• Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

      Díaz, Sergio; orcid: 0000-0002-3070-0097; Murray, Lindsay; orcid: 0000-0002-7810-9546; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-05)
    • Line blot immunoassays in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: retrospective review of diagnostic accuracy and factors predicting true positive results

      To, Fergus; orcid: 0000-0001-8860-3209; Ventín-Rodríguez, Clara; Elkhalifa, Shuayb; orcid: 0000-0002-6292-6795; Lilleker, James B.; orcid: 0000-0002-9230-4137; Chinoy, Hector; orcid: 0000-0001-6492-1288; email: hector.chinoy@manchester.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2020-07-20)
      Abstract: Background: Line blot immunoassays (LIA) for myositis-specific (MSA) and myositis-associated (MAA) autoantibodies have become commercially available. In the largest study of this kind, we evaluated the clinical performance of a widely used LIA for MSAs and MAAs. Methods: Adults tested for MSA/MAA by LIA at a tertiary myositis centre (January 2016–July 2018) were identified. According to expert-defined diagnoses, true and false positive rates were calculated for strongly and weakly positive autoantibody results within three cohorts: idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), connective tissue disease (CTD) without myositis, and non-CTD/IIM. Factors associated with true positivity were determined. Results: We analysed 342 cases. 67 (19.6%) had IIM, in whom 71 autoantibodies were detected (50 strong positives [70.4%], 21 weak positives [29.6%]). Of the strong positives, 48/50 (96.0%; 19 MSAs, 29 MAAs) were deemed true positives. Of the weak positives, 15/21 (71.4%; 3 MSAs, 12 MAAs) were deemed true positives. In CTD without myositis cases (n = 120), 31/61 (51.0%; 5 MSAs, 26 MAAs) autoantibodies were strongly positive, with 24/31 (77.4%; 0 MSAs, 24 MAAs) true positives. 30/61 (49.2%; 13 MSAs, 17 MAAs) were weakly positive, with 16/30 (53.3%; 0 MSAs, 16 MAAs) true positives. In non-CTD/IIM cases (n = 155), all 24 MSAs and 22 MAAs were false positives; these results included 17 (37.0%; 7 MSAs, 10 MAAs) strong positives. Individual autoantibody specificities were > 98.2 and > 97.5% for weakly and strongly positive results, respectively. True positivity was associated with high pre-test for IIM (odds ratio 50.8, 95% CI 13.7–189.2, p < 0.001) and strong positive (versus weak positive) results (4.4, 2.3–8.3, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We demonstrated the high specificity of a myositis LIA in a clinical setting. However, a significant burden of false positive results was evident in those with a low pre-test likelihood of IIM and for weakly positive autoantibodies.
    • Liothyronine and levothyroxine prescribing in England: A comprehensive survey and evaluation

      Stedman, Mike; orcid: 0000-0002-0491-7823; Taylor, Peter; Premawardhana, Lakdasa; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Dayan, Colin; Heald, Adrian H.; orcid: 0000-0002-9537-4050; email: adrian.heald@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-06)
      Abstract: Introduction: The approach to thyroid hormone replacement varies across centres, but the extent and determinants of variation is unclear. We evaluated geographical variation in levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3) prescribing across General Practices in England and analysed the relationship of prescribing patterns to clinical and socioeconomic factors. Methods: Data was downloaded from the NHS monthly General Practice Prescribing Data in England for the period 2011‐2020. Results: The study covered a population of 19.4 million women over 30 years of age, attending 6,660 GP practices and being provided with 33.7 million prescriptions of LT4 and LT3 at a total cost of £90million/year. Overall, 0.5% of levothyroxine treated patients continue to receive liothyronine. All Clinical Commission Groups (CCGs) in England continue to have at least one liothyronine prescribing practice and 48.5% of English general practices prescribed liothyronine in 2019‐2020. Factors strongly influencing more levothyroxine prescribing (model accounted for 62% of variance) were the CCG to which the practice belonged and the proportion of people with diabetes registered on the practice list plus antidepressant prescribing, with socioeconomic disadvantage associated with less levothyroxine prescribing. Whereas factors that were associated with increased levels of liothyronine prescribing (model accounted for 17% of variance), were antidepressant prescribing and % of type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals achieving HbA1c control of 58 mmol/mol or less. Factors that were associated with reduced levels of liothyronine prescribing included smoking and higher obesity rates. Conclusion: In spite of strenuous attempts to limit prescribing of liothyronine in general practice a significant number of patients continue to receive this therapy, although there is significant geographical variation in the prescribing of this as for levothyroxine, with specific general practice and CCG‐related factors influencing prescribing of both levothyroxine and liothyronine across England.
    • Local Analysis of Heterogeneous Intracellular Transport: Slow and Fast Moving Endosomes

