The business department is based at both the Queen's Park and Warrington campuses and is well placed for students who wish to study in the North West. The department of Business was established at the University in 1999 and offers a range of Business and Management degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. University of Chester Business School also has a solid portfolio of Research and Knowledge Transfer Projects with a range of organisations. These projects are intended to give mutual benefits for students and the region’s business community by providing access to the University’s resources, knowledge and expertise. The majority of the School’s research is applied in a practical context and it is committed to constructing and improving sustainable relationships with external organisations and businesses.

Recent Submissions

  • Urban poverty and the role of UK food aid organisations in enabling segregating and transitioning spaces of food access

    McEachern, Morven; Moraes, Caroline; Scullion, Lisa; Gibbons, Andrea; University of Chester
    This research examines the role of food aid providers, including their spatial engagement, in seeking to alleviate urban food poverty. Current levels of urban poverty across the UK have resulted in an unprecedented demand for food aid. Yet, urban poverty responsibility increasingly shifts away from policymakers to the third sector. Building on Castilhos and Dolbec’s (2018) notion of segregating space and original qualitative research with food aid organisations, we show how social supermarkets emerge as offering a type of transitional space between the segregating spaces of foodbanks and the market spaces of mainstream food retailers. This research contributes to existing literature by establishing the concept of transitional space, an additional type of space that facilitates movement between types of spaces and particularly transitions from the segregating spaces of emergency food aid to more secure spaces of food access. In so doing, this research extends Castilhos and Dolbec’s (2018) typology of spaces, enabling a more nuanced depiction of the spatiality of urban food poverty.
  • The influence of cultural constraints on entrepreneurial motivations: Exploring the experiences of Muslim women entrepreneurs in Pakistan

    Muhammad, Noor; Ullah, Farid; Smith, Robert; University of Huddersfield; University of Chester; University of the West of Scotland (SAGE Publications, 2023-12-27)
    This article explores the influence of cultural constraints on entrepreneurial motivations for women entrepreneurs of the Muslim faith. A qualitative approach is taken by drawing from extraordinarily rare interviews with 17 women entrepreneurs who run businesses in the open market in the Northwest region of Pakistan. Push and pull factors were examined in the context of cultural constraints using the lens of post-materialism and dissatisfaction theories. The findings reveal that some entrepreneurs are pulled into entrepreneurship to give something back to local youths and to improve their life chances and/or reduce hardship. In relation to the push factors, some entrepreneurs decided to do something about the harsh circumstances they found themselves in to demonstrate their agency. All were aware of the cultural constraints around them and are highly motivated to overcome these as role models for future generations and to hopefully achieve parity with male peers. This research contributes to the existing literature by providing new insights to the reader in extending the post-materialism and dissatisfaction theories for women Muslim entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Furthermore, it also demonstrates how cultural constraints related to family issues motivate women in a male-dominated society to become entrepreneurs.
  • The core technology behind and beyond ChatGPT

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; Jones, Lewis; University of Chester (Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 2023-12-15)
    ChatGPT has garnered significant attention within the education industry. Given the core technology behind ChatGPT is language model, this study aims to critically review related publications and suggest future direction of language model in educational research. We aim to address three questions: i) what is the core technology behind ChatGPT, ii) what is the state of knowledge of related research and iii) the potential research direction. A critical review of related publications was conducted in order to evaluate the current state of knowledge of language model in educational research. In addition, we further suggest a purpose oriented guiding framework for future research of language model in education. Our study promptly responded to the concerns raised by ChatGPT from the education industry and offers the industry with a comprehensive and systematic overview of related technologies. We believe this is the first time that a study has been conducted to systematically review the state of knowledge of language model in educational research.
  • Poverty and Austerity: An Introduction

    Moraes, Caroline; McEachern, Morven; O’Loughlin, Deirdre; University of Bristol; University of Chester; University of Limerick
    This chapter offers an introductory overview of relevant literature at the intersection of poverty and austerity, seeking to frame this edited collection and its unique interdisciplinary contributions. The chapter traces the evolution of, and interconnections between, poverty and austerity politics, reflecting critically on their increasingly pervasive and enduring impacts on individuals, markets and society. To guide the reader, this introduction provides an overview of how the book is organised and each of its chapters, explaining to students and researchers the theories, methods, policy applications and empirical contexts addressed in the book.
  • Theorising Resilience in Times of Austerity

