• Complements or substitutes? Associations between volumes of care provided in the community and hospitals.

      Lau, Yiu-Shing; orcid: 0000-0002-3915-4168; email: yiu-shing.lau@manchester.ac.uk; Malisauskaite, Gintare; Brookes, Nadia; Hussein, Shereen; Sutton, Matt (2021-06-17)
      Policymakers often suggest that expansion of care in community settings may ease increasing pressures on hospital services. Substitution may lower overall health system costs, but complementarity due to previously unidentified needs might raise them. We used new national data on community and primary medical care services in England to undertake system-level analyses of whether activity in the community acts as a complement or a substitute for activity provided in hospitals. We used two-way fixed effects regression to relate monthly counts of community care and primary medical care contacts to emergency department attendances, outpatient visits and admissions for 242 hospitals between November 2017 and September 2019. We then used national unit costs to estimate the effects of increasing community activity on overall system expenditure. The findings show community care contacts to be weak substitutes with all types of hospital activity and primary care contacts are weak substitutes for emergency hospital attendances and admissions. Our estimates ranged from 28 [95% CI 21, 45] to 517 [95% CI 291, 7265] community care contacts and from 34 [95% CI 17, 1283] to 1655 [95% CI - 1995, 70,145] GP appointments to reduce one hospital service visit. Primary care and planned hospital services are complements. Increases in community services and primary care activity are both associated with increased overall system expenditure of £34 [95% CI £156, £54] per visit for community care and £41 [95% CI £78, £74] per appointment in general practice. Expansion of community-based services may not generate reductions in hospital activity and expenditure.
    • Comprehensive Library Generation for Identification and Quantification of Endometrial Cancer Protein Biomarkers in Cervico-Vaginal Fluid

      Njoku, Kelechi; orcid: 0000-0001-6528-3476; email: kelechi.njoku@manchester.ac.uk; Chiasserini, Davide; email: davide.chiasserini@unipg.it; Geary, Bethany; orcid: 0000-0002-5592-5532; email: bethany.geary@manchester.ac.uk; Pierce, Andrew; email: andrew.pierce@manchester.ac.uk; Jones, Eleanor R.; email: eleanor.jones-3@manchester.ac.uk; Whetton, Anthony D.; orcid: 0000-0002-1098-3878; email: tony.whetton@manchester.ac.uk; Crosbie, Emma J.; orcid: 0000-0003-0284-8630; email: emma.crosbie@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-28)
      Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in high-income countries and its incidence is rising. Early detection, aided by highly sensitive and specific biomarkers, has the potential to improve outcomes as treatment can be provided when it is most likely to effect a cure. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS), an accurate and reproducible platform for analysing biological samples, offers a technological advance for biomarker discovery due to its reproducibility, sensitivity and potential for data re-interrogation. SWATH-MS requires a spectral library in order to identify and quantify peptides from multiplexed mass spectrometry data. Here we present a bespoke spectral library of 154,206 transitions identifying 19,394 peptides and 2425 proteins in the cervico-vaginal fluid of postmenopausal women with, or at risk of, endometrial cancer. We have combined these data with a library of over 6000 proteins generated based on mass spectrometric analysis of two endometrial cancer cell lines. This unique resource enables the study of protein biomarkers for endometrial cancer detection in cervico-vaginal fluid. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with unique identifier PXD025925.
    • Comprehensive optimization of tropical biomass hydrolysis for nitrogen-limited medium-chain polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis.

      Wongsirichot, Phavit; Muanruksa, Papasanee; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee; Winterburn, James; email: james.winterburn@manchester.ac.uk (2021-05-14)
      Expanding the use of tropical biomass wastes for nitrogen-limited fermentation was investigated, specifically, the production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates. Comprehensive central composite design was conducted to assess pH, temperature, biomass solid loading, cellulase loading and amylase loading and their impact on the hydrolysis of palm, coconut and cassava wastes. Glucose yields of 33.3, 31.7 and 79.0% wt. with respect to total glucose were found for palm, coconut and cassava, respectively. Importantly, the impact on the total nitrogen derived during enzymatic hydrolysis of these tropical biomass was described for the first time. The level of nitrogen needs to be properly controlled as high nitrogen would result in low carbon to nitrogen ratio leading to low polyhydroxyalkanoates accumulation, but low nitrogen would hinder growth of the biopolymer producer. Maximum hydrolysate nitrogen, were 1.80, 1.55 and 0.871 g/l for palm, coconut and cassava, respectively. Using the surface responses, biomass media designed for high carbon-to-nitrogen were produced and validated using Pseudomonas putida. Low glucose-carbon to nitrogen were found for palm and coconut after scale-up, leading to the majority of their polyhydroxyalkanoates not being biomass-derived. However, cassava-derived biopolymers were successfully accumulated at 9.01 and 7.13% wt. for total medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates and 10-carbon polyhydroxyalkanoates, respectively. This study provides an important foundation for the expansion of tropical biomass wastes for biopolymer production and other nitrogen-limited applications in general. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.]
    • Comrades Betrayed: Jewish World War I Veterans Under Hitler

