• Ethnic and minority group differences in engagement with COVID-19 vaccination programmes – at Pandemic Pace; when vaccine confidence in mass rollout meets local vaccine hesitancy

      Reid, John A.; orcid: 0000-0002-0073-398X; email: john.reid@chester.ac.uk; Mabhala, Mzwandile A. (BioMed Central, 2021-05-27)
      Abstract: Israel, the UK, the USA, and some other wealthier countries lead in the implementation of COVID-19 vaccine mass vaccination programmes. Evidence from these countries indicates that their ethnic minorities could be as disproportionately disadvantaged in COVID-19 vaccines roll-out as they were affected by COVID-19-related serious illnesses. Their disadvantage is linked to their lower social status and fewer social goods compared with dominant population groups. Albeit limited by methodology, early studies attribute lower uptake of COVID-19 amongst ethnic minorities to the wider determinants of vaccine uptake, hesitancy or lack of vaccine confidence, including lower levels of trust and greater concerns about vaccine safety. Early sentinel studies are needed in all early adopter countries. One emerging theme among those of reproductive age in minority communities concerns a worry regarding COVID-19 vaccine’s potential adverse effect on fertility. Respected professional groups reassure this is not a credible rationale. Drug and vaccine regulators use understandable, cautious and conditional language in emergency licencing of new gene-based vaccines. Technical assessments on whether there is any potential genotoxicity or reproductive toxicity should be more emphatic. From a public health perspective, sentinel studies should identify such community concerns and act early to produce convincing explanations and evidence. Local public health workforces need to be diverse, multiskilled, and able to engage well with minorities and vulnerable groups. The local Directors of Public Health in the UK are based in each local government area and have a remit and opportunity to stimulate speedy action to increase vaccine uptake. During the rapid Pandemic Pace of the vaccines roll-out, extra efforts to minimise uptake variations are likely to achieve improvements in the next year or two. We expect variations will not disappear however, given that underlying inequalities persist in less inclusive social systems.
    • Ethnic and minority group differences in engagement with COVID-19 vaccination programmes – at Pandemic Pace; when vaccine confidence in mass rollout meets local vaccine hesitancy

      Reid, John A.; orcid: 0000-0002-0073-398X; email: john.reid@chester.ac.uk; Mabhala, Mzwandile A. (BioMed Central, 2021-05-27)
      Abstract: Israel, the UK, the USA, and some other wealthier countries lead in the implementation of COVID-19 vaccine mass vaccination programmes. Evidence from these countries indicates that their ethnic minorities could be as disproportionately disadvantaged in COVID-19 vaccines roll-out as they were affected by COVID-19-related serious illnesses. Their disadvantage is linked to their lower social status and fewer social goods compared with dominant population groups. Albeit limited by methodology, early studies attribute lower uptake of COVID-19 amongst ethnic minorities to the wider determinants of vaccine uptake, hesitancy or lack of vaccine confidence, including lower levels of trust and greater concerns about vaccine safety. Early sentinel studies are needed in all early adopter countries. One emerging theme among those of reproductive age in minority communities concerns a worry regarding COVID-19 vaccine’s potential adverse effect on fertility. Respected professional groups reassure this is not a credible rationale. Drug and vaccine regulators use understandable, cautious and conditional language in emergency licencing of new gene-based vaccines. Technical assessments on whether there is any potential genotoxicity or reproductive toxicity should be more emphatic. From a public health perspective, sentinel studies should identify such community concerns and act early to produce convincing explanations and evidence. Local public health workforces need to be diverse, multiskilled, and able to engage well with minorities and vulnerable groups. The local Directors of Public Health in the UK are based in each local government area and have a remit and opportunity to stimulate speedy action to increase vaccine uptake. During the rapid Pandemic Pace of the vaccines roll-out, extra efforts to minimise uptake variations are likely to achieve improvements in the next year or two. We expect variations will not disappear however, given that underlying inequalities persist in less inclusive social systems.
    • Ethnic and minority group differences in engagement with COVID-19 vaccination programmes – at Pandemic Pace; when vaccine confidence in mass rollout meets local vaccine hesitancy

