• “It is not the same”: relationships and dementia

      Benbow, Susan Mary; Tsaroucha, Anna; Sharman, Victoria (Informa UK Limited, 2019-08-28)
    • “It’s about portraying that we are organised …” A case study looking at understanding identity changes within one Free school’s Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) programme

      Williams, Gareth; orcid: 0000-0001-5332-2116; Burrows, Adam; orcid: 0000-0002-2922-9808; Williams, Dean; orcid: 0000-0002-8892-347X (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-20)
    • IVEN: A quantitative tool to describe 3D cell position and neighbourhood reveals architectural changes in FGF4-treated preimplantation embryos

      editor: Brickman, Joshua Mark; Forsyth, Jessica E.; orcid: 0000-0002-5839-9160; Al-Anbaki, Ali H.; de la Fuente, Roberto; orcid: 0000-0002-7567-032X; Modare, Nikkinder; orcid: 0000-0001-5417-5795; Perez-Cortes, Diego; Rivera, Isabel; orcid: 0000-0002-2026-3428; Seaton Kelly, Rowena; orcid: 0000-0002-0183-9954; Cotter, Simon; orcid: 0000-0001-5974-7393; Plusa, Berenika; orcid: 0000-0003-2214-5940; email: berenika.plusa@manchester.ac.uk (Public Library of Science, 2021-07-26)
      Architectural changes at the cellular and organism level are integral and necessary to successful development and growth. During mammalian preimplantation development, cells reduce in size and the architecture of the embryo changes significantly. Such changes must be coordinated correctly to ensure continued development of the embryo and, ultimately, a successful pregnancy. However, the nature of such transformations is poorly defined during mammalian preimplantation development. In order to quantitatively describe changes in cell environment and organism architecture, we designed Internal Versus External Neighbourhood (IVEN). IVEN is a user-interactive, open-source pipeline that classifies cells into different populations based on their position and quantifies the number of neighbours of every cell within a dataset in a 3D environment. Through IVEN-driven analyses, we show how transformations in cell environment, defined here as changes in cell neighbourhood, are related to changes in embryo geometry and major developmental events during preimplantation mammalian development. Moreover, we demonstrate that modulation of the FGF pathway alters spatial relations of inner cells and neighbourhood distributions, leading to overall changes in embryo architecture. In conjunction with IVEN-driven analyses, we uncover differences in the dynamic of cell size changes over the preimplantation period and determine that cells within the mammalian embryo initiate growth phase only at the time of implantation.
    • JGHE paper types

      Higgit, David; France, Derek (Informa UK Limited, 2020-06-07)
    • Journey of vulnerability: a mixed-methods study to understand intrapartum transfers in Tanzania and Zambia

      Lavender, Tina; orcid: 0000-0003-1473-4956; email: Tina.lavender@manchester.ac.uk; Bedwell, Carol; Blaikie, Kieran; Danna, Valentina Actis; Sutton, Chris; Kasengele, Chowa Tembo; Wakasiaka, Sabina; Vwalika, Bellington; Laisser, Rose (BioMed Central, 2020-05-14)
      Abstract: Background: Timely intrapartum referral between facilities is pivotal in reducing maternal/neonatal mortality and morbidity but is distressing to women, resource-intensive and likely to cause delays in care provision. We explored the complexities around referrals to gain understanding of the characteristics, experiences and outcomes of those being transferred. Methods: We used a mixed-method parallel convergent design, in Tanzania and Zambia. Quantitative data were collected from a consecutive, retrospective case-note review (target, n = 2000); intrapartum transfers and stillbirths were the outcomes of interest. A grounded theory approach was adopted for the qualitative element; data were collected from semi-structured interviews (n = 85) with women, partners and health providers. Observations (n = 33) of transfer were also conducted. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, followed by binary logistic regression models, with multiple imputation for missing data. Qualitative data were analysed using Strauss’s constant comparative approach. Results: Intrapartum transfer rates were 11% (111/998; 2 unknown) in Tanzania and 37% (373/996; 1 unknown) in Zambia. Main reasons for transfer were prolonged/obstructed labour and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Women most likely to be transferred were from Zambia (as opposed to Tanzania), HIV positive, attended antenatal clinic < 4 times and living > 30 min away from the referral hospital. Differences were observed between countries. Of those transferred, delays in care were common and an increase in poor outcomes was observed. Qualitative findings identified three categories: social threats to successful transfer, barriers to timely intrapartum care and reparative interventions which were linked to a core category: journey of vulnerability. Conclusion: Although intrapartum transfers are inevitable, modifiable factors exist with the potential to improve the experience and outcomes for women. Effective transfers rely on adequate resources, effective transport infrastructures, social support and appropriate decision-making. However, women’s (and families) vulnerability can be reduced by empathic communication, timely assessment and a positive birth outcome; this can improve women’s resilience and influence positive decision-making, for the index and future pregnancy.
    • Keto-on-the-Clock: A Survey of Dietetic Care Contact Time Taken to Provide Ketogenic Diets for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy in the UK

