption and ethical consumerism (which provide the context in which ethical businesses and ethical consumers exist in), followed by an overview of ethical business activities and the ethical consumer. The final section provides an overview of ethical tourism and of the ethical tourist and determines the barriers to change which impede responsible consumer behaviour, with particular regard to climate change and tourism.
    • Ethics and influences in tourist perceptions of climate change

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier (Routledge, 2014-08-11)
      Ethical decisions to visit disappearing destinations are self-serving and influences feed into self-interest. Data were collected from a sample of pre-, during- and post-visit tourists to Venice and Svalbard, using expressive techniques and scenarios using the Hunt–Vitell model to understand ethical decisions, and the constructive technique and collage to understand influences. The results show that travel decisions are driven by individual selfishness, and any threat to freedom (i.e. the right to travel) is underplayed. The preferred scenario for long-term benefit for planet and people is via short-term economic and social negative impacts on the destination’s locals, rather than the tourists’ own experience. Respondents believe that they are blameless for their purchasing habits as they lack perceived behavioural control, and instead corporations ought to be providing sustainable products as the norm and not sell products that harm. In the scenarios, where respondents express concern for the locals in a disappearing destination (i.e. if we do not visit, they will not benefit from our expenditure), individual selfishness to visit could be the driver, rather than an altruistic act to provide support. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
    • Markets, Festivals and Shows: Sustainable Approaches to Gastronomic Tourism Through Collaboration

      Hindley, Ann; Wall, Tony; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-02-01)
      This chapter reveals how and why gastronomy has been used as a tourist attraction by markets, festivals and shows in Cheshire (England). It demonstrates how gastronomy can be used to increase visitor footfall and provide an economic stimulus in rural and urban areas. It considers how gastronomy can also be used to provide the solution to or raise the profile of social and environmental factors. The Nantwich Food Festival is used as the main case study, supported by examples from the Foodies Festival Tatton Park, The Royal Cheshire County Show and the Rode Hall Farmers’ Market. The aim is to understand how varying needs within the local and wider community were identified and then met through farming-related events, which expanded or metamorphosed into their present form with gastronomy used as a pull-factor. Contemporary trends towards healthy eating, sustainable consumption, experiences and collaboration are acknowledged. UK consumers are increasingly seeking local, organic, non-GM, free-range, free-from and quality assured produce that is ethically produced, safe and traceable. ‘Foodies’ and culinary tourists continue to be drawn to unique and authentic food experiences, while gastronomic tourism events increasingly boost visitor numbers through the regular appearance of reality TV and celebrity chefs.
    • Pictures, Colors and Emotions: Shaping the UK's E-Tourism Experience

      Schneider, Anke; Loibl, Wilhelm; Hindley, Ann; Vienna University of Economics and Business; University of Chester; University of Chester (Routledge, 2020-03-27)
      The role of online media has become more important for tourism as DMOs try to differentiate through the use of pictures on digital channels, such as websites. The aim is to provide a positive image that has a positive impact on the consumer buying decision. Pictures draw significant amounts of attention and a pictures colour characteristics are critical in maintaining interest through emotional connections. These colour characteristics concern hue, saturation and luminance, which create a positive or negative emotional response in the prospective user. Due to this importance of a pictures colour characteristics on websites, this chapter explores these colour characteristics of pictures on UK DMO websites, in order to determine the positive or negative emotions conveyed to the viewer. Results show that most pictures are neutral but the amount of negatively perceived pictures is very high. It was found that the overall visual e-tourism experience can be improved with only small post-processing changes with minimal danger of distorting reality.
    • The integration of social responsibility and sustainability in practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Higher Education Institutions

