Now showing items 1-20 of 84

    • The process of replication target selection in psychology: what to consider?

      Pittelkow, Merle-Marie; orcid: 0000-0002-7487-7898; email: m.pittelkow@rug.nl; Field, Sarahanne M.; orcid: 0000-0001-7874-1261; Isager, Peder M.; orcid: 0000-0002-6922-3590; van’t Veer, Anna E.; orcid: 0000-0002-2733-1841; Anderson, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0002-2387-5219; Cole, Scott N.; Dominik, Tomáš; orcid: 0000-0003-3004-8710; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; orcid: 0000-0002-6690-8842; Gok, Sebahat; Heyman, Tom; orcid: 0000-0003-0565-441X; et al. (The Royal Society, 2023-02-01)
      Increased execution of replication studies contributes to the effort to restore credibility of empirical research. However, a second generation of problems arises: the number of potential replication targets is at a serious mismatch with available resources. Given limited resources, replication target selection should be well-justified, systematic and transparently communicated. At present the discussion on what to consider when selecting a replication target is limited to theoretical discussion, self-reported justifications and a few formalized suggestions. In this Registered Report, we proposed a study involving the scientific community to create a list of considerations for consultation when selecting a replication target in psychology. We employed a modified Delphi approach. First, we constructed a preliminary list of considerations. Second, we surveyed psychologists who previously selected a replication target with regards to their considerations. Third, we incorporated the results into the preliminary list of considerations and sent the updated list to a group of individuals knowledgeable about concerns regarding replication target selection. Over the course of several rounds, we established consensus regarding what to consider when selecting a replication target. The resulting checklist can be used for transparently communicating the rationale for selecting studies for replication.
    • An indirect supervision model: sharing good practice

      Knight, Kate H; Sanderson, Linda; Hay, Jonathan (Mark Allen Group, 2023-01-26)
    • The effects of prehabilitation on body composition in patients undergoing multimodal therapy for esophageal cancer

      Halliday, Laura J; Boshier, Piers R; Doganay, Emre; Wynter-Blyth, Venetia; Buckley, John P; Moorthy, Krishna (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-07-07)
      Summary Prehabilitation aims to optimize a patient’s functional capacity in preparation for surgery. Esophageal cancer patients have a high incidence of sarcopenia and commonly undergo neoadjuvant therapy, which is associated with loss of muscle mass. This study examines the effects of prehabilitation on body composition during neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer patients. In this cohort study, changes in body composition were compared between esophageal cancer patients who participated in prehabilitation during neoadjuvant therapy and controls who did not receive prehabilitation. Assessment of body composition was performed from CT images acquired at the time of diagnosis and after neoadjuvant therapy. Fifty-one prehabilitation patients and 28 control patients were identified. There was a significantly greater fall in skeletal muscle index (SMI) in the control group compared with the prehabilitation patients (Δ SMI mean difference = −2.2 cm2/m2, 95% CI –4.3 to −0.1, p=0.038). Within the prehabilitation cohort, there was a smaller decline in SMI in patients with ≥75% adherence to exercise in comparison to those with lower adherence (Δ SMI mean difference = −3.2, 95% CI –6.0 to −0.5, P = 0.023). A greater decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was seen with increasing volumes of exercise completed during prehabilitation (P = 0.046). Loss of VAT during neoadjuvant therapy was associated with a lower risk of post-operative complications (P = 0.017). By limiting the fall in SMI and promoting VAT loss, prehabilitation may have multiple beneficial effects in patients with esophageal cancer. Multi-center, randomized studies are needed to further explore these findings.
    • Realizing Green Airport Performance through Green Management Intransigence, Airport Reputation, Biospheric Value, and Eco-Design