      Lambert, Bridget; email: bridgetlambert@vitaflo.co.uk; Lightfoot, Kathryn; email: kathryn.lightfoot@nhs.net; Meskell, Rachel; email: r.meskell@nhs.net; Whiteley, Victoria J.; email: victoria.whiteley@mft.nhs.uk; Martin-McGill, Kirsty J.; email: k.martinmcgill@chester.ac.uk; Schoeler, Natasha E.; orcid: 0000-0001-6202-1497; email: n.schoeler@ucl.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-21)
      Medical ketogenic diets (KDs) are effective yet resource-intensive treatment options for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). We investigated dietetic care contact time, as no recent data exist. An online survey was circulated to ketogenic dietitians in the UK and Ireland. Data were collected considering feeding route, KD variant and type of ketogenic enteral feed (KEF), and the estimated number of hours spent on patient-related activities during the patient journey. Fifteen dietitians representing nine KD centres responded. Of 335 patients, 267 (80%) were 18 years old or under. Dietitians spent a median of 162 h (IQR 54) of care contact time per patient of which a median of 48% (IQR 6) was direct contact. Most time was required for the classical KD taken orally (median 193 h; IQR 213) as a combined tube and oral intake (median 211 h; IQR 172) or a blended food KEF (median 189 h; IQR 148). Care contact time per month was higher for all KDs during the three-month initial trial compared to the two-year follow-up stage. Patients and caregivers with characteristics such as learning or language difficulties were identified as taking longer. Twelve out of fifteen (80%) respondents managed patients following the KD for more than two years, requiring an estimated median contact care time of 2 h (IQR 2) per patient per month. Ten out of fifteen (67%) reported insufficient official hours for dietetic activities. Our small survey gives insight into estimated dietetic care contact time, with potential application for KD provision and service delivery
    • Keto-on-the-Clock: A Survey of Dietetic Care Contact Time Taken to Provide Ketogenic Diets for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy in the UK.

      Lambert, Bridget; Lightfoot, Kathryn; Meskell, Rachel; Whiteley, Victoria J; Martin-McGill, Kirsty J; Schoeler, Natasha E; orcid: 0000-0001-6202-1497 (2021-07-21)
      Medical ketogenic diets (KDs) are effective yet resource-intensive treatment options for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). We investigated dietetic care contact time, as no recent data exist. An online survey was circulated to ketogenic dietitians in the UK and Ireland. Data were collected considering feeding route, KD variant and type of ketogenic enteral feed (KEF), and the estimated number of hours spent on patient-related activities during the patient journey. Fifteen dietitians representing nine KD centres responded. Of 335 patients, 267 (80%) were 18 years old or under. Dietitians spent a median of 162 h (IQR 54) of care contact time per patient of which a median of 48% (IQR 6) was direct contact. Most time was required for the classical KD taken orally (median 193 h; IQR 213) as a combined tube and oral intake (median 211 h; IQR 172) or a blended food KEF (median 189 h; IQR 148). Care contact time per month was higher for all KDs during the three-month initial trial compared to the two-year follow-up stage. Patients and caregivers with characteristics such as learning or language difficulties were identified as taking longer. Twelve out of fifteen (80%) respondents managed patients following the KD for more than two years, requiring an estimated median contact care time of 2 h (IQR 2) per patient per month. Ten out of fifteen (67%) reported insufficient official hours for dietetic activities. Our small survey gives insight into estimated dietetic care contact time, with potential application for KD provision and service delivery.
    • Ketogenic diets for drug-resistant epilepsy

      Martin-McGill, Kirsty J; Bresnahan, Rebecca; Levy, Robert G; Cooper, Paul N (Wiley, 2020-06-24)
    • Kindle project at the University of Chester

      McLean, Fiona; Shepherd, Joanna; University of Chester (SCONUL, 2012)
      Towards the end of 2010, Learning and Information Services (LIS) at the University of Chester decided to undertake a pilot project which explored how useful e-readers are in a university setting and if they could help to resolve issues about resource availability.
    • Knowledge and competency standards for specialized cognitive behavior therapy for adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