      Reid, John A.; orcid: 0000-0002-0073-398X; email: john.reid@chester.ac.uk; Mabhala, Mzwandile A. (BioMed Central, 2021-05-27)
      Abstract: Israel, the UK, the USA, and some other wealthier countries lead in the implementation of COVID-19 vaccine mass vaccination programmes. Evidence from these countries indicates that their ethnic minorities could be as disproportionately disadvantaged in COVID-19 vaccines roll-out as they were affected by COVID-19-related serious illnesses. Their disadvantage is linked to their lower social status and fewer social goods compared with dominant population groups. Albeit limited by methodology, early studies attribute lower uptake of COVID-19 amongst ethnic minorities to the wider determinants of vaccine uptake, hesitancy or lack of vaccine confidence, including lower levels of trust and greater concerns about vaccine safety. Early sentinel studies are needed in all early adopter countries. One emerging theme among those of reproductive age in minority communities concerns a worry regarding COVID-19 vaccine’s potential adverse effect on fertility. Respected professional groups reassure this is not a credible rationale. Drug and vaccine regulators use understandable, cautious and conditional language in emergency licencing of new gene-based vaccines. Technical assessments on whether there is any potential genotoxicity or reproductive toxicity should be more emphatic. From a public health perspective, sentinel studies should identify such community concerns and act early to produce convincing explanations and evidence. Local public health workforces need to be diverse, multiskilled, and able to engage well with minorities and vulnerable groups. The local Directors of Public Health in the UK are based in each local government area and have a remit and opportunity to stimulate speedy action to increase vaccine uptake. During the rapid Pandemic Pace of the vaccines roll-out, extra efforts to minimise uptake variations are likely to achieve improvements in the next year or two. We expect variations will not disappear however, given that underlying inequalities persist in less inclusive social systems.
    • Evaluating Polishability of Zirconia Impregnated PMMA Nanocomposite for Denture Base Application

      Zidan, Saleh; email: sal.zidan@sebhau.edu.ly; Silikas, Nikolaos; orcid: 0000-0003-4576-4584; email: nikolaos.silikas@manchester.ac.uk; Haider, Julfikar; orcid: 0000-0001-7010-8285; email: j.haider@mmu.ac.uk; Jahantigh, Javad; email: javad.jahantigh@mft.nhs.uk; Alhareb, Ahmed; email: ahmed_ahmed32710@yahoo.com; Yates, Julian; email: julian.yates@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-05-31)
      Artificial biomaterials are being developed for use in denture base with symmetrical properties to restore the aesthetics and functionalities. The rough surface of denture base resin promotes the adhesion of microorganisms and plaque accumulation. This study aimed to explore the consequences of polishing times on the surface roughness of high-impact (HI) heat-polymerized PMMA denture base acrylic resin reinforced with zirconia nanoparticles (nanocomposite). Thirty specimens (25 ± 0.50 mm in diameter and 2 ± 0.10 mm thickness) were fabricated from HI PMMA by adding zirconia nanoparticles at different concentrations of (0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 7 wt.%, and 10 wt.%). Specimens were divided into six groups (n = 5) and surface roughness (Ra) was measured before and after polishing with a standard protocol for one and two minutes. The addition of zirconia in PMMA at low concentrations (1.5 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%) did not negatively affect the surface finish of the denture base composites following conventional polishing and remained below the clinically acceptable limit (0.2 µm). After one minute of polishing, only the 10 wt.% zirconia (0.17 ± 0.03 µm) demonstrated a substantial rise in median surface roughness, in comparison with the control group (0.11 ± 0.01 µm). It is concluded that the group containing 3 wt.% (0.10 ± 0.01 µm) of zirconia is the optimum concentration to obtain the best symmetrical surface finish after two minutes of polishing.
    • Evaluating the Cephalonia method of library induction

      Peters, Lisa; Brown, Judith; Davies, Eric; Hultum, Sue; Thompson, Marion; Thomas, Pam; Williams, Anne; University of Chester (SCONUL, 2007-12)
      This article discusses the results of a survey carried out at the University of Chester library into student feedback of the Cephalonia method of library induction.
    • Evaluating the impact of patient and carer involvement in suicide and self‐harm research: A mixed‐methods, longitudinal study protocol