      Bamidele, Ruth Oluyemi; orcid: 0000-0002-6091-3800; Ozturen, Ali; orcid: 0000-0001-8879-1916; Haktanir, Mine; Ogunmokun, Oluwatobi A.; orcid: 0000-0002-0095-1522 (MDPI AG, 2023-01-30)
      Studies on the effect of biospheric value, eco-design, and green management intransigence on perceived green performance in the tourism and hospitality industry are gradually emerging. However, more evidence is needed from the aviation industry or airport context, especially in Africa. This cross-sectional study aims to probe and demonstrate the effect of biospheric value on green management intransigence and perceived green performance, the mediating role of management intransigence and biospheric value, and the influence on pro-environmental behavior among airport management and employees. The extended theory of planned behavior (TPBe) and triple bottom line theory (TBL)/sustainable economic development theory (SED) (TBL/SED) set the foundation for this research study. With the case study approach, data were collected through online questionnaires from employees and management staff of two international airports in Lagos and Abuja, Nigeria. This scientific study contributes to the literature on green energy by shedding light on the importance of integrating green practices into airport operations with environmentally friendly programs. Its focus on green management intransigence and its implications on employees’ behavior has received little or no attention. The data were analyzed using PLS-SEM and Importance–performance matrix analysis (IPMA). The IPMA is innovative as it helps to extend the results of PLS-SEM by also taking the importance and performance of each construct into account graphically as it relates to green airport management. IPMA posits that management tends to take actions to improve conditions that enhance factors of most significant concern to stakeholders. Our results reveal the effect of biospheric value and the behaviors of management and nonmanagement staff of the selected airports on the green performance with apparent differences in the group-specific performance. In practice, this implies an urgent need for airport management to review their approach and strategy to sustainable practices, airports’ resilience, and adaptation to climate change for sustainable tourism development. This study advances scientific and practical knowledge of eco-design of airport buildings (EAB), biospheric-value (BV), and green management intransigence (GMI). The findings can assist decision makers and practitioners in embracing green technologies and practices in airport management and operations.
    • A major locus confers triclabendazole resistance in Fasciola hepatica and shows dominant inheritance

      editor: Geary, Timothy G.; Beesley, Nicola J.; orcid: 0000-0003-0557-1833; email: nbeesley@chester.ac.uk; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; Hoyle, Rebecca C.; Spithill, Terry W.; La Course, E. James; Williams, Diana J. L.; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E. (Public Library of Science, 2023-01-26)
      Fasciola hepatica infection is responsible for substantial economic losses in livestock worldwide and poses a threat to human health in endemic areas. The mainstay of control in livestock and the only drug licenced for use in humans is triclabendazole (TCBZ). TCBZ resistance has been reported on every continent and threatens effective control of fasciolosis in many parts of the world. To date, understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying TCBZ resistance has been limited to studies of candidate genes, based on assumptions of their role in drug action. Taking an alternative approach, we combined a genetic cross with whole-genome sequencing to localise a ~3.2Mbp locus within the 1.2Gbp F. hepatica genome that confers TCBZ resistance. We validated this locus independently using bulk segregant analysis of F. hepatica populations and showed that it is the target of drug selection in the field. We genotyped individual parasites and tracked segregation and reassortment of SNPs to show that TCBZ resistance exhibits Mendelian inheritance and is conferred by a dominant allele. We defined gene content within this locus to pinpoint genes involved in membrane transport, (e.g. ATP-binding cassette family B, ABCB1), transmembrane signalling and signal transduction (e.g. GTP-Ras-adenylyl cyclase and EGF-like protein), DNA/RNA binding and transcriptional regulation (e.g. SANT/Myb-like DNA-binding domain protein) and drug storage and sequestration (e.g. fatty acid binding protein, FABP) as prime candidates for conferring TCBZ resistance. This study constitutes the first experimental cross and genome-wide approach for any heritable trait in F. hepatica and is key to understanding the evolution of drug resistance in Fasciola spp. to inform deployment of efficacious anthelmintic treatments in the field.
    • A focus group study of older Chinese people with CVD patients in the North West of the UK.

      Speed, Shaun; Sun, Zeyuan; Liu, Zhenmi (2021-06-03)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Chinese migrants around the world. Chinese CVD patients rely heavily on their native Chinese language, cultural values and beliefs, which adds challenges for the healthcare providers to offer primary healthcare services with standard protocol. The inappropriate treatment could lead to life loss, mistrust in doctor-patient relationship and heavy burden for healthcare funding. 28 participants were included for focus group study with the grounded theory methodology. There is considerable misunderstanding among the Chinese community about the role of primary care doctors in the treatment of cardiovascular disease resulting in the variable use of primary care services. Chinese CVD patients or identified risk factors for CVD arguably need closer management, culturally sensitive advice, support and robust follow-up compared to the general population. Doctors and nurses should enhance their practice and give them confidence in their interaction with Chinese patients on the basis of how they think and behave in relation to help seeking.
    • Macclesfield Baths and Washhouses and its patrons in the nineteenth century