      Leal Filho, Walter; Doni, Frederica; Vargas, Valeria R.; Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez; Emblen-Perry, Kay; Boddy, Jennifer; Avila, Lucas V.; Hamburg University (Germany) & Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Winchester; University of Worcester; Griffith University (Australia); University of Santa Maria (Brazil) (Elsevier, 2019-02-14)
      The demands placed on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to deliver sustainability initiatives alongside their long-standing social responsibility commitments has been recognised in literature. However, how these interrelate in practice continues to be relatively unexplored. The extant literature suggests that the integration of the two connected agendas can be problematic due to a range of factors, including a general lack of awareness or even misconceptions of the respective agendas. This paper explores the attitudes and practices related to the integration of social responsibility and sustainability initiatives at HEIs. Theoretically, this study highlights the ongoing relative positioning and importance of economic factors – as it relates to differentiation rather than integration – over others such as social responsibility and sustainability. The main implication of this study is that provide useful insights into how HEIs can closer integrate two contemporary but potentially competing agendas.
    • The use of projective techniques to circumvent socially desirable responses or reveal the subconscious.

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester; University of Surrey (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018-07-27)
      Projective techniques have considerable potential to study consumer behaviour and are widely used in commercial market research and psychology, but not in tourism and hospitality research. This chapter demonstrates that tourism and hospitality researchers can collect richer data from smaller samples by using projective techniques, which provide more flexibility and allow the combination of multiple projective methods to triangulate findings. Projective techniques are qualitative methods that reach the subconscious of respondents by asking them to interpret information or complete tasks, which circumvent normative responses that create social desirability bias. Five techniques are outlined: collage, choice ordering, word association, photo elicitation and a scenario expressive technique. The study found that the most successful instrument for reducing social desirability bias was word association, while the least successful was photo-expression. The limitations are the highly resource intensive nature of rigorous analysis, ambiguous stimuli impacting on the complexity of data elicitation and codification, and variations in interpretation of the meaning of the results.
    • Tourism and health, risks and challenges

      Hindley, Ann; Marmion, Maeve; University of Chester (Springer, 2018)
      Whilst the entry ‘tourism, health and well-being’ articulates the consensus that tourism experiences can have health benefits for individuals and societies, there are also health risks involved when it comes to international travel. Tourists and tourism organisations need to be aware of and to manage such risks in order to mitigate the potentially far reaching health consequences. By its nature, tourism involves the movement of people from place to place and as such increases the unplanned exposure of tourism stakeholders to a variety of health related risks. This entry takes a tourism, tourist and community perspective rather than a health or medical practitioner stance, in order to highlight some of the risks and challenges that may emerge in the context of tourism and health.
    • Tourism, Health and Well-being

      Marmion, Maeve; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Springer, 2018)
      There is a well-established interrelationship between travel, tourism and health. Indeed, the motivations to participate in early forms of tourism related closely to ideas of well-being, wellness and health, and places or destinations that focus on offering perceived health benefits have long been recognised. Contemporary tourism continues to contribute to perceived health and well-being and this entry discusses the personal and social rationale for tourism in this context. For some, there are quite specific and pre-determined health reasons for travel, whereas for others it’s a more implicit sense of escape and relaxation that leads to a greater sense of well-being. If tourism experiences can potentially improve certain health indicators then the role tourism can play in fostering health and well-being should be recognised in order to advance the good health and well-being agenda.
    • Trends in Scientific Publishing on Sustainability in Higher Education