    O’Loughlin, Deirdre; Szmigin, Isabelle; McEachern, Morven; Karantinou, Kalipso; Barbosa, Belem; Lamprinakos, Grigorios; Fernández-Moya, María E.; University of Limerick; University of Birmingham; University of Chester; Athens School of Economics and Business; University of Porto; University of Colorado
    Resilience is an important theoretical construct that helps to conceptualise the ways individuals and organisations attempt to countervail the effects of poverty and austerity. As a response to prolonged crises, such as the global economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic, this chapter focuses on tracing the psychological, behavioural, sociological and spatial perspectives of resilience, advancing our current understanding of resilience theory within the marketing and consumption context of crises and austerity. The chapter reviews recent research exploring the importance of resilience, and more specifically the notion of persistent resilience in response to long-term stressors, such as unemployment, triggered by the austerity measures imposed by European governments following the global economic crisis as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. In advancing previous research in this area, we offer a broader perspective by underlining the impetus for businesses and communities to employ a range of resilience strategies while also highlighting the importance for individuals to develop a sustainable set of resilience capacities to help creatively navigate the market and flexibly adapt to the long-term effects of intense and long-standing crises.
  • Co-movement clustering: A novel approach for predicting inflation in the food and beverage industry

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (Universiti Utara Malaysia, 2023-10-23)
    In the realm of food and beverage businesses, inflation poses a significant hurdle as it affects pricing, profitability, and consumer’s purchasing power, setting it apart from other industries. This study proposes a novel approach; co-movement clustering, to predict which items will be inflated together according to historical time-series data. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed approach based on real-world data obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. The predicted results of the proposed approach were compared against four classical methods (correlation, Euclidean distance, Cosine Similarity, and DTW). According to our experimental results, the accuracy of the proposed approach outperforms the above-mentioned classical methods. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed approach is higher when an additional filter is applied. Our approach aids hospitality operators in accurately predicting food and beverage inflation, enabling the development of effective strategies to navigate the current challenging business environment in hospitality management. The lack of previous work has explored how time series clustering can be applied to support inflation prediction. This study opens a new research paradigm to the related field and this study can serve as a useful reference for future research in this emerging area. In addition, this study work contributes to the data analytics research stream in hospitality management literature.
  • Reflecting on Paraliminality as a Theoretical Lens to Understand Experiences of Food Insecurity

    McEachern, Morven; Moraes, Caroline; Scullion, Lisa; Gibbons, Andrea; University of Bristol; University of Chester (Routledge, 2023-11-30)
    In this chapter we reflect on how theoretical perspectives, such as liminality, can be useful for researchers seeking to understand and alleviate lived experiences of poverty. We draw on how we deployed liminality theory in a recently published paper (Moraes et al., 2021), to conceptualise lived experiences of food insecurity as transitional; as fluctuating between phases of everyday food access and food marketplace exclusion. By using liminality as an exemplar theoretical perspective, we discuss a concept that we developed and termed paraliminality, a hybrid of two types of liminality phenomena that is both empowering and generative of a lasting form of indeterminate state. In reflecting upon paraliminality, we argue that it can illuminate the social mechanisms, practices and spaces that co-construct people’s more enduring, but fluid, experiences and phases of food insecurity and food access efforts. We illustrate the main theoretical arguments being made with data from our study of food insecurity (McEachern et al., 2020), involving interviews with people who were experiencing food insecurity, volunteers who were providing access to food aid, and fieldwork photographs of the independent foodbanks and pantries who took part in the research. The chapter contributes to food insecurity, poverty and marketplace exclusion scholarship by reflecting on the importance of using theoretical lenses in qualitative research work, and by reflecting on, and deploying, an illustrative research project to explain how theory can be used and why it matters.
  • An Exploratory Study of How Emotion Tone Presented in A Message Influences Artificial Intelligence (AI) Powered Recommendation System

    Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (Zibeline International Publishing, 2023-10-16)
    This innovative study aims to explore how emotion tone presented in a message influences the judgement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) bots. We established a scenario by using vacation rental introduction as input message to conduct experiments to explore the influences. Our findings suggest that AI bots demonstrate preferences on the input message presented in positive tones rather than input message with negative tones. Our pioneering study can serve as a crucial starting point for future studies, in particular opening up fresh avenues for future research endeavours and engenders discussions and debates concerning the development of recommendation system.
  • Flexible lives: spatial, temporal, and behavioural boundaries in a fluid world of work and home

    Izak, Michal; Reissner, Stefaine; Shortt, Harriet; University of Chester; University of Essex; University of the West of England (Taylor & Francis, 2023-08-08)
    The world of work and home has become increasingly fluid (Bauman 2000), due to an increase in flexible working. Work has become decoupled from time and space (Gajendran and Harrison 2007), making it increasingly common for knowledge-based workers to work at different times and in multiple spaces across a working day or week (Duxbury et al. 2014; Sewell and Taskin 2015; Kingma 2016). The Covid-19 pandemic in particular has been a catalyst for questioning accepted norms of where, when, and how work takes place and has encouraged many to experiment with new ways of working at spatio-temporal distance from a regular workplace (Gandini and Garavaglia 2023). This reshaping of traditional modes of working has had a significant effect on working patterns, social workplace interactions, personal relationships, and the boundaries between familial and working lives, which we seek to explore in this Special Issue.
  • Rural space and the local food landscape: Consumers’ construction of food localness through the politics of belonging

    Graciotti, Alessandro; McEachern, Morven; University of Macerata; University of Chester (Emerald, 2023-07-24)
    Purpose – This research aims to investigate consumers’ construction of food localness through the politics of belonging in a regional context. Design/methodology/approach – Following a socio-spatial lens and considering the ‘realm of meaning’ of place, this research focuses on local consumers’ lived meanings of ‘local’ food choice, and hence adopts a phenomenological approach to the data collection and analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with residents of the Italian region of Marche. Findings – Drawing on Trudeau’s (2006) politics of belonging, we reveal three interconnected themes which show how local consumers articulate a local food ‘orthodoxy’ and how their discourses and practices draw and maintain a boundary between local and non-local food, whereby local food is considered ‘autochthonous’ of rural space. Thus, our participants construct a local food landscape, conveying rural (vs. urban) meanings through which food acquires ‘localness’ (vs. non-‘localness’) status. Practical implications – Our findings provide considerable scope for food producers, manufacturers and/or marketers to differentiate local food products by enhancing consumers’ direct experience of it in relation to rural space. Thus, enabling local food producers to convey rural (vs. urban) meanings to consumers, who would develop an orthodoxy guiding future choice. Social implications – Our findings enable regional promoters and food policymakers to leverage the symbolic distinctiveness of food autochthony to promote place and encourage consumers to participate in their local food system. Originality/value – By utilising the politics of belonging as an analytical framework, we show that the urban-rural dichotomy – rather than being an obsolete epistemological category – fuels politics of belonging dynamics and that local food consumers socially construct food localness not merely as a romanticisation of rurality, but as a territorial expression of the contemporary local/non-local cultural conflict implied in the politics of belonging. Thus, we advance our theoretical understanding by demonstrating that food ‘becomes’ local and therefore, builds on extant food localness conceptualisations.
  • City neighbourhood branding and new urban tourism

    King, Brian; Richards, Greg; Yeung, Emmy; Texas A&M University; Breda University of Applied Sciences; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2023-05-24)
    City authorities worldwide have sought to rejuvenate and diversify their tourism product offerings by dispersing visitors into less familiar and frequented locales. Despite calls to understand such ‘new tourism areas’ (NTAs) in urban areas, few researchers have examined visitor responses to the implementation of NTA strategies, particularly outside Europe. This quantitative approach considers the profiles, attitudes and behaviours of NTA visitors in an Asian city that was undertaking dispersal efforts pre-pandemic in the context of mass inbound Chinese visitation. Distinct profiles are found for NTA visitors relative to other city arrivals in response to Hong Kong’s branding propositions. It is found that NTAs appeal to repeat visitors seeking cosmopolitan experiences and may help tourist dispersal and product differentiation, though the proposition that NTA visitors are more highly educated was not supported.
  • The influential role of austerity in normalising sustainable consumption