      Korabel, Nickolay; email: nickolay.korabel@manchester.ac.uk; Han, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0002-9088-1651; email: daniel.han@manchester.ac.uk; Taloni, Alessandro; orcid: 0000-0002-8863-7166; email: alessandro.taloni@isc.cnr.it; Pagnini, Gianni; email: gpagnini@bcamath.org; Fedotov, Sergei; email: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Allan, Viki; email: viki.allan@manchester.ac.uk; Waigh, Thomas Andrew; email: t.a.waigh@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-27)
      Trajectories of endosomes inside living eukaryotic cells are highly heterogeneous in space and time and diffuse anomalously due to a combination of viscoelasticity, caging, aggregation and active transport. Some of the trajectories display switching between persistent and anti-persistent motion, while others jiggle around in one position for the whole measurement time. By splitting the ensemble of endosome trajectories into slow moving subdiffusive and fast moving superdiffusive endosomes, we analyzed them separately. The mean squared displacements and velocity auto-correlation functions confirm the effectiveness of the splitting methods. Applying the local analysis, we show that both ensembles are characterized by a spectrum of local anomalous exponents and local generalized diffusion coefficients. Slow and fast endosomes have exponential distributions of local anomalous exponents and power law distributions of generalized diffusion coefficients. This suggests that heterogeneous fractional Brownian motion is an appropriate model for both fast and slow moving endosomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: “Recent Advances In Single-Particle Tracking: Experiment and Analysis” edited by Janusz Szwabiński and Aleksander Weron.
    • Lockdown, slow down: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity-an observational study.

      Taylor, Joanne Kathryn; orcid: 0000-0001-9882-0119; email: joanne.taylor-2@manchester.ac.uk; Ndiaye, Haarith; Daniels, Matthew; Ahmed, Fozia (2021-06-01)
      <h4>Aims</h4>In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK was placed under strict lockdown measures on 23 March 2020. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects on physical activity (PA) levels using data from the prospective Triage-HF Plus Evaluation study.<h4>Methods</h4>This study represents a cohort of adult patients with implanted cardiac devices capable of measuring activity by embedded accelerometery via a remote monitoring platform. Activity data were available for the 4 weeks pre-implementation and post implementation of 'stay at home' lockdown measures in the form of 'minutes active per day' (min/day).<h4>Results</h4>Data were analysed for 311 patients (77.2% men, mean age 68.8, frailty 55.9%. 92.2% established heart failure (HF) diagnosis, of these 51.2% New York Heart Association II), with comorbidities representative of a real-world cohort.Post-lockdown, a significant reduction in median PA equating to 20.8 active min/day was seen. The reduction was uniform with a slightly more pronounced drop in PA for women, but no statistically significant difference with respect to age, body mass index, frailty or device type. Activity dropped in the immediate 2-week period post-lockdown, but steadily returned thereafter. Median activity week 4 weeks post-lockdown remained significantly lower than 4 weeks pre-lockdown (p≤0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a population of predominantly HF patients with cardiac devices, activity reduced by approximately 20 min active per day in the immediate aftermath of strict COVID-19 lockdown measures.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT04177199.
    • Lockdown, slow down: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity-an observational study.

