• Recommendations for Transdisciplinary Professional Competencies and Ethics for Animal-Assisted Therapies and Interventions.

      Trevathan-Minnis, Melissa; Johnson, Amy; orcid: 0000-0003-3536-9193; Howie, Ann R (2021-12-02)
      AAI is a transdisciplinary field that has grown exponentially in recent decades. This growth has not always been synergistic across fields, creating a need for more consistent language and standards, a call for which many professionals in the field have made. Under the umbrella of human-animal interactions (HAI) is animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), which have a more goal-directed intention with animals who have been assessed for therapeutic, educational, or vocational work. The current article offers a brief history and efficacy of HAI, describes the limitations and gaps within the field and recommends a new set of competencies and guidelines that seek to create some of the needed common language and standards for AAI work to address these limitations.
    • Synthesis of health promotion concepts in children's palliative care

      Bennett, Virginia; Hain, Richard; Pritchard, Aaron W; Noyes, Jane (Mark Allen Group, 2021-12-02)
      Background: Palliative care improves the health of children with a life-limiting condition and appears to draw implicitly on concepts shared with a model of health promotion. However, to date there has been no scrutiny about how this relationship may shape understanding about children's palliative care. Aim: To explore the influence of health promoting concepts on children's palliative care models, policies and guidelines. Data sources: Health and social care databases were searched for policies, models and guidelines published between 2000–2018. Additional searches of professional national and international healthcare websites, children's palliative care charities and UK and Ireland government websites were conducted. Methods: A best fit framework synthesis was used. Findings: A total of 55 policies and guidelines were reviewed for the framework synthesis. Eight themes were generated: (1) health promoting children's palliative care policy and guidelines; (2) planning ahead; (3) creating a supportive environment; (4) enabling coping and independence; (5) reorienting children's palliative care sectors; (6) the lengthening trajectory of need for support; (7) strengthening community engagement in children's palliative care; and (8) quality of life and value-based ideologies. Conclusion: The best fit framework synthesis confirmed a conceptual relationship between children's palliative care and health promotion. This is captured in a new model that will extend professionals' understanding.
    • Synthesis of health promotion concepts in children's palliative care.

      Bennett, Virginia; Hain, Richard; Pritchard, Aaron W; Noyes, Jane (2021-12-02)
      Palliative care improves the health of children with a life-limiting condition and appears to draw implicitly on concepts shared with a model of health promotion. However, to date there has been no scrutiny about how this relationship may shape understanding about children's palliative care. To explore the influence of health promoting concepts on children's palliative care models, policies and guidelines. Health and social care databases were searched for policies, models and guidelines published between 2000-2018. Additional searches of professional national and international healthcare websites, children's palliative care charities and UK and Ireland government websites were conducted. A best fit framework synthesis was used. A total of 55 policies and guidelines were reviewed for the framework synthesis. Eight themes were generated: (1) health promoting children's palliative care policy and guidelines; (2) planning ahead; (3) creating a supportive environment; (4) enabling coping and independence; (5) reorienting children's palliative care sectors; (6) the lengthening trajectory of need for support; (7) strengthening community engagement in children's palliative care; and (8) quality of life and value-based ideologies. The best fit framework synthesis confirmed a conceptual relationship between children's palliative care and health promotion. This is captured in a new model that will extend professionals' understanding.
    • Dryland dunes and other dryland environmental archives as proxies for Late Quaternary stratigraphy and environmental and climate change in southern Africa