      Sookman, Debbie; email: debbie.sookman@mcgill.ca; Phillips, Katharine A; email: kap9161@med.cornell.edu; Anholt, Gideon E; email: ganholt@bgu.ac.il; Bhar, Sunil; email: sbhar@swin.edu.au; Bream, Victoria; email: victoria_bream@hotmail.com; Challacombe, Fiona L; email: fiona.challacombe@kcl.ac.uk; Coughtrey, Anna; email: anna.coughtrey.10@ucl.ac.uk; Craske, Michelle G; email: mcraske@mednet.ucla.edu; Foa, Edna; email: foa@mail.med.upenn.edu; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; email: jean-philippe.gagne@concordia.ca; et al. (2021-01-27)
      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability world-wide (World Health Organization, 2008). Treatment of OCD is a specialized field whose aim is recovery from illness for as many patients as possible. The evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD is specialized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, NICE, 2005, Koran and Simpson, 2013). However, these treatments are not accessible to many sufferers around the world. Currently available guidelines for care are deemed to be essential but insufficient because of highly variable clinician knowledge and competencies specific to OCD. The phase two mandate of the 14 nation International OCD Accreditation Task Force (ATF) created by the Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders is development of knowledge and competency standards for specialized treatments for OCD through the lifespan deemed by experts to be foundational to transformative change in this field. This paper presents knowledge and competency standards for specialized CBT for adult OCD developed to inform, advance, and offer a model for clinical practice and training for OCD. During upcoming ATF phases three and four criteria and processes for training in specialized treatments for OCD through the lifespan for certification (individuals) and accreditation (sites) will be developed based on the ATF standards. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Knowledge and the Fall in American Neo-Calvinism: Toward a Van Til–Plantinga Synthesis

      Békefi, Bálint; email: balint.bekefi@gmail.com (Brill, 2021-09-17)
      Abstract Cornelius Van Til and Alvin Plantinga represent two strands of American Protestant philosophical thought influenced by Dutch neo-Calvinism. This paper compares and synthetizes their models of knowledge in non-Christians given the noetic effects of sin and non-Christian worldview commitments. The paper argues that Van Til’s distinction between the partial realization of the antithesis in practice and its absolute nature in principle correlates with Plantinga’s insistence on prima facie–warranted common-sense beliefs and their ultimate defeasibility given certain metaphysical commitments. Van Til endorsed more radical claims than Plantinga on epistemic defeat in non-Christian worldviews, the status of the sensus divinitatis, and conceptual accuracy in knowledge of the world. Finally, an approach to the use of evidence in apologetics is developed based on the proposed synthesis. This approach seeks to make more room for evidence than is generally recognized in Van Tilianism, while remaining consistent with the founder’s principles.
    • Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of self-harm and suicide in low-income and middle-income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

      McPhillips, Rebecca; orcid: 0000-0003-4296-5970; email: rebecca.mcphillips@manchester.ac.uk; Nafees, Sadia; orcid: 0000-0003-1553-3013; Elahi, Anam; Batool, Saqba; Krishna, Murali; Krayer, Anne; orcid: 0000-0003-1503-1734; Huxley, Peter; Chaudhry, Nasim; Robinson, Catherine (2021-06-22)
      Over 800 000 people die due to suicide each year and suicide presents a huge psychological, economic and social burden for individuals, communities and countries as a whole. Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately affected by suicide. The strongest risk factor for suicide is a previous suicide attempt, and other types of self-harm have been found to be robust predictors of suicidal behaviour. An approach that brings together multiple sectors, including education, labour, business, law, politics and the media is crucial to tackling suicide and self-harm. The WHO highlights that evaluations of the knowledge and attitudes that priority groups, not only healthcare staff, have of mental health and suicidal behaviour are key to suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences different stakeholders in LMICs have of self-harm and suicide. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, BNI, Social Sciences and Cochrane Library will be searched. Reviewers working independently of each other will screen search results, select studies for inclusion, extract and check extracted data, and rate the quality of the studies using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology and Critical Appraisals Skills Programme checklists. In anticipation of heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis of quantitative studies will be provided and metaethnography will be used to synthesise qualitative studies. Ethical approval is not required. A report will be provided for the funding body, and the systematic review will be submitted for publication in a high-impact, peer-reviewed, open access journal. Results will also be disseminated at conferences, seminars, congresses and symposia, and to relevant stakeholders. CRD42019135323. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.]
    • Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of self-harm and suicide in low-income and middle-income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