      Taylor, Joanne Kathryn; orcid: 0000-0001-9882-0119; email: joanne.taylor-2@manchester.ac.uk; Ndiaye, Haarith; Daniels, Matthew; Ahmed, Fozia; Triage-HF Plus investigators (2021-06)
      In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK was placed under strict lockdown measures on 23 March 2020. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects on physical activity (PA) levels using data from the prospective Triage-HF Plus Evaluation study. This study represents a cohort of adult patients with implanted cardiac devices capable of measuring activity by embedded accelerometery via a remote monitoring platform. Activity data were available for the 4 weeks pre-implementation and post implementation of 'stay at home' lockdown measures in the form of 'minutes active per day' (min/day). Data were analysed for 311 patients (77.2% men, mean age 68.8, frailty 55.9%. 92.2% established heart failure (HF) diagnosis, of these 51.2% New York Heart Association II), with comorbidities representative of a real-world cohort.Post-lockdown, a significant reduction in median PA equating to 20.8 active min/day was seen. The reduction was uniform with a slightly more pronounced drop in PA for women, but no statistically significant difference with respect to age, body mass index, frailty or device type. Activity dropped in the immediate 2-week period post-lockdown, but steadily returned thereafter. Median activity week 4 weeks post-lockdown remained significantly lower than 4 weeks pre-lockdown (p≤0.001). In a population of predominantly HF patients with cardiac devices, activity reduced by approximately 20 min active per day in the immediate aftermath of strict COVID-19 lockdown measures. NCT04177199. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Loneliness and Scholastic Self-Beliefs among Adolescents: A Population-based Survey

      Eccles, Alice M.; orcid: 0000-0002-1618-4436; Qualter, Pamela; Madsen, Katrine Rich; orcid: 0000-0002-6591-9849; Holstein, Bjørn E. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-10-18)
    • Longitudinal assessment of lung clearance index to monitor disease progression in children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

      Horsley, Alex R; orcid: 0000-0003-1828-0058; email: alexander.horsley@manchester.ac.uk; Belcher, John; Bayfield, Katie; Bianco, Brooke; Cunningham, Steve; orcid: 0000-0001-7342-251X; Fullwood, Catherine; Jones, Andrew; Shawcross, Anna; Smith, Jaclyn A; orcid: 0000-0001-8837-4928; Maitra, Anirban; et al. (2021-07-22)
      Lung clearance index (LCI) is a valuable research tool in cystic fibrosis (CF) but clinical application has been limited by technical challenges and uncertainty about how to interpret longitudinal change. In order to help inform clinical practice, this study aimed to assess feasibility, repeatability and longitudinal LCI change in children and adults with CF with predominantly mild baseline disease. Prospective, 3-year, multicentre, observational study of repeated LCI measurement at time of clinical review in patients with CF >5 years, delivered using a rapid wash-in system. 112 patients completed at least one LCI assessment and 98 (90%) were still under follow-up at study end. The median (IQR) age was 14.7 (8.6-22.2) years and the mean (SD) FEV z-score was -1.2 (1.3). Of 81 subjects with normal FEV (>-2 z-scores), 63% had raised LCI (indicating worse lung function). For repeat stable measurements within 6 months, the mean (limits of agreement) change in LCI was 0.9% (-18.8% to 20.7%). A latent class growth model analysis identified four discrete clusters with high accuracy, differentiated by baseline LCI and FEV . Baseline LCI was the strongest factor associated with longitudinal change. The median total test time was under 19 min. Most patients with CF with well-preserved lung function show stable LCI over time. Cluster behaviours can be identified and baseline LCI is a risk factor for future progression. These results support the use of LCI in clinical practice in identifying patients at risk of lung function decline. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Loss of mRNA surveillance pathways results in widespread protein aggregation