      Stone, A.; email: abi.stone@manchester.ac.uk (Geological Society of South Africa, 2021-12-01)
      Abstract The Namib Desert and the Kalahari constitute the drylands of southern Africa, with the current relatively humid portions of the latter having experienced periodically drier conditions during the Late Quaternary. This study explores the range of dryland archives and proxies available for the past ~190 ka. These include classic dryland geomorphological proxies, such as sand dunes, as well as water-lain sediments within former lakes and ephemeral fluvial systems, lake shorelines, sand ramps, water-lain calcrete and tufa sediments at the interface of surface hydrological and hydrogeological, speleothems and groundwater hydrogeological records, and hyrax middens. Palaeoenvironmental evidence can also be contained within geoarchaeological archives in caves, overhangs and rockshelters. This integration of records is undertaken with the aim of identifying a (or a number of) terrestrial regional chronostratigraphic framework(s) for this time period within southern Africa, because this is missing from the Quaternary stratigraphy lexicon. Owing to a lack of long, near-continuous terrestrial sequences in these drylands, the correspondence between nearby terrestrial records are explored as a basis for parasequences to build this chronostratigraphy. Recognising the modern climatological diversity across the subcontinent, four broad spatial subdivisions are used to explore potential sub-regional parasequences, which capture current climatic gradients, including the hyper-arid west coast and the decrease in aridity from the southwest Kalahari toward the north and east. These are the Namib Desert, the northern Kalahari, the southern Kalahari and the eastern fringes of the southern Kalahari. Terrestrial chronostratigraphies must start from premise that climate-driven environmental shifts may have occurred independently to those in other terrestrial locations and may be diachronous compared to the marine oxygen isotope stratigraphy (MIS), which serves as a global-scale master climatostratigraphy relating to global ice volume. The fragmented nature of preserved evidence means that we are still some way from producing unambiguous parasequences. There is however, a rich record to consider, compile and compare, within which seven broad wetter intervals are identified, with breaks between these inferred to be relatively drier, and some also have proxy evidence for drying. The onset and cessation of these wetter intervals does not align with MIS: they occur with greater frequency, but not with regular periodicity. Precession-paced insolation forcing is often invoked as a key control on southern African climate, but this does not explain the pacing of all of the identified events. Overall, the pattern is complex with some corresponding wetter intervals across space and others with opposing west-east trends. The evidence for drying over the past 10 ka is pronounced in the west (Namib Desert), with ephemerally wet conditions in the south (southern Kalahari). The patterns identified here provide a framework to be scrutinised and to inspire refinements to proposed terrestrial chronostratigraphies for southern Africa. Considering changes across this large geographic area also highlights the complexity in environmental responses across space as we continue to test a range of hypotheses about the nature of climatic forcing in this region.
    • Anticipated Memories and Adaptation from Past Flood Events in Gregório Creek Basin, Brazil

      Fialho, Hailton César Pimentel; orcid: 0000-0003-0866-2044; email: hailtoncesar.pa@usp.br; Abreu, Fernando Girardi; orcid: 0000-0003-0760-7182; email: abreu.fernando@gmail.com; Sousa, Bruno José de Oliveira; email: brunosousa@usp.br; Souza, Felipe Augusto Arguello; email: felipeaas@usp.br; Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; orcid: 0000-0003-4967-8325; email: n.bhattacharyamis@chester.ac.uk; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario; orcid: 0000-0003-2319-2773; email: emm@sc.usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo Tarso Sanches de; orcid: 0000-0003-2806-0083; email: paulot@sc.usp.br (MDPI, 2021-12-01)
      In this research we used walking interviews to investigate the measures used by shopkeepers as protection against floods. The concept of anticipated memory has been used to identify the relationship between their learning from previous events and the adaptive measures they have taken to reduce risk of future flooding in Gregório Creek basin. The area is affected by major flooding issues in the city of São Carlos, southeastern Brazil. Twenty-three (23) downtown merchants shared their experience of the extreme rainfall that occurred on 12 January 2020, characterized by a return period of 103 years. Comparing our findings with November 2015 and March 2018 floods (Interviews 37 and 52 respectively), we noted that due to the enhanced level of threat, people had changed their adaptation strategy by increasing the sum of floodgate height more than 4-fold (870 cm to 3830 cm) between 2015 to 2020. Our results showed that despite frequent flooding, the shopkeepers downtown were reluctant to move away from the area; rather, they preferred to improve their individual protection. The substantial increase in the height of the floodgates represents the population’s feedback in the face of a new level of threat.
    • ABO Blood Groups Do Not Predict