      Griffiths, Sarah; University of Chester (Cheshire Local History Association, 2021-12-31)
      The East Cheshire market town of Macclesfield had grown to become the leading centre of the English silk industry by the mid nineteenth century and this resulted in severe pressure on the town’s inadequate services. One element of the national campaign to improve sanitary conditions in urban areas was the public baths and washhouses movement from the 1840s, which resulted in the Public Baths and Wash-houses Acts in 1846 and 1847. Macclesfield’s Baths and Washhouses opened in January 1850 and it was one of the first provincial towns after Liverpool to provide such facilities. This article will therefore explore the national baths and washhouses movement, the impact of industrialisation on living conditions in Macclesfield, the history of the town’s Baths and Washhouses in the nineteenth century, the people active in its development and the range of motives which may have encouraged their support for this early addition to the public services for inhabitants.
    • xxxx TEST

      xx, x; Thomas, Helen (2021-04-18)
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    • Heuristic assessment of psychological interventions in schools (HAPI Schools)

      Platt, Ian A.; Kannangara, Chathurika; Carson, Jerome; Tytherleigh, Michelle (2021-05-02)
      Abstract: Children spend more time in school than in any other formal setting and, with mental illness in children on the rise, there is more pressure on schools to intervene in student mental health than ever before. In the current study, two phases of semistructured interviews were conducted with school leaders and special educational needs coordinators (Phase 1, N = 23; Phase 2, N = 11), to investigate first‐hand experiences in dealing with student mental illness. Thematic analysis, drawing on Grounded Theory, was used to identify themes. The results identified deprivation as one of the main causes of mental ill‐health in students, with insufficient budgets, inappropriate mental health services, and overly long waiting times as barriers to intervention. Difficulties in identifying appropriate mental health interventions to use in school were also reported. The authors propose a simple four‐point heuristic, for assessing the quality of school‐based mental health interventions to be used by school staff, so that educators can more readily identify appropriate mental health support for their students.
    • Validation of CIP2A as a Biomarker of Subsequent Disease Progression and Treatment Failure in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

      Clark, Richard E.; Basabrain, Ammar A.; Austin, Gemma M.; Holcroft, Alison K.; Loaiza, Sandra; Apperley, Jane F.; Law, Christopher; Scott, Laura; Parry, Alexandra D.; Bonnett, Laura; et al. (MDPI, 2021-04-29)
      Background: It would be clinically useful to prospectively identify the risk of disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (CIP2A) protein is an adverse prognostic indicator in many cancers. Methods: We examined CIP2A protein levels in diagnostic samples from the SPIRIT2 trial in 172 unselected patients, of whom 90 received imatinib and 82 dasatinib as first-line treatment. Results: High CIP2A levels correlated with inferior progression-free survival (p = 0.04) and with worse freedom from progression (p = 0.03), and these effects were confined to dasatinib recipients. High CIP2A levels were associated with a six-fold higher five-year treatment failure rate than low CIP2A levels (41% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.0002), in both imatinib (45% vs. 11%; p = 0.02) and dasatinib recipients (36% vs. 4%; p = 0.007). Imatinib recipients with low CIP2A levels had a greater risk of treatment failure (p = 0.0008). CIP2A levels were independent of Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS (EUropean Treatment and Outcome Study), or EUTOS long-term survival scores (ELTS) or the presence of major route cytogenetic abnormalities. No association was seen between CIP2A levels and time to molecular response or the levels of the CIP2A-related proteins PP2A, SET, SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1), or AKT. Conclusions: These data confirm that high diagnostic CIP2A levels correlate with subsequent disease progression and treatment failure. CIP2A is a simple diagnostic biomarker that may be useful in planning treatment strategies.
    • Toward ‘Vaccine Internationalism’: The Need for an Equitable and Coordinated Global Vaccination Approach to Effectively Combat COVID-19

      Wong, Brian L. H.; Green, Manfred S.; Reid, John; Martin-Moreno, Jose M.; Davidovitch, Nadav; Chambaud, Laurent; Leighton, Lore; Sheek-Hussein, Mohamud; Dhonkal, Ranjeet; Otok, Robert; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-04-14)
    • Evaluation of a ‘drop box’ doorstep assessment service to aid remote assessments for COVID-19 in general practice