      Jamar, Nur Hidayah; Kritsiligkou, Paraskevi; orcid: 0000-0003-2452-141X; Grant, Chris M.; orcid: 0000-0002-0616-6576; email: chris.grant@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2018-03-01)
      Abstract: Eukaryotic cells contain translation-associated mRNA surveillance pathways which prevent the production of potentially toxic proteins from aberrant mRNA translation events. We found that loss of mRNA surveillance pathways in mutants deficient in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), no-go decay (NGD) and nonstop decay (NSD) results in increased protein aggregation. We have isolated and identified the proteins that aggregate and our bioinformatic analyses indicates that increased aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins is a general occurrence in mRNA surveillance mutants, rather than being attributable to specific pathways. The proteins that aggregate in mRNA surveillance mutants tend to be more highly expressed, more abundant and more stable proteins compared with the wider proteome. There is also a strong correlation with the proteins that aggregate in response to nascent protein misfolding and an enrichment for proteins that are substrates of ribosome-associated Hsp70 chaperones, consistent with susceptibility for aggregation primarily occurring during translation/folding. We also identified a significant overlap between the aggregated proteins in mRNA surveillance mutants and ageing yeast cells suggesting that translation-dependent protein aggregation may be a feature of the loss of proteostasis that occurs in aged cell populations.
    • Loss of mRNA surveillance pathways results in widespread protein aggregation

      Jamar, Nur Hidayah; Kritsiligkou, Paraskevi; orcid: 0000-0003-2452-141X; Grant, Chris M.; orcid: 0000-0002-0616-6576; email: chris.grant@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2018-03-01)
      Abstract: Eukaryotic cells contain translation-associated mRNA surveillance pathways which prevent the production of potentially toxic proteins from aberrant mRNA translation events. We found that loss of mRNA surveillance pathways in mutants deficient in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), no-go decay (NGD) and nonstop decay (NSD) results in increased protein aggregation. We have isolated and identified the proteins that aggregate and our bioinformatic analyses indicates that increased aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins is a general occurrence in mRNA surveillance mutants, rather than being attributable to specific pathways. The proteins that aggregate in mRNA surveillance mutants tend to be more highly expressed, more abundant and more stable proteins compared with the wider proteome. There is also a strong correlation with the proteins that aggregate in response to nascent protein misfolding and an enrichment for proteins that are substrates of ribosome-associated Hsp70 chaperones, consistent with susceptibility for aggregation primarily occurring during translation/folding. We also identified a significant overlap between the aggregated proteins in mRNA surveillance mutants and ageing yeast cells suggesting that translation-dependent protein aggregation may be a feature of the loss of proteostasis that occurs in aged cell populations.
    • Lost Property and the Materiality of Absence

      Holmes, Helen; orcid: 0000-0002-4918-2007; email: helen.holmes@manchester.ac.uk; Ehgartner, Ulrike (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-02)
      This article explores material loss and develops a new conceptual agenda. Synthesising and developing debates on the sociology of consumption and material culture in combination with those of the sociology of nothing, it argues that material loss is crucial to understanding people’s everyday relationships to the material world and to practices of consumption. Abstract notions of absence, nothingness and loss are becoming increasingly intriguing phenomena for sociologists interested in the everyday. However, whilst their theoretical connotations are being discussed more and more, empirical investigation into these phenomena remains somewhat (ironically) absent. This article draws on a recent project exploring lost property, based on qualitative interviews with lost property offices, households and museums. Developing previous work on material affinities and material culture, the authors argue that lost property reveals the enduring relationships people have with objects which are no longer in their possession. These relationships disrupt and develop contemporary debates on the sociology of consumption regarding how objects are devalued, divested and disposed of, as well as how they are acquired, appropriated and appreciated. In turn, we contend that the transformative potential of material loss and absence offers a way of thinking about alternative, non-material practices of accumulation.
    • Low dose cone beam CT for paediatric image-guided radiotherapy: image quality and practical recommendations.