      Francoeur, Rachel; orcid: 0000-0003-1860-4374; Atuhaire, Alon; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; orcid: 0000-0001-9748-1207; Ajambo, Diana; Nankasi, Andrina; Babayan, Simon A; Lamberton, Poppy H L; orcid: 0000-0003-1048-6318 (2021-11-27)
      is a parasite which causes significant public-health issues, with over 240 million people infected globally. In Uganda alone, approximately 11.6 million people are affected. Despite over a decade of mass drug administration in this country, hyper-endemic hotspots persist, and individuals who are repeatedly heavily and rapidly reinfected are observed. Human blood-type antigens are known to play a role in the risk of infection for a variety of diseases, due to cross-reactivity between host antibodies and pathogenic antigens. There have been conflicting results on the effect of blood type on schistosomiasis infection and pathology. Moreover, the effect of blood type as a potential intrinsic host factor on prevalence, intensity, clearance, and reinfection dynamics and on co-infection risk remains unknown. Therefore, the epidemiological link between host blood type and infection dynamics was assessed in three hyper-endemic communities in Uganda. Longitudinal data incorporating repeated pretreatment infection intensities and clearance rates were used to analyse associations between blood groups in school-aged children. Soil-transmitted helminth coinfection status and biometric parameters were incorporated in a generalised linear mixed regression model including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), which have previously been established as significant factors influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis. The analysis revealed no associations between blood type and prevalence, infection intensity, clearance, reinfection, or coinfection. Variations in infection profiles were significantly different between the villages, and egg burden significantly decreased with age. While blood type has proven to be a predictor of several diseases, the data collected in this study indicate that it does not play a significant role in infection burdens in these high-endemicity communities.
    • Bettina Hitzer, Krebs Fühlen: Eine Emotionsgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts

      Timmermann, Carsten; email: carsten.timmermann@manchester.ac.uk (Brill, 2021-11-26)
    • The effects of sex and handedness on masturbation laterality and other lateralized motor behaviours

      Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782; Thoma, Volker; orcid: 0000-0001-7766-4233; Schepman, Astrid; orcid: 0000-0002-7407-362X (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-26)
    • The effects of sex and handedness on masturbation laterality and other lateralized motor behaviours.

      Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782; Thoma, Volker; orcid: 0000-0001-7766-4233; Schepman, Astrid; orcid: 0000-0002-7407-362X (2021-11-26)
      Masturbation is a common human behaviour. Compared to other unimanual behaviours it has unique properties, including increased sexual and emotional arousal, and privacy. Self-reported hand preference for masturbation was examined in 104 left-handed and 103 right-handed women, and 100 left-handed and 99 right-handed men. Handedness (modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, EHI), footedness, eyedness, and cheek kissing preferences were also measured. Seventy nine percent used their dominant hand (always/usually) for masturbation, but left-handers (71.5%) were less consistently lateralized to use their dominant hand than right-handers (86.5%). Hand preference for masturbation correlated more strongly with handedness (EHI), than with footedness, eyedness, or cheek preference. There was no difference in masturbation frequency between left- and right-handers, but men masturbated more frequently than women, and more women (75%) than men (33%) masturbated with sex aids. For kissing the preferred cheek of an emotionally close person from the viewer's perspective, left-handers showed a left-cheek preference, and right-handers a weaker right-cheek preference. The results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries in emotion do not influence hand preference for masturbation but may promote a leftward shift in cheek kissing. In all, masturbation is lateralized in a similar way to other manual motor behaviours in left-handed and right-handed men and women.
    • Structural characterisation methods for supramolecular chemistry that go beyond crystallography.

      Geue, Niklas; orcid: 0000-0002-5216-8353; Winpenny, Richard E P; orcid: 0000-0002-7101-3963; Barran, Perdita E; orcid: 0000-0002-7720-586X (2021-11-24)
      Supramolecular chemistry has grown rapidly over the past three decades, yet synthetic supramolecular chemists still face several challenges when it comes to characterising their compounds. In this review, we present an introduction to structural characterisation techniques commonly used for non-crystalline supramolecular molecules, nuclear magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and EPR), mass spectrometry (MS), ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) as well as cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We provide an overview of their fundamental concepts based on case studies from different fields of supramolecular chemistry, interlocked structures, molecular self-assembly and host-guest chemistry, while focussing on particular strengths and weaknesses of the discussed methods. Additionally, three multi-technique case studies are examined in detail to illustrate the benefits of using complementary techniques simultaneously.
    • ILC3s control airway inflammation by limiting T cell responses to allergens and microbes.