      Grady, Tim; orcid: 0000-0001-5652-9032 (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-06-24)
    • Comrades Betrayed: Jewish World War I Veterans Under Hitler

      Grady, Tim; orcid: 0000-0001-5652-9032 (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-06-24)
    • Conceptual Model of Hearing Health Inequalities (HHI Model): A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

      Tsimpida, Dialechti; orcid: 0000-0002-3709-5651; email: dialechti.tsimpida@manchester.ac.uk; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Panagioti, Maria (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-28)
      Hearing loss is a major health challenge that can have severe physical, social, cognitive, economic, and emotional consequences on people’s quality of life. Currently, the modifiable factors linked to socioeconomic inequalities in hearing health are poorly understood. Therefore, an online database search (PubMed, Scopus, and Psych) was conducted to identify literature that relates hearing loss to health inequalities as a determinant or health outcome. A total of 53 studies were selected to thematically summarize the existing literature, using a critical interpretive synthesis method, where the subjectivity of the researcher is intimately involved in providing new insights with explanatory power. The evidence provided by the literature can be summarized under four key themes: (a) There might be a vicious cycle between hearing loss and socioeconomic inequalities and lifestyle factors, (b) socioeconomic position may interact with less healthy lifestyles, which are harmful to hearing ability, (c) increasing health literacy could improve the diagnosis and prognosis of hearing loss and prevent the adverse consequences of hearing loss on people’s health, and (d) people with hearing loss might be vulnerable to receiving low-quality and less safe health care. This study uses elements from theoretical models of health inequalities to formulate a highly interpretive conceptual model for examining hearing health inequalities. This model depicts the specific mechanisms of hearing health and their evolution over time. There are many modifiable determinants of hearing loss, in several stages across an individual’s life span; tackling socioeconomic inequalities throughout the life-course could improve the population’s health, maximizing the opportunity for healthy aging.
    • Conceptualizing Internationalization at a Distance: A “Third Category” of University Internationalization

      Mittelmeier, Jenna; orcid: 0000-0002-6037-822X; email: jenna.mittelmeier@manchester.ac.uk; Rienties, Bart; Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati (SAGE Publications, 2020-02-17)
      Internationalization efforts in higher education have often been categorized according to Jane Knight’s binary of “Internationalization at Home” (IaH) and “Internationalization Abroad” (IA). However, a rising number of technology-supported activities have created new opportunities for university internationalization. For example, students can now remain “at home” while using technology to study with an institution or program that is simultaneously located “abroad.” We have conceptualized these activities as a new third category called Internationalization at a Distance (IaD). In this article, we introduce the concept of IaD and outline an in-depth case study of an international distance education provider at scale, the University of South Africa.
    • Concordance and timing in recording cancer events in primary care, hospital and mortality records for patients with and without psoriasis: A population-based cohort study