      Bryce-Atkinson, Abigail; email: abigail.bryce-atkinson@manchester.ac.uk; De Jong, Rianne; Marchant, Tom; Whitfield, Gillian; Aznar, Marianne C; Bel, Arjan; van Herk, Marcel (2021-07-31)
      Cone beam CT (CBCT) is used in paediatric image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for patient setup and internal anatomy assessment. Adult CBCT protocols lead to excessive doses in children, increasing the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. Reducing imaging dose increases quantum noise, degrading image quality. Patient CBCTs also include 'anatomical noise' (e.g. motion artefacts), further degrading quality. We determine noise contributions in paediatric CBCT, recommending practical imaging protocols and thresholds above which increasing dose yields no improvement in image quality. 60 CBCTs including the thorax or abdomen/pelvis from 7 paediatric patients (aged 6-13 years) were acquired at a range of doses and used to simulate lower dose scans, totalling 192 scans (0.5-12.8mGy). Noise measured in corresponding regions of each patient and a 10-year-old phantom were compared, modelling total (including anatomical) noise, and quantum noise contributions as a function of dose. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between fat/muscle. Soft tissue registration was performed on the kidneys, comparing accuracy to the highest dose scans. Quantum noise contributed <20% to total noise in all cases, suggesting anatomical noise is the largest determinant of image quality in the abdominal/pelvic region. CNR exceeded 3 in over 90% of cases ≥1mGy, and 57% of cases at 0.5mGy. Soft tissue registration was accurate for doses >1mGy. Anatomical noise dominates quantum noise in paediatric CBCT. Appropriate soft tissue contrast and registration accuracy can be achieved for doses as low as 1mGy. Increasing dose above 1mGy holds no benefit in improving image quality or registration accuracy due to the presence of anatomical noise. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]
    • Low-Cost Multisensor Integrated System for Online Walking Gait Detection

      Academic Editor: Ruiz, Carlos; email: carlos.ruiz@unavarra.es; Yan, Lingyun; orcid: 0000-0002-9986-2182; email: lingyun.yan@manchester.ac.uk; Wei, Guowu; orcid: 0000-0003-2613-902X; email: g.wei@salford.ac.uk; Hu, Zheqi; email: zheqi.hu@manchester.ac.uk; Xiu, Haohua; email: xiuhh@jlu.edu.cn; Wei, Yuyang; email: yuyang.wei@manchester.ac.uk; Ren, Lei; orcid: 0000-0003-3222-2102; email: lei.ren@manchester.ac.uk (Hindawi, 2021-08-14)
      A three-dimensional motion capture system is a useful tool for analysing gait patterns during walking or exercising, and it is frequently applied in biomechanical studies. However, most of them are expensive. This study designs a low-cost gait detection system with high accuracy and reliability that is an alternative method/equipment in the gait detection field to the most widely used commercial system, the virtual user concept (Vicon) system. The proposed system integrates mass-produced low-cost sensors/chips in a compact size to collect kinematic data. Furthermore, an x86 mini personal computer (PC) running at 100 Hz classifies motion data in real-time. To guarantee gait detection accuracy, the embedded gait detection algorithm adopts a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model and a rule-based calibration filter to classify kinematic data into five distinct gait events: heel-strike, foot-flat, heel-off, toe-off, and initial-swing. To evaluate performance, volunteers are requested to walk on the treadmill at a regular walking speed of 4.2 km/h while kinematic data are recorded by a low-cost system and a Vicon system simultaneously. The gait detection accuracy and relative time error are estimated by comparing the classified gait events in the study with the Vicon system as a reference. The results show that the proposed system obtains a high accuracy of 99.66% with a smaller time error (32 ms), demonstrating that it performs similarly to the Vicon system in the gait detection field.
    • Low-sound-level auditory processing in noise-exposed adults.