      McPhillips, Rebecca; orcid: 0000-0003-4296-5970; email: rebecca.mcphillips@manchester.ac.uk; Nafees, Sadia; orcid: 0000-0003-1553-3013; Elahi, Anam; Batool, Saqba; Krishna, Murali; Krayer, Anne; orcid: 0000-0003-1503-1734; Huxley, Peter; Chaudhry, Nasim; Robinson, Catherine (2021-06-22)
      <h4>Introduction</h4>Over 800 000 people die due to suicide each year and suicide presents a huge psychological, economic and social burden for individuals, communities and countries as a whole. Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately affected by suicide. The strongest risk factor for suicide is a previous suicide attempt, and other types of self-harm have been found to be robust predictors of suicidal behaviour. An approach that brings together multiple sectors, including education, labour, business, law, politics and the media is crucial to tackling suicide and self-harm. The WHO highlights that evaluations of the knowledge and attitudes that priority groups, not only healthcare staff, have of mental health and suicidal behaviour are key to suicide prevention strategies. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences different stakeholders in LMICs have of self-harm and suicide.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, BNI, Social Sciences and Cochrane Library will be searched. Reviewers working independently of each other will screen search results, select studies for inclusion, extract and check extracted data, and rate the quality of the studies using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology and Critical Appraisals Skills Programme checklists. In anticipation of heterogeneity, a narrative synthesis of quantitative studies will be provided and metaethnography will be used to synthesise qualitative studies.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Ethical approval is not required. A report will be provided for the funding body, and the systematic review will be submitted for publication in a high-impact, peer-reviewed, open access journal. Results will also be disseminated at conferences, seminars, congresses and symposia, and to relevant stakeholders.<h4>Prospero registration number</h4>CRD42019135323.
    • La mémoire des conflits dans la fiction française contemporaine

      OBERGÖKER, Timo (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-04)
    • Labels and object categorization in six- and nine-month-olds: tracking labels across varying carrier phrases.

      Ferry, Alissa; email: alissa.ferry@manchester.ac.uk; Guellai, Bahia (2021-07-29)
      Language shapes object categorization in infants. This starts as a general enhanced attentional effect of language, which narrows to a specific link between labels and categories by twelve months. The current experiments examined this narrowing effect by investigating when infants track a consistent label across varied input. Six-month-old infants (N = 48) were familiarized to category exemplars, each presented with the exact same labeling phrase or the same label in different phrases. Evidence of object categorization at test was only found with the same phrase, suggesting that infants were not tracking the label's consistency, but rather that of the entire input. Nine-month-olds (N = 24) did show evidence of categorization across the varied phrases, suggesting that they were tracking the consistent label across the varied input. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Lack of racial diversity within the palliative medicine workforce: does it affect our patients?

      Khiroya, Heena; orcid: 0000-0001-7613-1881; email: heenakhiroya@doctors.org.uk; Willis, Derek (2021-09-17)
    • Landslides in the Upper Submarine Slopes of Volcanic Islands: The Central Azores

      Chang, Yu‐Chun; orcid: 0000-0003-4941-5437; email: yu-chun.chang@manchester.ac.uk; Mitchell, Neil C.; orcid: 0000-0002-6483-2450; Quartau, Rui; orcid: 0000-0003-3148-7520 (2021-09-28)
      Abstract: Small landslides in the upper submarine slopes of volcanic islands present potential hazards locally because of their high frequency. We examine evidence for landsliding in high‐resolution bathymetric data from Faial, Pico, São Jorge, and Terceira islands of the Azores. Because the rugged morphology of the upper slopes makes landslides difficult to interpret, we develop two classification schemes for the 1,227 identified slope valleys. One scheme addresses how recognizable the valleys were as originating from landslides (whether scarps are prominent or indefinite), whereas the other scheme addresses valley types (whether apparently produced by single or multiple failures). Size distributions are used to assess the relative occurrence of large versus small landslides. Thirteen landslides are predicted to have generated tsunami heights at source of >1 m and one with height of >7 m. Some slopes have gradients far above 30°, the angle of repose of incohesive clastic sediment, so the seabed in those areas is strengthened perhaps by carbonate cementation, by seismic shaking or by the presence of coherent lava or lava talus. Using all types of slope valleys, Faial and Pico have smaller affected volumes per unit slope area than those of São Jorge and Terceira. These differences could be associated with varied seismic activity, with more frequent earthquakes beneath Faial and Pico preventing the build‐up of sediments on their slopes. Submarine landslide statistics are therefore potentially useful for assessing long‐term earthquake hazards of volcanic islands in seismically active environments such as the Azores.