      Filho, Walter L.; Wall, Tony; Salvia, Amanda L.; Frankenberger, Fernanda; Hindley, Ann; Mifsud, Mark; Brandli, Luciana; Will, Markus; Hamburg University of Applied Sciences; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Passo Fundo; Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná-PUCPR; Positivo University-UP; University of Chester; University of Malta; University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz
      It is widely acknowledged that research and publications in peer reviewed journals offer important metrics in describing the academic outputs of higher education institutions on one hand, and their societal impacts on the other. Peer review is a well-tested method for quality control and has been successfully deployed over many decades in academic journals worldwide. But despite the fact that publications on matters related to sustainable development offer solid evidence of academic activity and excellence, there is a dearth of literature in this field. In order to address this need, the European School of Sustainability Science and Research (ESSSR) and the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) have undertaken the World Survey on Sustainability Publishing and Research in Higher Education (WSSSP-HEI). The paper has two main aims. The first is to document and showcase trends in scientific publishing on matters related to sustainable development. The second aim is to contribute to a greater understanding of this rapidly growing field, by describing the latest developments and the role played by some of the journals active in this area. Consistent with these aims, this paper focuses on publications on sustainability in higher education, describes the methods used in the study and some of its results. It can be seen that despite the intrinsic value of research on sustainable development in higher education as a whole, and of publications in this field in particular, such practices are not as widely developed as one could expect. This paper discusses the possible reasons and also outlines some measures via which higher education institutions may be able to take more advantage of the many opportunities that publishing on sustainability offers to them.
    • Understanding tourists’ reactance to the threat of a loss of freedom to travel due to climate change: a new alternative approach to encouraging nuanced behavioural change.

      Font, Xavier; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-16)
      This article proposes that reactance theory can be used to better understand how tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect their travel decisions. Reactance theory explains how individuals value their perceived freedom to make choices, and why they react negatively to any threats to their freedom. We study the psychological consequences of threatening tourist’s freedoms, using a range of projective techniques: directly, using photo expression, and indirectly, through collage, photo-interviewing and scenarios. We find that reactance theory helps to explain the extent of travel to two destinations: Svalbard and Venice, providing a nuanced understanding of how travellers restore their freedom to travel through three incremental stages: denying the climate change threat , reducing tensions arising from travel and heightening demand particularly for the most visibly threatened destinations. The theory suggests a fourth stage, helplessness, reached when consumers dismiss the value of destinations once they can no longer be enjoyed, but for which we, as yet, have no data. Reactance theory questions the validity of awareness raising campaigns as behavioural change vehicles, provides alternative explanations of why the most self-proclaimed, environmentally aware individuals travel frequently, and helps identify nuanced, socially acceptable forms of sustainability marketing, capable of reducing resistance to change.
    • Values and motivations in tourist perceptions of last-chance tourism

      Hindley, Ann; Font, Xavier; University of Chester (Sage Publications, 2015-11-26)
      Tourists’ perceptions of climate change affect decisions and choices to visit destinations, which are disappearing because of climate change impacts. Values and motivations are two of the personal variables underpinning tourists’ decisions. The study addresses both the limited values research in tourism and reveals unconscious motives by using projective techniques. Projective techniques avoid some of the social desirability bias present in much ethical research. Choice ordering technique and the list of values assist by assigning importance, with narrative responses providing meaning. The construction technique builds a story from a stimulus, with photo-elicitation using participants’ personal holiday photographs. A sample of pre, during and post visit tourists to the Arctic and Venice were interviewed. Results, which provide a more nuanced understanding of how the personal variables of values and motivations are underpinned by selfinterest, inform policies and the messages designed to influence pro-sustainability behaviour.
    • Work-based and vocational education as catalysts for sustainable development?

      Wall, Tony; Hindley, Ann; University of Chester (Emerald Insight, 2018-08-13)
      A louder call Over a decade ago, the United Nations’ established the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative to prompt a radical overhaul of how responsibility, ethics and sustainability are treated in higher education, particularly in relation to the business, management and organisation studies fields (Wall, 2017). By 2017, although there are now a range of radical responses available (Akrivou and Bradbury-Huang, 2015; Wall and Jarvis, 2015; Wall, 2016; Wall, Bellamy, Evans, Hopkins, 2017; Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017; Wall, Russell, Moore, 2017; Wall, Clough, Österlind, Hindley, 2018), evidence suggests that little as has changed on a global or even national scale (Wall, Hindley, Hunt, Peach, Preston, Hartley and Fairbank, 2017), and there remain urgent calls at the highest levels of the United Nations for higher education to help promote responsibility, ethics and sustainability in education (UNESCO, 2016; Wall, 2018).