      Littlewood, Donna L.; orcid: 0000-0003-4806-4540; email: donna.littlewood@manchester.ac.uk; Quinlivan, Leah; Steeg, Sarah; Bennett, Carole; Bickley, Harriet; Rodway, Cathryn; Webb, Roger T.; Kapur, Navneet (2019-12-05)
      Abstract: Background: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is becoming more commonplace in mental health research. There are strong moral and ethical arguments for good quality PPI. Few studies have documented and evaluated PPI in self‐harm and suicide research. Inconsistent reporting of PPI makes it difficult to discern practices that deliver quality, effective and meaningful involvement. It is important to understand and address emotional support needs of PPI members contributing to sensitive topics such as suicide and self‐harm. Therefore, this study will examine the effect of PPI on self‐harm and suicide research and explore patients', carers' and researchers' experiences and views in relation to the quality of PPI practice and provision of appropriate support for PPI members. Methods: This protocol outlines the longitudinal, mixed methodological approach that will be taken. Qualitative and quantitative data will be collected via baseline and repeated questionnaires, document review and semi‐structured interviews. Both PPI members and researchers will be invited to participate in this study. The two‐year data collection period will enable evaluation of PPI throughout the entire research cycle. An integrated approach will be taken to data analysis, using inductive thematic analysis and descriptive and repeated measures analyses, to address specified study aims. Dissemination: Findings from this study will inform practical guidance to support self‐harm and suicide researchers in effectively involving people with experiential knowledge in their research. Analyses will offer insight into the effect of PPI throughout the research process and assess changes in PPI members' and researchers' experiences of involvement across a two‐year period.
    • Evaluation of a 'drop box' doorstep assessment service to aid remote assessments for COVID-19 in general practice.

      Irving, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9471-3700; email: greg.irving2@sthelens.nhs.uk; Lawson, David; Tinsley, Adele; Parr, Helen; Whittaker, Cheryl; Jones, Hayley; Cox, Stephen (2021-03)
      The COVID-19 is an established threat whose clinical features and epidemiology continues to evolve. In an effort to contain the disease, the National Health Service has adopted a digital first approach in UK general practice resulting in a significant shift away from face-to-face consultations. Consequently, more consultations are being completed without obtaining objective recording of vital signs and face-to-face examination. Some regions have formed hot hubs to facilitate the review of suspected COVID-19 cases and keep their practice site 'clean' including the use of doorstep observations in avoiding the risk of face-to-face examination. To support the safe, effective and efficient remote assessment of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19, we established a doorstep assessment service to compliment telephone and video consultations. This allows physiological parameters such as temperature, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation to be obtained to guide further triage. Quality improvement methods were used to integrate and optimise the doorstep assessment and measure the improvements made. The introduction of a doorstep assessment service increased the proportion of assessments for patients with suspected COVID-19 in routine care over weeks. At the same time we were able to dramatically reduce face-to-face assessment over a 6-week period by optimising through a range of measures including the introduction of a digital stethoscope. The majority of patients were managed by their own general practitioner following assessment supporting continuity of care. There were no adverse events during the period of observation; no staff absences related to COVID-19. Quality improvement methods have facilitated the successful integration of doorstep assessments into clinical care. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Evaluation of a manualised speech and language therapy programme for children with social communication disorder: the SCIP feasibility study

      Adams, Catherine; orcid: 0000-0003-4413-0803; email: catherine.adams@manchester.ac.uk; Gaile, Jacqueline; Roddam, Hazel; Baxendale, Janet; Clitheroe, Laura; Emsley, Richard (BioMed Central, 2020-09-22)
      Abstract: Background: Children with Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SPCD) have long-term needs in using and processing social language and have a high risk of later mental health difficulties. A manualised speech and language therapy programme, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP) provides therapy content for SPCD. A feasibility study is required to derive more precise estimates of key parameters for a future trial of SCIP. Aims: To assess the feasibility of conducting a substantive randomized controlled trial of SCIP for children with SPCD. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to paediatric speech and language therapists in England. Survey questions addressed number of eligible children, routine intervention provision and trial recruitment factors. In the second phase, a single-arm intervention feasibility study was completed. Fifteen speech and language practitioners identified 24 children aged 5–11 years with SPCD. Practitioners received training/supervision to deliver 20 SCIP therapy sessions to each child. At time 1, parents of participating children provided three communication goals; expected steps in each goal were defined. After intervention, parents and practitioners independently rated each goal compared to baseline ability. Two research practitioners compared parent post-intervention commentaries with outcome scores to derive guidance about clinical significance. All practitioners recorded audio commentaries on therapy experiences. Post-intervention interviews were conducted with 6 practitioners and 6 parents. An expert panel completed a Delphi consultation on trial design. Results: Routine practice for SPCD varies widely. Children tend to be embedded in autism provision. Participation in a future trial was well supported provided resources are available to services. Outcomes analysis indicated all children except one made some progress on parent ratings; all children made progress on practitioner ratings. A power analysis for a future trial was carried out using current outcome measure as putative primary endpoint. Practitioners’ audio-diaries provided suggestions for training and adaption in a future trial. Outcomes and therapy methods were acceptable to practitioners and parents. Conclusions: The feasibility study evaluated a novel outcome measure of social communication skills in SPCD. A power calculation indicated a feasible framework for a trial within a realistic period of time. Recommendations for recruitment methods, adaptation of manual and training were supported by practitioners and an expert panel. Trial registration: Title: Speech-language therapy for child social communication disorder Trial ID: ISRCTN48030419. Date registered: January 1, 2017. Registered retrospectively.
    • Evaluation of a ‘drop box’ doorstep assessment service to aid remote assessments for COVID-19 in general practice