    O’Loughlin, Deirdre; McEachern, Morven; Szmigin, Isabelle; Karantinou, Kalipso; Barbosa, Belem; Lamprinakos, Grigorios; Fernández-Moya, María E.; University of Limerick; University of Chester; University of Birmingham; Athens University of Economics and Business; University of Porto; Universidad de Oviedo (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023-05-11)
    The financial crisis of 2008 leading to the imposition of strict austerity measures particularly within certain EU states is an appropriately significant and enduring context in which to explore consumer attitudes and behaviour change. While the negative implications of austerity measures are well documented (Krugman, 2012), it proposed that economic downturns trigger a normative towards sustainable consumption (e.g. Evans, 2011) which is similarly reflected by pro-environmental behaviours evidenced during the on-going COVID-19 global pandemic (Orîndaru et al, 2021). This research draws upon social normalisation (Rettie et al., 2011, 2012) and practice theory (Warde, 2005; Shove, 2009) as key conceptual frameworks through which to explore the normalisation of practices among everyday consumers within the context of austerity. Employing an interpretive approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 38 EU consumers across 6 countries including Ireland, UK, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece. A multi-stage analysis of the data revealed three key themes: Normalised sustainability practices; Social normalisation of frugality; and Normalisation of frugal-induced sustainability. Given the prevalence and sustained nature of modern day crises, this study contributes to consumer research by offering an EU-wide account of how shifting consumer knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and cultural values in the context of austerity impact on everyday sustainable consumption practices. Our research highlights how sustainable consumption practices are being increasingly normalised for several reasons beyond environmental motivations including economic, (manifested by increased frugality), as well as social. Our research foregrounds the transformative and long-term effect of austerity on norms, practices, values and meanings at both individual and societal levels. We specifically reveal the critical influence of social norms in the form of values of shared empathy and solidarity vis-à-vis others affected by austerity. We also advance knowledge of the importance of the “carrier” role (Shove et al (2012) by evidencing how normalised, frugality-induced sustainability practices are performed and reproduced within EU countries. In conclusion, we outline several recommendations for policy and practice to more effectively promote and support sustainability change and progression at local community and national levels.
  • Realizing Green Airport Performance through Green Management Intransigence, Airport Reputation, Biospheric Value, and Eco-Design

    Bamidele, Ruth Oluyemi; Ozturen, Ali; Haktanir, Mine; Ogunmokun, Oluwatobi; Eastern Mediterranean University; University of Chester (MDPI, 2023-01-30)
    Studies on the effect of biospheric value, eco-design, and green management intransigence on perceived green performance in the tourism and hospitality industry are gradually emerging. However, more evidence is needed from the aviation industry or airport context, especially in Africa. This cross-sectional study aims to probe and demonstrate the effect of biospheric value on green management intransigence and perceived green performance, the mediating role of management intransigence and biospheric value, and the influence on pro-environmental behavior among airport management and employees. The extended theory of planned behavior (TPBe) and triple bottom line theory (TBL)/sustainable economic development theory (SED) (TBL/SED) set the foundation for this research study. With the case study approach, data were collected through online questionnaires from employees and management staff of two international airports in Lagos and Abuja, Nigeria. This scientific study contributes to the literature on green energy by shedding light on the importance of integrating green practices into airport operations with environmentally friendly programs. Its focus on green management intransigence and its implications on employees’ behavior has received little or no attention. The data were analyzed using PLS-SEM and Importance–performance matrix analysis (IPMA). The IPMA is innovative as it helps to extend the results of PLS-SEM by also taking the importance and performance of each construct into account graphically as it relates to green airport management. IPMA posits that management tends to take actions to improve conditions that enhance factors of most significant concern to stakeholders. Our results reveal the effect of biospheric value and the behaviors of management and nonmanagement staff of the selected airports on the green performance with apparent differences in the group-specific performance. In practice, this implies an urgent need for airport management to review their approach and strategy to sustainable practices, airports’ resilience, and adaptation to climate change for sustainable tourism development. This study advances scientific and practical knowledge of eco-design of airport buildings (EAB), biospheric-value (BV), and green management intransigence (GMI). The findings can assist decision makers and practitioners in embracing green technologies and practices in airport management and operations.
  • The value of experiments in futures and foresight science: A reply