      editor: Ramagopalan, Sreeram V.; Trafford, Alex M.; orcid: 0000-0001-8145-8133; email: alex.trafford@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Parisi, Rosa; Rutter, Martin K.; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; Ashcroft, Darren M.; orcid: 0000-0002-2958-915X; on behalf of the Global Psoriasis Atlas (GPA) (Public Library of Science, 2021-07-19)
      Background: The association between psoriasis and the risk of cancer has been investigated in numerous studies utilising electronic health records (EHRs), with conflicting results in the extent of the association. Objectives: To assess concordance and timing of cancer recording between primary care, hospital and death registration data for people with and without psoriasis. Methods: Cohort studies delineated using primary care EHRs from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD and Aurum databases, with linkage to hospital episode statistics (HES), Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality data and indices of multiple deprivation (IMD). People with psoriasis were matched to those without psoriasis by age, sex and general practice. Cancer recording between databases was investigated by proportion concordant, that being the presence of cancer record in both source and comparator datasets. Delay in recording cancer diagnoses between CPRD and HES records and predictors of discordance were also assessed. Results: 58,904 people with psoriasis and 350,592 comparison patients were included using CPRD GOLD; whereas 213,400 people with psoriasis and 1,268,998 comparison patients were included in CPRD Aurum. For all cancer records (excluding keratinocyte), concordance between CPRD and HES was greater than 80%. Concordance for same-site cancer records was markedly lower (<68% GOLD-linked data; <72% Aurum-linked data). Concordance of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and liver cancer recording between CPRD and HES was lower for people with psoriasis compared to those without. Conclusions: Concordance between CPRD and HES is poor when restricted to cancers of the same site, with greater discordance in people with psoriasis for some cancers of specific sites. The use of linked patient-level data is an important step in reducing misclassification of cancer outcomes in epidemiological studies using routinely collected electronic health records.
    • Conducting Behavioural Research in the Zoo: A Guide to Ten Important Methods, Concepts and Theories

      Rose, Paul E.; orcid: 0000-0002-5375-8267; email: p.rose@exeter.ac.uk; Riley, Lisa M.; orcid: 0000-0003-1918-4623; email: Lisa.Riley@winchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-08-10)
      Behavioural research in zoos is commonplace and is used in the diagnosis and treatment of potential husbandry and management challenges. Robust methods that allow valid data collection and analysis constitute an evidence-based approach to animal care. Understanding behaviour is essential to improving animal management, and behavioural research is therefore popular, with a wide choice of behavioural methodologies and theories available. This review outlines ten methodological approaches, concepts or theories essential to zoo science that are based around behavioural observation. This list is not exhaustive but aims to define and describe key areas of consideration when planning and implementing a zoo-based behavioural project. We discuss the application of well-established methods (the construction of ethograms, use of time–activity patterns and measurement of space/enclosure use) as well as evaluating newer or less-widely applied analytical techniques, such as behavioural diversity indices, social networks analysis and Qualitative Behavioural Assessment. We also consider the importance of fundamental research methods, the application of pure science to understand and interpret zoo animal behaviour (with a review of a Tinbergian approach) and consideration of meta-analyses. The integration of observational techniques into experiments that aim to identify the cause and effect of behavioural performance is then explored, and we examine the assimilation of behavioural methods used in studies of environmental enrichment. By systematically studying animal behaviour, we can attempt to understand the welfare of individual animals in captivity, and here we present an example of our reviewed approaches to this area of zoo science. Combining multiple methodologies can lead to a greater understanding of behaviour and welfare, creating robust research, progressing husbandry and advancing conservation strategies. Collaborations between zoological collections and academic researchers (e.g., in Higher Education Institutions) can further refine and enhance the validity of research and husbandry practice alike.
    • Conductive Polymeric-Based Electroactive Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Current Progress and Challenges from Biomaterials and Manufacturing Perspectives

      Marsudi, Maradhana Agung; orcid: 0000-0003-0741-9683; email: maradhanaa@alumni.itb.ac.id; Ariski, Ridhola Tri; email: ariskiridh@gmail.com; Wibowo, Arie; email: ariewibowo@material.itb.ac.id; Cooper, Glen; orcid: 0000-0002-9568-8973; email: glen.cooper@manchester.ac.uk; Barlian, Anggraini; email: aang@sith.itb.ac.id; Rachmantyo, Riska; email: rachmantyo@material.itb.ac.id; Bartolo, Paulo J. D. S.; orcid: 0000-0003-3683-726X; email: paulojorge.dasilvabartolo@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-10-26)
      The practice of combining external stimulation therapy alongside stimuli-responsive bio-scaffolds has shown massive potential for tissue engineering applications. One promising example is the combination of electrical stimulation (ES) and electroactive scaffolds because ES could enhance cell adhesion and proliferation as well as modulating cellular specialization. Even though electroactive scaffolds have the potential to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering due to their ability to distribute ES directly to the target tissues, the development of effective electroactive scaffolds with specific properties remains a major issue in their practical uses. Conductive polymers (CPs) offer ease of modification that allows for tailoring the scaffold’s various properties, making them an attractive option for conductive component in electroactive scaffolds. This review provides an up-to-date narrative of the progress of CPs-based electroactive scaffolds and the challenge of their use in various tissue engineering applications from biomaterials perspectives. The general issues with CP-based scaffolds relevant to its application as electroactive scaffolds were discussed, followed by a more specific discussion in their applications for specific tissues, including bone, nerve, skin, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle scaffolds. Furthermore, this review also highlighted the importance of the manufacturing process relative to the scaffold’s performance, with particular emphasis on additive manufacturing, and various strategies to overcome the CPs’ limitations in the development of electroactive scaffolds.
    • Conformal screen printed graphene 4 × 4 wideband MIMO antenna on flexible substrate for 5G communication and IoT applications