      Irving, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9471-3700; Lawson, David; Tinsley, Adele; Parr, Helen; Whittaker, Cheryl; Jones, Hayley; Cox, Stephen (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-28)
      COVID-19 is an established threat whose clinical features and epidemiology continues to evolve. In an effort to contain the disease, the National Health Service has adopted a digital first approach in UK general practice resulting in a significant shift away from face-to-face consultations. Consequently, more consultations are being completed without obtaining objective recording of vital signs and face-to-face examination. Some regions have formed hot hubs to facilitate the review of suspected COVID-19 cases and keep their practice site ‘clean’ including the use of doorstep observations in avoiding the risk of face-to-face examination. To support the safe, effective and efficient remote assessment of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19, we established a doorstep assessment service to compliment telephone and video consultations. This allows physiological parameters such as temperature, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation to be obtained to guide further triage. Quality improvement methods were used to integrate and optimise the doorstep assessment and measure the improvements made. The introduction of a doorstep assessment service increased the proportion of assessments for patients with suspected COVID-19 in routine care over weeks. At the same time we were able to dramatically reduce face-to-face assessment over a 6-week period by optimising through a range of measures including the introduction of a digital stethoscope. The majority of patients were managed by their own general practitioner following assessment supporting continuity of care. There were no adverse events during the period of observation; no staff absences related to COVID-19. Quality improvement methods have facilitated the successful integration of doorstep assessments into clinical care.
    • Evaluation of a ‘drop box’ doorstep assessment service to aid remote assessments for COVID-19 in general practice

      Irving, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9471-3700; Lawson, David; Tinsley, Adele; Parr, Helen; Whittaker, Cheryl; Jones, Hayley; Cox, Stephen (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-28)
      The COVID-19 is an established threat whose clinical features and epidemiology continues to evolve. In an effort to contain the disease, the National Health Service has adopted a digital first approach in UK general practice resulting in a significant shift away from face-to-face consultations. Consequently, more consultations are being completed without obtaining objective recording of vital signs and face-to-face examination. Some regions have formed hot hubs to facilitate the review of suspected COVID-19 cases and keep their practice site ‘clean’ including the use of doorstep observations in avoiding the risk of face-to-face examination. To support the safe, effective and efficient remote assessment of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19, we established a doorstep assessment service to compliment telephone and video consultations. This allows physiological parameters such as temperature, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen saturation to be obtained to guide further triage. Quality improvement methods were used to integrate and optimise the doorstep assessment and measure the improvements made. The introduction of a doorstep assessment service increased the proportion of assessments for patients with suspected COVID-19 in routine care over weeks. At the same time we were able to dramatically reduce face-to-face assessment over a 6-week period by optimising through a range of measures including the introduction of a digital stethoscope. The majority of patients were managed by their own general practitioner following assessment supporting continuity of care. There were no adverse events during the period of observation; no staff absences related to COVID-19. Quality improvement methods have facilitated the successful integration of doorstep assessments into clinical care.
    • Evaluation of the Feasibility, Reliability, and Repeatability of Welfare Indicators in Free-Roaming Horses: A Pilot Study.