      Perugia, Emanuele; email: emanuele.perugia@manchester.ac.uk; Plack, Christopher J; Stone, Michael A; email: michael.stone@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-09)
      Early signs of noise-induced hearing damage are difficult to identify, as they are often confounded by factors such as age, audiometric thresholds, or even music experience. Much previous research has focused on deficits observed at high intensity levels. In contrast, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that noise exposure causes a degradation in low-sound-level auditory processing in humans, as a consequence of dysfunction of the inner hair cell pathway. Frequency difference limens (FDLs) and amplitude modulation depth discrimination (MDD) were measured for five center frequencies (0.75, 1, 3, 4 and 6 kHz) at 15 and 25 dB sensation level (SL), as a function of noise exposure, age, audiometric hearing loss, and music experience. Forty participants, aged 33-75 years, with normal hearing up to 1 kHz and mild-to-moderate hearing loss above 2 kHz, were tested. Participants had varying degrees of self-reported noise exposure, and varied in music experience. FDL worsened as a function of age. Participants with music experience outperformed the non-experienced in both the FDL and MDD tasks. MDD thresholds were significantly better for high-noise-exposed, than for low-noise-exposed, participants at 25 dB SL, particularly at 6 kHz. No effects of age or hearing loss were observed in the MDD. It is possible that the association between MDD thresholds and noise exposure was not causal, but instead was mediated by other factors that were not measured in the study. The association is consistent, qualitatively, with a hypothesized loss of compression due to outer hair cell dysfunction. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]
    • Lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, including selective clinical outcome measures

      Hughes, Stephen F.; Hendricks, Beverly D.; Edwards, David R.; Bastawrous, Salah S.; Middleton, Jim F.; University of Chester; Keele University; Glan Clwyd Hospital; Gwynedd Hospital; University of Bristol (BioMed Central, 2013-11-09)
      Background: With an aging society and raised expectations, joint replacement surgery is likely to increase significantly in the future. The development of postoperative complications following joint replacement surgery (for example, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and deep vein thrombosis) is also likely to increase. Despite considerable progress in orthopaedic surgery, comparing a range of biological markers with the ultimate aim of monitoring or predicting postoperative complications has not yet been extensively researched. The aim of this clinical pilot study was to test the hypothesis that lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation, non-specific markers of inflammation (primary objective) and selective clinical outcome measures (secondary objective). Methods Test subjects were scheduled for elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery due to osteoarthritis (n = 10). Platelet counts and D-dimer concentrations were measured to assess any changes to coagulation function. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured as markers of non-specific inflammation. Patients were monitored regularly to assess for any signs of postoperative complications, including blood transfusions, oedema (knee swelling), wound infection, pain and fever. Results THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery resulted in similar changes of coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, suggestive of increased coagulation and inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in an increase in platelet (P = 0.013, THR) and D-dimer (P = 0.009, TKR) concentrations. Evidence of increased inflammation was demonstrated by an increase in CRP and ESR (P ≤ 0.05, THR and TKR). Four patients received blood transfusions (two THR and two TKR patients), with maximal oedema, pain and aural temperatures peaking between days 1 and 3 postoperatively, for both THR and TKR surgery. None of the patients developed postoperative infections. Conclusions The most noticeable changes in biological markers occur during days 1 to 3 postoperatively for both THR and TKR surgery, and these may have an effect on such postoperative clinical outcomes as oedema, pyrexia and pain. This study may assist in understanding the postoperative course following lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and may help clinicians in planning postoperative management and patient care.
    • Lower pollen nutritional quality delays nest building and egg laying in Bombus terrestris audax micro-colonies leading to reduced biomass gain