      Zhou, Xinyao; orcid: 0000-0001-5797-439X; Leng, Ting; orcid: 0000-0001-6559-6974; Pan, Kewen; Abdalla, Mahmoud; orcid: 0000-0001-6759-7268; Novoselov, Kostya S; Hu, Zhirun; email: z.hu@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-20)
      Abstract: Screen-printed graphene is integrated with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology to conquer the most concerned surge in electronic waste caused by the mass deployment of Internet of things (IoT) applications. A flexible MIMO antenna is implemented with simple fabrication process suitable for large-scale production by screen printing graphene highly conductive ink on paper substrate, ensuring high-speed 5G mass data wireless transmission without damaging the ecological environment. This environmental-friendly, low-cost, flexible and conformal MIMO antenna with orthogonal polarization diversity employs co-planar waveguide feed and planar pattern for achieving high space utilization and better integration in most scenarios, for instance, body centric networks and monitoring systems. Excellent performance has been achieved due to the high conductivity of the graphene: the fabricated antenna exhibits an average sheet resistance of 1.9Ωsq−1 . The bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 2.22 GHz to 3.85 GHz (53.71% fractional bandwidth), covering 4G long term evolution, sub-6 GHz 5G mobile communication networks, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz WiMAX, and 2.4 and 3.6 GHz WLAN. Within this range, the antenna exhibits effective radiation, also its envelope correlation coefficient remains below 0.2×10−6 , manifesting outstanding signal transmission quality in a variety of wireless networks. This work illustrates a novel aggregation of MIMO technology and graphene printing electronics, enabling cheap accessible and green MIMO antennas to be massively integrated in IoT applications.
    • Conformal screen printed graphene 4 × 4 wideband MIMO antenna on flexible substrate for 5G communication and IoT applications

      Zhou, Xinyao; orcid: 0000-0001-5797-439X; Leng, Ting; orcid: 0000-0001-6559-6974; Pan, Kewen; Abdalla, Mahmoud; orcid: 0000-0001-6759-7268; Novoselov, Kostya S; Hu, Zhirun; email: z.hu@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-08-20)
      Abstract: Screen-printed graphene is integrated with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology to conquer the most concerned surge in electronic waste caused by the mass deployment of Internet of things (IoT) applications. A flexible MIMO antenna is implemented with simple fabrication process suitable for large-scale production by screen printing graphene highly conductive ink on paper substrate, ensuring high-speed 5G mass data wireless transmission without damaging the ecological environment. This environmental-friendly, low-cost, flexible and conformal MIMO antenna with orthogonal polarization diversity employs co-planar waveguide feed and planar pattern for achieving high space utilization and better integration in most scenarios, for instance, body centric networks and monitoring systems. Excellent performance has been achieved due to the high conductivity of the graphene: the fabricated antenna exhibits an average sheet resistance of 1.9Ωsq−1 . The bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 2.22 GHz to 3.85 GHz (53.71% fractional bandwidth), covering 4G long term evolution, sub-6 GHz 5G mobile communication networks, 2.5 and 3.5 GHz WiMAX, and 2.4 and 3.6 GHz WLAN. Within this range, the antenna exhibits effective radiation, also its envelope correlation coefficient remains below 0.2×10−6 , manifesting outstanding signal transmission quality in a variety of wireless networks. This work illustrates a novel aggregation of MIMO technology and graphene printing electronics, enabling cheap accessible and green MIMO antennas to be massively integrated in IoT applications.
    • Connecting nutrition as a hard science and international knowledge networks: Proceedings of the Fourth International Summit on Medical and Public Health Nutrition Education and Research.

