• The BME student experience at a small northern university: An examination of the experiences of minority ethnic students undertaking undergraduate study within a small northern university

      Davies, Chantal; Garrett, Matt; University of Chester (University of Greenwich, 2012-06)
      This article discusses a small-scale study exploring BME student experiences at a small northern England university using focus groups and interview data. The findings were based on the themes of belonging and segregation, academic and social experiences, differential treatment and equal opportunities, and early education and employability.
    • Book review: Crimes of Mobility. Criminal Law and the Regulation of Immigration, written by Ana Aliverti

      Holiday, Yewa; University of Chester (Brill, 2014)
      Book review: Crimes of Mobility. Criminal Law and the Regulation of Immigration, written by Ana Aliverti
    • The boundaries of legal recognition of personal partnerships: Where and why?

      Kay, Roger (Chester Academic Press, 2006-02)
      This book discusses why Parliament passed the Civil Partnerships Act 2004 to give rights and duties to both same sex couples and other relationships and whether the extent of the rights and duties afford is suitable.
    • Bridging the gap – an exploration of the use of positive action

      Davies, Chantal; Robison, Muriel; University of Chester (2015-06)
      Despite laws in Britain permitting limited positive action initiatives to combat disadvantage faced by minority groups in employment since the mid-1970s, the subject has notoriously been a neglected and highly controversial area in the UK. Notwithstanding the potential provided by sections 158 and 159 of the Equality Act 2010, it still appears that organizations prefer to steer clear of this opportunity to address disadvantage suffered by protected groups. Whilst there is a body of work considering the theoretical importance of positive action in the UK (see inter alia Barmes, 2011; Burrows & Robison, 2006; Johns et al, 2014; McCrudden 1986; Noon, 2010), there is a lack of empirical exploration of the practical implications of these provisions. Qualitative study to determine the utility of the positive action provisions is considered both timely and necessary as we approach the fifth anniversary of the Equality Act 2010. This paper will explore the theoretical context of the current positive action provisions within England, Scotland and Wales. It will also discuss the early findings of a small-scale qualitative study carried out by the authors looking at the experiences of a purposive sample of public and private organisations in light of the potential for positive action in relation to employment in the UK.
    • Bridging the gap: an exploration of the use and impact of positive action in the UK

      Davies, Chantal; Robison, Muriel; University of Chester (Sage, 2016-06-27)
      Despite laws in Britain permitting limited positive action initiatives to combat disadvantage faced by minority groups in employment since the mid-1970s, the subject has notoriously been a neglected and highly controversial area in the UK. Notwithstanding the potential provided by sections 158 and 159 of the Equality Act 2010, it still appears that organisations prefer to steer clear of this opportunity to address disadvantage suffered by protected groups. Whilst there is a body of work considering the theoretical importance of positive action in the UK, there is a lack of empirical exploration of the practical implications of these provisions. This paper will provide a brief overview of the theoretical context and current positive action legislative provisions within the UK. In light of this context, the early findings of a small-scale qualitative study carried out by the authors will be discussed looking at the experiences of a purposive sample of public and private employers in relation to the positive action provisions of the Equality Act 2010. Early research findings suggest that whilst there was a clear willingness and openness by employers to use of outreach measures in order to redress disadvantage, there was evident wariness regarding a move towards preferential treatment as expounded by section 159. Whilst respondents appeared to appreciate the business case for and utility of the positive action measures under section 158, there was far less enthusiasm for more direct preferential treatment, with many respondents raising serious concerns regarding this. These concerns often reflected a highly sensitive risk-based approach towards any action that could expose their organisation to the possibility of “reverse discrimination”.
    • The Children's Convention at 21: The rights of the child come of age?

      Kay, Roger; University of Chester (Unpublished conference presentation given at the International Society of Family Law Regional Conference at University of Ulster, 18-20 June 2010, 2010-06-20)
    • Company Incorporation

      Steel, Wendy; University of Chester (Insight Westlaw, 2016-01-13)
      An overview of company law as it applies to incorporation of the company and the importance of separate corporate personality & the maintenance of the corporate veil.
    • Convention compatible construction: Section 3 of the Human Rights Act 1998

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Thomson Reuters, 2015-11)
      Section 3 Human Rights Act 1998 and convention compliant interpretation
    • The Criminalisation of Irregular Migrants

      Mitsilegas, Valsamis; Holiday, Yewa; Queen Mary University of London; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018)
      The criminalisation of irregular migrants – in relation to irregular entry, residence, and work – is considered against the 1975 and 1990 ILO Migrant Workers Conventions (MWC); the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 (ICCPR); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 (ICESCR); the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG); and the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 2000, including its Protocols to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (‘the Trafficking Protocol’) and against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air (‘the Smuggling Protocol’). The creation of laws, which are generally applied only to foreigners – concerning irregular entry, residence, and work – increases costs and exposure to adverse labour conditions and social vulnerabilities, and also impedes access to justice. The possibilities of criminal conviction, resulting in fines, imprisonment and expulsion contribute to a precarious class of low-skilled migrant. The chapter argues that the criminalisation of migration exacerbates the migrant premium because it decreases income while increasing dependency on employers, smugglers and traffickers and complicates access to human rights protection. The chapter suggests that one of the policy propositions for the Global Compact should be an understanding of how the emphasis internationally, regionally and nationally on smuggling and trafficking and border control has resulted in the criminalisation of irregular migrants – both potential and actual - for the ways in which they enter, leave, reside and work in a country; and that migrants need to be able to manage their working needs in a flexible manner.
    • Crossing the rubicon: an exploration of the use of positive action provisions in Higher Education Institutions in the UK