      Ryder, Jordan T.; Cherrill, Andrew; Thompson, Helen M.; Walters, Keith F. A.; orcid: 0000-0002-5262-3125; email: kwalters@ic.ac.uk (Springer Paris, 2021-09-27)
      Abstract: The performance of Bombus terrestris micro-colonies fed five diets differing in pollen species composition and level of nine essential amino acids (EAA; leucine, lysine, valine, arginine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, histidine, methionine) was assessed for 37 days by recording total biomass gain, nest building initiation, brood production (eggs, small and large larvae, pupae, drones), nectar, and pollen collection. Stronger colony performance was linked to higher amino acid levels but no consistent differences in biomass gain were recorded between mono- and poly-species diets. Poorest performance occurred in micro-colonies offered pure oilseed rape (OSR) pollen which contained the lowest EAA levels. Reduced micro-colony development (delayed nest initiation and lower brood production) was related to OSR proportion in the diet and lower EAA levels. Results are discussed in relation to selection of plant species in the design of habitats to promote bee populations.
    • Mabel Elizabeth Tomlinson and Isabel Ellie Knaggs: two overlooked early female Fellows of the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractThe first female Fellows of the Geological Society of London were elected in May 1919. Brief biographies were documented by Burek in 2009 as part of the celebrations for the bicentenary of the Geological Society. While some of those women were well known (e.g. Gertrude Elles and Ethel Wood), others had seemingly been forgotten. In the decade since that publication, information has come to light about those we knew so little about. There are, however, still some details evading research. From 1919 until 1925, 33 women were elected FGS, including Isobel Ellie Knaggs (1922) and Mabel Tomlinson (1924). Mabel Tomlinson had two careers, and is remembered both as an extraordinary teacher and a Pleistocene geologist. She was awarded the Lyell Fund in 1937 and R.H. Worth Prize in 1961, one of only 13 women to have received two awards from the Geological Society. She inspired the educational Tomlinson–Brown Trust. Isabel Knaggs was born in South Africa and died in Australia but spent all her school, university and working years in England. She made significant contributions to crystallography, working with eminent crystallography scientists while remaining a lifelong FGS. The achievements of Tomlinson and Knaggs are considerable, which makes their relative present-day obscurity rather puzzling.
    • Macclesfield Baths and Washhouses and its patrons in the nineteenth century

      Griffiths, Sarah; University of Chester (Cheshire Local History Association, 2021-12-31)
      The East Cheshire market town of Macclesfield had grown to become the leading centre of the English silk industry by the mid nineteenth century and this resulted in severe pressure on the town’s inadequate services. One element of the national campaign to improve sanitary conditions in urban areas was the public baths and washhouses movement from the 1840s, which resulted in the Public Baths and Wash-houses Acts in 1846 and 1847. Macclesfield’s Baths and Washhouses opened in January 1850 and it was one of the first provincial towns after Liverpool to provide such facilities. This article will therefore explore the national baths and washhouses movement, the impact of industrialisation on living conditions in Macclesfield, the history of the town’s Baths and Washhouses in the nineteenth century, the people active in its development and the range of motives which may have encouraged their support for this early addition to the public services for inhabitants.
    • Machine Learning-Based Condition Monitoring for PV Systems: State of the Art and Future Prospects

      Berghout, Tarek; email: t.berghout@univ-batna2.dz; Benbouzid, Mohamed; orcid: 0000-0002-4844-508X; email: Mohamed.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr; Bentrcia, Toufik; email: t.bentrcia@univ-batna2.dz; Ma, Xiandong; email: xiandong.ma@lancaster.ac.uk; Djurović, Siniša; orcid: 0000-0001-7700-6492; email: Sinisa.Durovic@manchester.ac.uk; Mouss, Leïla-Hayet; email: h.mouss@univ-batna2.dz (MDPI, 2021-10-03)
      To ensure the continuity of electric power generation for photovoltaic systems, condition monitoring frameworks are subject to major enhancements. The continuous uniform delivery of electric power depends entirely on a well-designed condition maintenance program. A just-in-time task to deal with several naturally occurring faults can be correctly undertaken via the cooperation of effective detection, diagnosis, and prognostic analyses. Therefore, the present review first outlines different failure modes to which all photovoltaic systems are subjected, in addition to the essential integrated detection methods and technologies. Then, data-driven paradigms, and their contribution to solving this prediction problem, are also explored. Accordingly, this review primarily investigates the different learning architectures used (i.e., ordinary, hybrid, and ensemble) in relation to their learning frameworks (i.e., traditional and deep learning). It also discusses the extension of machine learning to knowledge-driven approaches, including generative models such as adversarial networks and transfer learning. Finally, this review provides insights into different works to highlight various operating conditions and different numbers and types of failures, and provides links to some publicly available datasets in the field. The clear organization of the abundant information on this subject may result in rigorous guidelines for the trends adopted in the future.
    • Magic under the microscope.

      Haigh, S J; orcid: 0000-0001-5509-6706; email: sarah.haigh@manchester.ac.uk; Gorbachev, R; orcid: 0000-0003-3604-5617 (2021-07)