    Derbyshire, James; Dhami, Mandeep K.; Belton, Ian; Önkal, Dilek; University of Chester; Middlesex University; Strathclyde University; Northumbria University (Wiley, 2023-05-10)
    The paper provides a brief rejoinder to four expert commentaries that responded to a paper by the same authors in the same journal titled ‘The value of experiments in futures and foresight science as illustrated by the case of scenario planning’ .
  • Restraints and Enablers of Green initiative-taking among hospitality employees: a mixed-methods approach

    Ikhide, Juliet E.; Ogunmokun, Oluwatobi A.; Chen, Ting; Abertay University; University of Chester; Zhejiang Gongshang University (Taylor & Francis, 2023-04-19)
    Green initiative-taking, an employee’s self-starting opportunity-seeking action to improve environmental performance is a desirable outcome of organizations’ green policies. Given prior inattention to this area of study, it is unclear what fosters green initiative-taking, and why. This study attempts to answer these questions using a mixed-methods approach. First, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted. Green human resource management, eco-silence, supervisor bottom-line mentality, and co-worker voice emerged as the major themes of employees’ experiences when seeking to engage in green initiative-taking. Second, building on social information processing and social learning theories, a quantitative study proposes a conceptual model of the inter-relationships between the themes that emerged from the first study. Results from a multinational multisource time-lagged quantitative study support most of the hypotheses and shed light on avenues for future research. It suggests that supervisor bottom-line mentality inhibiting green initiative-taking might be standard procedure bottom-line mentality rather than profit bottom-line mentality. Post-hoc, to enhance the study’s applicability, a fuzzy-set analysis was conducted to offer managers the configurations that best yield green initiative-taking among hospitality employees.
  • Top 10 Most-Cited Articles Concerning Blended Learning for Introductory Algorithms and Programming: A Bibliometric Analysis and Overview

    Dwinggo Samala, Agariadne; Usmeldi; Taali; Indarta, Yose; Apdoludin; Leong, Kelvin; Hakiki, Mohammad; Universitas Negeri Padang; Universitas Muhammadiyah Muara Bungo; University of Chester (International Association of Online Engineering (IAOE), 2023-03-07)
    Blended learning, also known as mixed-mode instruction, combines in-person and online instruction. Blended learning is widely used in school and university subjects. This research aims to determine how blended learning has been applied to algorithms and programming courses over the last 20 years. This study analyzes the quality and quantity of scientific publications using bibliometric techniques and then provides an overview of how blended learning is used and its impact. For this analysis and review, this study conducted a bibliometric analysis of articles published in the last 20 years (2000–2021) and then presented the 10 most cited articles. We established the following criteria for articles: 1) sourced from the Scopus database, 2) concerned about blended learning in algorithms and programming, and 3) publication is limited to articles published in indexed international journals and proceedings. The VOSviewer and MS-Excel applications help with data presentation in this method. We collected 240 articles that met these criteria from the Scopus database, which contained 297 articles published between 2000 and 2021. The most-cited article received 52 citations, while the least received only 3. The top 10 most cited articles are from the following countries: 1) Norway, 2) Serbia, and 3) Saudi Arabia. We divided the articles into categories based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The findings of this study can be used as a reference for state-of-the-art and novelty, as well as for the dissemination of scientific references related to the use of blended learning for introductory algorithms and programming.
  • The Empirical Nexus between Data-Driven Decision-Making and Productivity: Evidence from Pakistan’s Banking Sector