      Irving, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9471-3700; Lawson, David; Tinsley, Adele; Parr, Helen; Whittaker, Cheryl; Jones, Hayley; Cox, Stephen (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-28)
      COVID-19 is an established threat whose clinical features and epidemiology continues to evolve. In an effort to contain the disease, the National Health Service has adopted a digital first approach in UK general practice resulting in a significant shift away from face-to-face consultations. Consequently, more consultations are being completed without obtaining objective recording of vital signs and face-to-face examination. Some regions have formed hot hubs to facilitate the review of suspected COVID-19 cases and keep their practice site ‘clean’ including the use of doorstep observations in avoiding the risk of face-to-face examination. To support the safe, effective and efficient remote assessment of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19, we established a doorstep assessment service to compliment telephone and video consultations. This allows physiological parameters such as temperature, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation to be obtained to guide further triage. Quality improvement methods were used to integrate and optimise the doorstep assessment and measure the improvements made. The introduction of a doorstep assessment service increased the proportion of assessments for patients with suspected COVID-19 in routine care over weeks. At the same time we were able to dramatically reduce face-to-face assessment over a 6-week period by optimising through a range of measures including the introduction of a digital stethoscope. The majority of patients were managed by their own general practitioner following assessment supporting continuity of care. There were no adverse events during the period of observation; no staff absences related to COVID-19. Quality improvement methods have facilitated the successful integration of doorstep assessments into clinical care.
    • The Comparative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury in Humans and Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

      Johnson, Louis D V; Pickard, Mark R; Johnson, William E B (2021-03-16)
      Animal models have been used in preclinical research to examine potential new treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI), including mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation. MSC transplants have been studied in early human trials. Whether the animal models represent the human studies is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis has examined the effects of MSC transplants in human and animal studies. Following searches of PubMed, Clinical Trials and the Cochrane Library, published papers were screened, and data were extracted and analysed. MSC transplantation was associated with significantly improved motor and sensory function in humans, and significantly increased locomotor function in animals. However, there are discrepancies between the studies of human participants and animal models, including timing of MSC transplant post-injury and source of MSCs. Additionally, difficulty in the comparison of functional outcome measures across species limits the predictive nature of the animal research. These findings have been summarised, and recommendations for further research are discussed to better enable the translation of animal models to MSC-based human clinical therapy.
    • Blue and grey urban water footprints through citizens’ perception and time series analysis of Brazilian dynamics

      Souza, Felipe Augusto Arguello; Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; Restrepo-Estrada, Camilo; Gober, Patricia; Taffarello, Denise; Tundisi, José Galizia; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario (Informa UK Limited, 2021-03-04)
    • The Fall of the House of Wynnstay: The 1885 Election in East Denbighshire

      Peters, Lisa; University of Chester (University of Wales Press, 2021-06-01)
      This article discusses the 1885 election in East Denbighshire when the Williams-Wynn family of Wynnstay lost the parliamentary seat that the family had represented for over 170 years. The election took place amidst the backdrop of legislative changes to corrupt practices, the electorate, and changing constituency boundaries. Conservative and Liberal party organisation in East Denbighshire is discussed.
    • National Health Service interventions in England to improve care to Armed Forces veterans

      Bacon, Andrew; Martin, E; Swarbrick, R; Treadgold, A (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-19)
      Armed Forces veterans (AFVs) are first and foremost citizens of the UK and are therefore—like all UK residents—entitled to universal healthcare, free at the point of need. This means that AFVs have nearly all their healthcare needs met by the NHS, which provides access to a full range of generic services. However, since 2013 there has been an Armed Forces team that can also support veterans. This review is an assessment of the work of this group over the last eight years. The health needs of AFVs have been investigated and are not significantly different from those of their demographically matched peers. However, due to their demographics, selection at recruitment and their roles, AFVs compared with the general population are more likely to be male, white and old and have fewer pre-existing or hereditary conditions. However, they do suffer from higher rates of musculoskeletal injury, different patterns of mental health illness and have historically been higher users—and abusers—of alcohol and tobacco. In addition to supporting mainstream services used by AFVs, the NHS in England commissions a bespoke range-specific ‘Priority’ NHS services such as those for mental health or for rehabilitation of veterans using prostheses. New interventions are continuing to be developed to improve AFVs’ healthcare and are aligned to the NHS Long Term Plan and the restoration and recovery plans after the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of severe hemophilia B in the United States: Results from the CHESS US and CHESS US+ population surveys