      Barrett, Eden M; orcid: 0000-0003-0190-6130; Brown, Mhairi; Buckner, Luke; Bradfield, James; orcid: 0000-0002-1010-2372; Khalid, Ali A; Laur, Celia; orcid: 0000-0003-4555-1407; Ray, Sumantra (2020-09-23)
      Nutrition is a 'hard' science in two ways; the scientific rigour required for quality nutrition research, and equally, the challenges faced in evidence translation. Ways in which quality nutrition research can be synthesised and evidence effectively translated into practice were the focus of the Fourth Annual International Summit on Medical and Public Health Nutrition Education and Research. Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, and Addenbrookes Hospital at the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, in July 2018. Open communication and collaboration across disciplines and systems, including transfer of knowledge, ideas and data through international knowledge application networks, was presented as a key tool in enhancing nutrition research and translation of evidence. Increasing basic nutrition competence and confidence in medical professionals is needed to encourage the implementation of nutrition therapy in prevention and treatment of health outcomes. A sustained focus on producing quality nutrition research must be coupled with increased efforts in collaboration and building of knowledge networks, including educating and training multidisciplinary health and medical professionals in nutrition. Such efforts are needed to ensure nutrition is both reliable in its messaging and effective in translation into healthcare. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Consistency of ranking was evaluated as new measure for prediction model stability: longitudinal cohort study.

      Li, Yan; Sperrin, Matthew; Ashcroft, Darren M; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter; email: tjeerd.vanstaa@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-02)
      Clinical risk prediction models are generally assessed on population level with a lack of measures that evaluate their stability at predicting risks of individual patients. This study evaluated the use of ranking as a measure to assess individual level stability between risk prediction models. A large patient cohort (3.66 million patients with 0.11 million cardiovascular events) extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was used in the exemplar of cardiovascular disease risk prediction. It was found that 15 models (including machine learning and statistical models) had similar population-level model performance (C statistics about 0.88). For patients with high absolute risks, the models were more consistent in ranking of risk predictions (interquartile range (IQR) of differences in rank percentiles -0.6 to 1.0), but inconsistent in absolute risk (IQR of differences in absolute risk -18.8 to 9.0). At low risk, the reverse was true with inconsistent ranking but more consistent absolute risk. Consistency of ranking of individual risk predictions is a useful measure to assess risk prediction models providing complementary information to absolute risk stability. Model developing guidelines including "TRIPOD" and "PROBAST" should incorporate ranking to assess individual level stability between risk prediction models. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]
    • Consolidated Bioprocessing: Synthetic Biology Routes to Fuels and Fine Chemicals

      Banner, Alec; email: alec.banner@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Toogood, Helen S.; orcid: 0000-0003-4797-0293; email: helen.toogood@manchester.ac.uk; Scrutton, Nigel S.; orcid: 0000-0002-4182-3500; email: nigel.scrutton@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-05-18)
      The long road from emerging biotechnologies to commercial “green” biosynthetic routes for chemical production relies in part on efficient microbial use of sustainable and renewable waste biomass feedstocks. One solution is to apply the consolidated bioprocessing approach, whereby microorganisms convert lignocellulose waste into advanced fuels and other chemicals. As lignocellulose is a highly complex network of polymers, enzymatic degradation or “saccharification” requires a range of cellulolytic enzymes acting synergistically to release the abundant sugars contained within. Complications arise from the need for extracellular localisation of cellulolytic enzymes, whether they be free or cell-associated. This review highlights the current progress in the consolidated bioprocessing approach, whereby microbial chassis are engineered to grow on lignocellulose as sole carbon sources whilst generating commercially useful chemicals. Future perspectives in the emerging biofoundry approach with bacterial hosts are discussed, where solutions to existing bottlenecks could potentially be overcome though the application of high throughput and iterative Design-Build-Test-Learn methodologies. These rapid automated pathway building infrastructures could be adapted for addressing the challenges of increasing cellulolytic capabilities of microorganisms to commercially viable levels.
    • Construction of C-C bonds via photoreductive coupling of ketones and aldehydes in the metal-organic-framework MFM-300(Cr)

      Luo, Tian; Li, Lili; Chen, Yinlin; orcid: 0000-0001-7878-2063; An, Jie; email: jie_an@cau.edu.cn; Liu, Chengcheng; Yan, Zheng; Carter, Joseph H.; orcid: 0000-0001-5530-7390; Han, Xue; Sheveleva, Alena M.; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; et al. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-06-11)
      Abstract: Construction of C-C bonds via reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones is hindered by the highly negative reduction potential of these carbonyl substrates, particularly ketones, and this renders the formation of ketyl radicals extremely endergonic. Here, we report the efficient activation of carbonyl compounds by the formation of specific host-guest interactions in a hydroxyl-decorated porous photocatalyst. MFM-300(Cr) exhibits a band gap of 1.75 eV and shows excellent catalytic activity and stability towards the photoreductive coupling of 30 different aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding 1,2-diols at room temperature. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirm the generation of ketyl radicals via confinement within MFM-300(Cr). This protocol removes simultaneously the need for a precious metal-based photocatalyst or for amine-based sacrificial agents for the photochemical synthesis.
    • Construction of C-C bonds via photoreductive coupling of ketones and aldehydes in the metal-organic-framework MFM-300(Cr).