      Davies, Chantal; Robison, Muriel; University of Chester (2016-01)
      Crossing the rubicon: an exploration of the use of positive action provisions in Higher Education Institutions in the UK
    • Defining the future: An exploration of perceptions of employability of undergraduate minority ethnic student

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Society for Research into Higher Education, 2014-12)
    • Directors' statutory general duties

      Steel, Wendy; University Of Chester (Westlaw, 2016-07-05)
      An article providing a detailed overview of the statutory duties owed by director to their company according to Companies Act 2006
    • Enforcement of family law judgements in the European Union: Report for the Republic of Cyprus

      Sampson, Martha H.; University of Chester (T.M.C.Asser Instituut, 2006)
      This report discusses the enforcement of family law judgements in the Cypriot courts.
    • The Equality Act 2010: Five years on

      Davies, Chantal; Ferreira, Nuno; Morris, Debra; Morris, Anne; University of Chester; Sussex University; University of Liverpool (SAGE, 2016-06-22)
      Editorial for a double edition of the International Journal of Discrimination and the Law based on a conference hosted by the University of Chester in collaboration with the University of Liverpool on the Equality Act 2010.
    • Equality at work? positive action in gender segregated apprenticeships

      Davies, Chantal; University of chester (Young Women's Trust, 2018-06)
      This research explores the attitudes towards and the use of positive action aimed at addressing gender inequality in apprenticeships offered in sectors in which women are underrepresented in England. This research has been conducted as a means of following up recommendations made in research undertaken by the Young Women’s Trust (YWT) in 2016. The YWT report recommended that where it can be shown that the number of women undertaking apprenticeships in any given sector is disproportionately low employers should consider whether they can take positive action to increase the participation of women. It was therefore considered that in the context of apprenticeships, the overwhelming gender disparity in certain sectors and in particular the attitudes towards and use of positive action in resolving this gender disparity required further exploration. The engineering, ICT and construction sectors have therefore been chosen by the researcher and the YWT due to the stark underrepresentation of women in these sectors in England. This research concludes with appropriate specific recommendations on positive action in relation to gender segregated apprenticeships in England within the particular sectors explored. However, it is hoped that these may provide a foundation for the development of wider recommendations in relation to the effective use of positive action initiatives more generally across the protected characteristics and beyond apprenticeships in the UK.
    • Family-friendly working: The role of the Sex Discrimination Act

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (2008-10)
      This article discussed how the Sex Discrimation Act 1975 can be used by employees to request flexible and family-friendly working hours.
    • Gan's Journey from Thailand

      Holiday, Yewa; Gan; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018)
      Gan’s situation is assessed in relation to the 1975 and 1990 ILO Migrant Workers Conventions (MWC). Article 12(g) of the 1975 MWC provides for equal treatment in working conditions for migrants. Article 25(a) of the 1990 MWC provides for equality of treatment in relation to health and article 28 requires access to medical care and safety in working conditions. Gan provides a personal insight into his experience as an international labour migrant in Saudi Arabia and the UK. Gan had a work accident on a construction site which eventually prevented him from working and thus stopped him from sending remittances to his family. Gan’s migrant premium is represented by the burden of ill health, the cost of a private operation in Thailand and its inability to correct his longstanding pain, the initial ignorance of UK doctors of the severity of his health needs, total loss of income and savings and reducing remittances to his family in Thailand. The chapter takes the form of an interview with Gan who generously shares his experiences of his migrant premium. Gan does all he can to fight against his migrant premium by trying to find a way to work despite the pain. However, the migrant premium prevents him from working, something which was – and continues to be - a strong part of his identity. The chapter suggests that one of the policy propositions for the Global Compact should be an understanding of the long term consequences and impact of discriminatory working conditions for the health of international labour migrants.
    • Gendered experiences of academic staff in relation to research activity and the REF2014

      Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; Cliffe, Anthony D.; University of Chester (2016-06)
      This report is based on research commissioned by the institutional Research and Knowledge Transfer Office between June 2015 and June 2016. This research has focused on generating qualitative and quantitative data as to the potential reasons why there appears to be a gender disparity in research productivity within the commissioning institution. In particular, the number of women self-selecting for representation in the REF2014 was comparatively low. This research was led by Dr Chantal Davies (as part of her broader remit in relation to the Forum for Research into Equality and Diversity) with Dr Ruth Healey as co-researcher and Anthony Cliffe as research assistant. A Steering Group made up of representatives from across the institution oversaw the process.