      Burke, Tom; Asghar, Sohaib; O’Hara, Jamie; Sawyer, Eileen K.; Li, Nanxin; email: n.li@uniqure.com (BioMed Central, 2021-03-20)
      Abstract: Background: Hemophilia B is a rare congenital bleeding disorder that has a significant negative impact on patients’ functionality and health-related quality of life. The standard of care for severe hemophilia B in the United States is prophylactic factor IX replacement therapy, which incurs substantial costs for this lifelong condition. Accurate estimates of the burden of hemophilia B are important for population health management and policy decisions, but have only recently accounted for current management strategies. The ‘Cost of Severe Hemophilia across the US: a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS US) is a cross-sectional database of medical record abstractions and physician-reported information, completed by hematologists and care providers. CHESS US+ is a complementary database of completed questionnaires from patients with hemophilia. Together, CHESS US and CHESS US+ provide contemporary, comprehensive information on the burden of severe hemophilia from the provider and patient perspectives. We used the CHESS US and CHESS US+ data to analyze the clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of hemophilia B for patients treated with factor IX prophylaxis between 2017 and 2019 in the US. Results: We conducted analysis to assess clinical burden and direct medical costs from 44 patient records in CHESS US, and of direct non-medical costs, indirect costs, and humanistic burden (using the EQ-5D-5L) from 57 patients in CHESS US+. The mean annual bleed rate was 1.73 (standard deviation, 1.39); approximately 9% of patients experienced a bleed-related hospitalization during the 12-month study period. Nearly all patients (85%) reported chronic pain, and the mean EQ-5D-5L utility value was 0.76 (0.24). The mean annual direct medical cost was $614,886, driven by factor IX treatment (mean annual cost, $611,971). Subgroup analyses showed mean annual costs of $397,491 and $788,491 for standard and extended half-life factor IX treatment, respectively. The mean annual non-medical direct costs and indirect costs of hemophilia B were $2,371 and $6,931. Conclusions: This analysis of patient records and patient-reported outcomes from CHESS US and CHESS US+ provides updated information on the considerable clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of hemophilia B in the US. Substantial unmet needs remain to improve patient care with sustainable population health strategies.
    • Towards flexible personalized learning and the future educational system in the fourth industrial revolution in the wake of Covid-19

      Whalley, Brian; France, Derek; Park, Julian; Mauchline, Alice; welsh, Katharine (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-25)
    • Effect of breakfast cereal type on portion size and nutritional implications.

      Lewis, Isabelle M.; Boote, Lucy; Butler, Tom (2021-02-17)
      The present study aimed to assess the effect of different types of breakfast cereal on portion size and the nutritional implications of potential under or overserving. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using one BC from the 7 established BC manufacturing methods (flaking [F], gun puffed [GP], oven puffed [OP], extruded gun puffed [EGP], shredded wholegrain [SW], biscuit formed [BF], and granola). Participants were asked to pour cereal as if they were serving themselves (freepour). Difference between the freepour and recommended serving size (RSS) were calculated (DFR). The Friedman test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to test for a significant differences between cereal categories. City of Chester, North West of the UK. Adults (n=169; n=110 female, 32±18 years). Freepour values were greater than RSS for all categories of BC. Median values for denser cereals such as SW, granola and oats were significantly (P<0.001) greater than all other categories with granola having the highest median freepour value of 95 g. Median (and range of) DFR weight values for granola were significantly higher than other BCs (50.0 g [-24.0-267.0g], P<0.001). BCs with the lowest median DFRs were F1 (7.0 g [-20-63.0g]), GP (6.0 g [-26.0-69.0g]), EGP (6.0 g [-26.0-56.0g]), OP (5.0 g [-27.0-53.0g]), and BF (0.0 g [-28.2-56.4g]). The degree of overserving may be related to the type of BC with denser cereals more readily overserved. Encouraging manufacturers to reformulate cereals and improving their nutritional properties may have benefit in reducing excess energy intake.