      Harley, Jessica J; orcid: 0000-0002-9355-9641; Stack, J David; Braid, Helen; orcid: 0000-0003-2582-7584; McLennan, Krista M; orcid: 0000-0002-8888-540X; Stanley, Christina R; orcid: 0000-0002-5053-4831 (2021-07-02)
      Validated assessment protocols have been developed to quantify welfare states for intensively managed sport, pleasure, and working horses. There are few protocols for extensively managed or free-roaming populations. Here, we trialed welfare indicators to ascertain their feasibility, reliability, and repeatability using free-roaming Carneddau Mountain ponies as an example population. The project involved (1) the identification of animal and resource-based measures of welfare from both the literature and discussion with an expert group; (2) testing the feasibility and repeatability of a modified body condition score and mobility score on 34 free-roaming and conservation grazing Carneddau Mountain ponies; and (3) testing a prototype welfare assessment template comprising 12 animal-based and 6 resource-based welfare indicators, with a total of 20 questions, on 35 free-roaming Carneddau Mountain ponies to quantify inter-assessor reliability and repeatability. This pilot study revealed that many of the indicators were successfully repeatable and had good levels of inter-assessor reliability. Some of the indicators could not be verified for reliability due to low/absent occurrence. The results indicated that many animal and resource-based indicators commonly used in intensively managed equine settings could be measured in-range with minor modifications. This study is an initial step toward validating a much-needed tool for the welfare assessment of free-roaming and conservation grazing ponies.
    • ‘Every partnership [… is] an emotional experience’: towards a model of partnership support for addressing the emotional challenges of student–staff partnerships

      Healey, Ruth L.; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900; France, Derek; orcid: 0000-0001-6874-6800 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-10)
    • EVI1 oncoprotein expression and CtBP1-association oscillate through the cell cycle

      Paredes, Roberto; Schneider, Marion; Pearson, Stella; Teng, Hsiang Yin; Kelly, James R.; Pierce, Andrew; Somervaille, Tim C. P.; Whetton, Anthony D.; Meyer, Stefan; orcid: 0000-0002-2283-3690; email: stefan.meyer@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-09-26)
      Abstract: Aberrantly high expression of EVI1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. For targeted treatment of EVI1 overexpressing AML a more detailed understanding of aspects of spatiotemporal interaction dynamics of the EVI1 protein is important. EVI1 overexpressing SB1690CB AML cells were used for quantification and protein interaction studies of EVI1 and ΔEVI1. Cells were cell cycle-synchronised by mimosine and nocodazole treatment and expression of EVI1 and related proteins assessed by western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. EVI1 protein levels oscillate through the cell cycle, and EVI1 is degraded partly by the proteasome complex. Both EVI1 and ΔEVI1 interact with the co-repressor CtBP1 but dissociate from CtBP1 complexes during mitosis. Furthermore, a large fraction of EVI1, but not ΔEVI1 or CtBP1, resides in the nuclear matrix. In conclusion, EVI1- protein levels and EVI1-CtBP1 interaction dynamics vary though the cell cycle and differ between EVI1 and ΔEVI1. These data ad to the functional characterisation of the EVI1 protein in AML and will be important for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for EVI1-driven AML.
    • EVI1 phosphorylation at S436 regulates interactions with CtBP1 and DNMT3A and promotes self-renewal

      Paredes, Roberto; Kelly, James R.; Geary, Bethany; Almarzouq, Batool; Schneider, Marion; Pearson, Stella; Narayanan, Prakrithi; orcid: 0000-0002-2596-2738; Williamson, Andrew; Lovell, Simon C.; Wiseman, Daniel H.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020-10-20)
      Abstract: The transcriptional regulator EVI1 has an essential role in early development and haematopoiesis. However, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) driven by aberrantly high EVI1 expression has very poor prognosis. To investigate the effects of post-translational modifications on EVI1 function, we carried out a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of EVI1 in AML and detected dynamic phosphorylation at serine 436 (S436). Wild-type EVI1 (EVI1-WT) with S436 available for phosphorylation, but not non-phosphorylatable EVI1-S436A, conferred haematopoietic progenitor cell self-renewal and was associated with significantly higher organised transcriptional patterns. In silico modelling of EVI1-S436 phosphorylation showed reduced affinity to CtBP1, and CtBP1 showed reduced interaction with EVI1-WT compared with EVI1-S436A. The motif harbouring S436 is a target of CDK2 and CDK3 kinases, which interacted with EVI1-WT. The methyltransferase DNMT3A bound preferentially to EVI1-WT compared with EVI1-S436A, and a hypomethylated cell population associated by EVI1-WT expression in murine haematopoietic progenitors is not maintained with EVI1-S436A. These data point to EVI1-S436 phosphorylation directing functional protein interactions for haematopoietic self-renewal. Targeting EVI1-S436 phosphorylation may be of therapeutic benefit when treating EVI1-driven leukaemia.
    • Evidence for ligand- and solvent-induced disproportionation of uranium(IV)