      Teng, Fei; Tachó-Piñot, Roser; Sung, Biin; Farber, Donna L; Worgall, Stefan; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Hepworth, Matthew R; email: matthew.hepworth@manchester.ac.uk; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; email: gfsonnenberg@med.cornell.edu (2021-11-23)
      Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) critically regulate host-microbe interactions in the gastrointestinal tract, but their role in the airway remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that lymphoid-tissue-inducer (LTi)-like ILC3s are enriched in the lung-draining lymph nodes of healthy mice and humans. These ILC3s abundantly express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) and functionally restrict the expansion of allergen-specific CD4 T cells upon experimental airway challenge. In a mouse model of house-dust-mite-induced allergic airway inflammation, MHC class II ILC3s limit T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses, eosinophilia, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Furthermore, MHC class II ILC3s limit a concomitant Th17 cell response and airway neutrophilia. This exacerbated Th17 cell response requires exposure of the lung to microbial stimuli, which can be found associated with house dust mites. These findings demonstrate a critical role for antigen-presenting ILC3s in orchestrating immune tolerance in the airway by restricting pro-inflammatory T cell responses to both allergens and microbes. [Abstract copyright: Crown Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review.

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E; Jones, Christopher E; email: christopher.jones@chester.ac.uk (2021-11-23)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Behavioural Indicators of Intra- and Inter-Specific Competition: Sheep Co-Grazing with Guanaco in the Patagonian Steppe

      Fernández, Tomás; email: tomas.fv@gmail.com; Lancaster, Alex; email: 1821496@chester.ac.uk; Moraga, Claudio A.; email: clmoraga@gmail.com; Radic-Schilling, Sergio; email: sergio.radic@umag.cl; von Hardenberg, Achaz; email: a.vonhardenberg@chester.ac.uk; Corti, Paulo; orcid: 0000-0002-8253-2195; email: pcorti@uach.cl (MDPI, 2021-11-22)
      In extensive livestock production, high densities may inhibit regulation processes, maintaining high levels of intraspecific competition over time. During competition, individuals typically modify their behaviours, particularly feeding and bite rates, which can therefore be used as indicators of competition. Over eight consecutive seasons, we investigated if variation in herd density, food availability, and the presence of a potential competitor, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), was related with behavioural changes in domestic sheep in Chilean Patagonia. Focal sampling, instantaneous scan sampling, measures of bite and movement rates were used to quantify behavioural changes in domestic sheep. We found that food availability increased time spent feeding, while herd density was associated with an increase in vigilant behaviour and a decrease in bite rate, but only when food availability was low. Guanaco presence appeared to have no impact on sheep behaviour. Our results suggest that the observed behavioural changes in domestic sheep are more likely due to intraspecific competition rather than interspecific competition. Consideration of intraspecific competition where guanaco and sheep co-graze on pastures could allow management strategies to focus on herd density, according to rangeland carrying capacity.
    • "A little bit more looking…listening and feeling" A qualitative interview study exploring advanced clinical practice in primary care and community pharmacy.

      Seston, Elizabeth Mary; orcid: 0000-0002-6672-8622; email: liz.seston@manchester.ac.uk; Schafheutle, Ellen Ingrid; Willis, Sarah Caroline (2021-11-22)
      Background Growing demands on healthcare globally, combined with workforce shortages, have led to greater skill mix in healthcare settings. Pharmacists are increasingly moving into complex areas of practice, a move supported by policy and education/training changes. Aim To understand the nature of extended roles for pharmacists practising at an advanced level in primary care and community pharmacy settings, to explore how clinical and physical examination was incorporated into practice and to understand the impact of providing such examination on practice and on patient relationships. Method Telephone interviews (N = 15) were conducted with a purposive sample of pharmacists using clinical and physical examination in their practice in Great Britain. The sample included primary care pharmacists (N = 5), community pharmacists (N = 4), pharmacists working across settings (N = 5) and one working in another primary care setting. Participants were recruited through professional networks, social media and snowballing. Results Primary care pharmacists and community pharmacists were utilising clinical and physical examination skills in their practice. Some community pharmacists were operating locally-commissioned services for low acuity conditions. Incorporating such examinations into practice enabled pharmacists to look at the patient holistically and enhanced pharmacist/patient relationships. Barriers to practise included lack of timely sharing of patient data and perceived reluctance on the part of some pharmacists for advanced practice. Conclusion With growing opportunities to provide patient-focussed care, it remains to be seen whether pharmacists, both in Great Britain and elsewhere, are able to overcome some of the organisational, structural and cultural barriers to advanced practice that currently exist in community pharmacy. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
    • Re‐naming and re‐framing: Evolving the “Higher Education Research Group” to the “Geography & Education Research Group”