    Gul, Raazia; Leong, Kelvin; Mubashar, Ammara; Abdulaziz Saleh Al-Faryan, Mamdouh; Sung, Anna; Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi; University of Chester; Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi; University of Portsmouth (Taylor & Francis, 2023-02-16)
    The effective use of digital technologies to create business value has generated enormous data, and using data in decision-making is vital. Although there is growing empirical evidence in favour of a positive association between informed decision-making and firm performance in developed countries, there is little to no evidence of a large-scale study in an emerging economic context. Moreover, there has been scant empirical evidence on how DDDM affects productivity in the banking sector of developing countries. This study examined the impact of DDDM on the productivity of Pakistan’s banking sector from 2016 to 2020 based on primary and secondary data collected from banks registered in Pakistan. The findings suggest that banks who adopt DDDM practices show a 4–7% increase in productivity depending on adjustment to change. We believe this study would shed light on the importance of DDDM in the banking sector of developing countries.
  • Understanding Lived Experiences of Food Insecurity through a Paraliminality Lens

    Moraes, Caroline; McEachern, Morven; Gibbons, Andrea; Scullion, Lisa; University of Bristol; University of Chester; University of Salford; University of Salford (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-30)
    This article examines lived experiences of food insecurity in the United Kingdom as a liminal phenomenon. Our research is set within the context of austerity measures, welfare reform and the precarity experienced by increasing numbers of individuals. Drawing on original qualitative data, we highlight diverse food insecurity experiences as transitional, oscillating between phases of everyday food access to requiring supplementary food, which are both empowering and reinforcing of food insecurity. We make three original contributions to existing research on food insecurity. First, we expand the scope of empirical research by conceptualising food insecurity as liminal. Second, we illuminate shared social processes and practices that intersect individual agency and structure, co-constructing people’s experiences of food insecurity. Third, we extend liminality theory by conceptualising paraliminality, a hybrid of liminal and liminoid phenomena that co-generates a persistent liminal state. Finally, we highlight policy implications that go beyond short-term emergency food access measures.
  • The Role of Community-led Food Retailers in Enabling Urban Resilience

    McEachern, Morven; Warnaby, Gary; Moraes, Caroline; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Birmingham (MDPI, 2021-07-06)
    Our research examines the extent to which community-led food retailers (CLFRs) contribute to the resilience and sustainability of urban retail systems and communities in the UK, contributing to existing debates on the sustainability and resilience of the UK’s urban retail sector. While this literature has predominantly focused on the larger retail multiples, we suggest more attention be paid to small, independent retailers as they possess a broader, more diffuse spatiality and societal impact than that of the immediate locale. Moreover, their local embeddedness and understanding of the needs of the local customer base, provide a key source of potentially sustainable competitive advantage. Using spatial and relational resilience theories, and drawing on 14 original qualitative interviews with CLFRs, we establish the complex links between community, place, social relations, moral values, and resilience that manifest through CLFRs. In doing so, we advance the conceptualization of community resilience by acknowledging that to realize the networked, resilient capacities of a community, the moral values and behavior of the retail community needs to be ascertained. Implications and relevant recommendations are provided to secure a more sustainable set of capacities needed to ensure resilient, urban retail systems, which benefit local communities.
  • Action research to reassess the acceptance and use of technology in a blended learning approach amongst postgraduate business students

    Sanusi, Muhammad S.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2022-11-18)
    Although the pedagogy of blended learning in higher education has been well-accepted since 2000, its dimension has been changing, mainly due to the incessant technological innovations. The impact recorded on students’ experience has been reliant on various factors. Some of these factors are cultural diversity, technical abilities, level of organisational support, language difficulties, educational background, learning environment, and instructional design, among others. In this study, the acceptance and use of technology by international MBA students have been reassessed in the blended learning environment. The motivation for the selection of the cohort of international MBA students as a sample was to enable the inclusion of diversity as one of the focal points of the study. A two-cycle model of action research was adopted to reassess the use of technology and compare the attainment of learning outcomes between the blended and traditional learning approaches. Moreover, multiple regressions were employed using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to test the significance of each variable collected from the survey on the students’ learning experience and engagement. Our results have suggested that students’ engagement is determined by positive learning experience without any bias toward traditional or blended learning approach. Students’ age group was found to be relevant in the determination of behavioural intention, social influence, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and facilitating conditions towards the effective use of technology and blended learning. Students’ gender was an irrelevant factor in the success of a blended learning approach.

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