      Du, Jingzhen; orcid: 0000-0003-4037-9281; Douair, Iskander; orcid: 0000-0002-7482-5510; Lu, Erli; orcid: 0000-0002-0619-5967; Seed, John A.; orcid: 0000-0002-3751-0325; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; Wooles, Ashley J.; Maron, Laurent; orcid: 0000-0003-2653-8557; email: laurent.maron@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Liddle, Stephen T.; orcid: 0000-0001-9911-8778; email: steve.liddle@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-08-10)
      Abstract: Disproportionation, where a chemical element converts its oxidation state to two different ones, one higher and one lower, underpins the fundamental chemistry of metal ions. The overwhelming majority of uranium disproportionations involve uranium(III) and (V), with a singular example of uranium(IV) to uranium(V/III) disproportionation known, involving a nitride to imido/triflate transformation. Here, we report a conceptually opposite disproportionation of uranium(IV)-imido complexes to uranium(V)-nitride/uranium(III)-amide mixtures. This is facilitated by benzene, but not toluene, since benzene engages in a redox reaction with the uranium(III)-amide product to give uranium(IV)-amide and reduced arene. These disproportionations occur with potassium, rubidium, and cesium counter cations, but not lithium or sodium, reflecting the stability of the corresponding alkali metal-arene by-products. This reveals an exceptional level of ligand- and solvent-control over a key thermodynamic property of uranium, and is complementary to isolobal uranium(V)-oxo disproportionations, suggesting a potentially wider prevalence possibly with broad implications for the chemistry of uranium.
    • Evidence for ligand- and solvent-induced disproportionation of uranium(IV).

      Du, Jingzhen; orcid: 0000-0003-4037-9281; Douair, Iskander; orcid: 0000-0002-7482-5510; Lu, Erli; orcid: 0000-0002-0619-5967; Seed, John A; orcid: 0000-0002-3751-0325; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; Wooles, Ashley J; Maron, Laurent; orcid: 0000-0003-2653-8557; email: laurent.maron@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Liddle, Stephen T; orcid: 0000-0001-9911-8778; email: steve.liddle@manchester.ac.uk (2021-08-10)
      Disproportionation, where a chemical element converts its oxidation state to two different ones, one higher and one lower, underpins the fundamental chemistry of metal ions. The overwhelming majority of uranium disproportionations involve uranium(III) and (V), with a singular example of uranium(IV) to uranium(V/III) disproportionation known, involving a nitride to imido/triflate transformation. Here, we report a conceptually opposite disproportionation of uranium(IV)-imido complexes to uranium(V)-nitride/uranium(III)-amide mixtures. This is facilitated by benzene, but not toluene, since benzene engages in a redox reaction with the uranium(III)-amide product to give uranium(IV)-amide and reduced arene. These disproportionations occur with potassium, rubidium, and cesium counter cations, but not lithium or sodium, reflecting the stability of the corresponding alkali metal-arene by-products. This reveals an exceptional level of ligand- and solvent-control over a key thermodynamic property of uranium, and is complementary to isolobal uranium(V)-oxo disproportionations, suggesting a potentially wider prevalence possibly with broad implications for the chemistry of uranium.
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient-reported outcomes in haemophilia.

      O'Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W; Skinner, Mark W; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O'Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (2021-02-17)
      People with inherited and long-term conditions such as haemophilia have been shown to adapt to their levels of disability, often reporting better quality of life (QoL) than expected from the general population (the disability paradox). To investigate the disability paradox in people with haemophilia in the United States by examining preference differences in health state valuations versus the general population. We conducted a discrete choice experiment including duration to capture valuations of health states based on patient-reported preferences. Participants indicated their preferences for hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D-5L, where each participant completed 15 of the 120 choice tasks. Response inconsistencies were evaluated with dominated and repeated scenarios. Conditional-logit regressions with random sampling of the general population responses were used to match the sample of patients with haemophilia. We compared model estimates and derived preferences associated with EQ-5D-5L health states. After removing respondents with response inconsistencies, 1327/2138 (62%) participants remained (177/283 haemophilia; 1150/1900 general population). Patients with haemophilia indicated higher preference value for 99% of EQ-5D-5L health states compared to the general population (when matched on age and gender). The mean health state valuation difference of 0.17 indicated a meaningful difference compared to a minimal clinically important difference threshold of 0.07. Results were consistent by haemophilia type and severity. Our findings indicated the presence of a disability paradox among patients with haemophilia, who reported higher health states than the general population, suggesting the impact of haemophilia may be underestimated if general population value sets are used. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

      O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

      O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

      O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)