      Healey, Ruth L.; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900; West, Harry; orcid: 0000-0002-2704-5474 (Wiley, 2021-11-22)
    • Behavioural Indicators of Intra- and Inter-Specific Competition: Sheep Co-Grazing with Guanaco in the Patagonian Steppe.

      Fernández, Tomás; Lancaster, Alex; Moraga, Claudio A; Radic-Schilling, Sergio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Corti, Paulo; orcid: 0000-0002-8253-2195 (2021-11-22)
      In extensive livestock production, high densities may inhibit regulation processes, maintaining high levels of intraspecific competition over time. During competition, individuals typically modify their behaviours, particularly feeding and bite rates, which can therefore be used as indicators of competition. Over eight consecutive seasons, we investigated if variation in herd density, food availability, and the presence of a potential competitor, the guanaco ( ), was related with behavioural changes in domestic sheep in Chilean Patagonia. Focal sampling, instantaneous scan sampling, measures of bite and movement rates were used to quantify behavioural changes in domestic sheep. We found that food availability increased time spent feeding, while herd density was associated with an increase in vigilant behaviour and a decrease in bite rate, but only when food availability was low. Guanaco presence appeared to have no impact on sheep behaviour. Our results suggest that the observed behavioural changes in domestic sheep are more likely due to intraspecific competition rather than interspecific competition. Consideration of intraspecific competition where guanaco and sheep co-graze on pastures could allow management strategies to focus on herd density, according to rangeland carrying capacity.
    • Pre-treatment inflammatory parameters predict survival from endometrial cancer: A prospective database analysis.

      Njoku, Kelechi; Ramchander, Neal C; Wan, Y Louise; Barr, Chloe E; Crosbie, Emma J; email: emma.crosbie@manchester.ac.uk (2021-11-18)
      Inflammation predisposes to tumorigenesis by damaging DNA, stimulating angiogenesis and potentiating pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment biomarkers of systemic inflammation are associated with survival outcomes in endometrial cancer. Women with endometrial cancer were recruited to a prospective database study. Pre-treatment systemic markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), Glasgow Prognostic Score and lymphocyte-based ratios [neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NMR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII)], were analysed in relation to overall, endometrial cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival using Kaplan-Meier estimation and multivariable Cox regression. In total, 522 women of mostly White British ethnicity, with a median age of 66 years (interquartile range (IQR), 56, 73) and BMI of 32 kg/m (IQR 26, 39) were included in the analysis. Most had low-grade (67.2%), early-stage (85.4% stage I/II), endometrioid (74.5%) tumors. Women with pre-treatment CRP ≥5.5 mg/L had a 68% increase in overall (adjusted HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.81, p = 0.049) and a two-fold higher cancer-specific mortality risk than those with CRP <5.5 mg/L (adjusted HR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.03-4.02, p = 0.04). Absolute lymphocyte count, NLR, MLR and SII were associated with adverse clinico-pathologic factors, but not overall, cancer-specific or recurrence-free survival in the multivariable analysis. If confirmed in an independent cohort, CRP may offer a simple, low-cost test to refine pre-treatment risk assessment and guide personalised care in endometrial cancer. Our participants were mostly of White British ethnicity and further studies are needed to confirm the utility of CRP as a prognostic biomarker in other populations. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]