      Luo, Tian; Li, Lili; Chen, Yinlin; orcid: 0000-0001-7878-2063; An, Jie; email: jie_an@cau.edu.cn; Liu, Chengcheng; Yan, Zheng; Carter, Joseph H; orcid: 0000-0001-5530-7390; Han, Xue; Sheveleva, Alena M; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; et al. (2021-06-11)
      Construction of C-C bonds via reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones is hindered by the highly negative reduction potential of these carbonyl substrates, particularly ketones, and this renders the formation of ketyl radicals extremely endergonic. Here, we report the efficient activation of carbonyl compounds by the formation of specific host-guest interactions in a hydroxyl-decorated porous photocatalyst. MFM-300(Cr) exhibits a band gap of 1.75 eV and shows excellent catalytic activity and stability towards the photoreductive coupling of 30 different aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding 1,2-diols at room temperature. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirm the generation of ketyl radicals via confinement within MFM-300(Cr). This protocol removes simultaneously the need for a precious metal-based photocatalyst or for amine-based sacrificial agents for the photochemical synthesis.
    • Continuous Magnitude Production of Loudness

      Schlittenlacher, Josef; email: josef.schlittenlacher@manchester.ac.uk; Ellermeier, Wolfgang (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-05-11)
      Continuous magnitude estimation and continuous cross-modality matching with line length can efficiently track the momentary loudness of time-varying sounds in behavioural experiments. These methods are known to be prone to systematic biases but may be checked for consistency using their counterpart, magnitude production. Thus, in Experiment 1, we performed such an evaluation for time-varying sounds. Twenty participants produced continuous cross-modality matches to assess the momentary loudness of fourteen songs by continuously adjusting the length of a line. In Experiment 2, the resulting temporal line length profile for each excerpt was played back like a video together with the given song and participants were asked to continuously adjust the volume to match the momentary line length. The recorded temporal line length profile, however, was manipulated for segments with durations between 7 to 12 s by eight factors between 0.5 and 2, corresponding to expected differences in adjusted level of −10, −6, −3, −1, 1, 3, 6, and 10 dB according to Stevens’s power law for loudness. The average adjustments 5 s after the onset of the change were −3.3, −2.4, −1.0, −0.2, 0.2, 1.4, 2.4, and 4.4 dB. Smaller adjustments than predicted by the power law are in line with magnitude-production results by Stevens and co-workers due to “regression effects.” Continuous cross-modality matches of line length turned out to be consistent with current loudness models, and by passing the consistency check with cross-modal productions, demonstrate that the method is suited to track the momentary loudness of time-varying sounds.
    • Contractible, hyperbolic but non-CAT(0) complexes

      Webb, Richard C. H.; email: richard.webb@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-10-26)
      Abstract: We prove that almost all arc complexes do not admit a CAT(0) metric with finitely many shapes, in particular any finite-index subgroup of the mapping class group does not preserve such a metric on the arc complex. We also show the analogous statement for all but finitely many disc complexes of handlebodies and free splitting complexes of free groups. The obstruction is combinatorial. These complexes are all hyperbolic and contractible but despite this we show that they satisfy no combinatorial isoperimetric inequality: for any n there is a loop of length 4 that only bounds discs consisting of at least n triangles. On the other hand we show that the curve complexes satisfy a linear combinatorial isoperimetric inequality, which answers a question of Andrew Putman.
    • Control of electron-electron interaction in graphene by proximity screening

      Kim, M.; orcid: 0000-0001-6304-6901; Xu, S. G.; orcid: 0000-0002-0589-5291; Berdyugin, A. I.; Principi, A.; Slizovskiy, S.; Xin, N.; Kumaravadivel, P.; orcid: 0000-0002-9817-1697; Kuang, W.; orcid: 0000-0003-4309-365X; Hamer, M.; Krishna Kumar, R.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020-05-11)
      Abstract: Electron-electron interactions play a critical role in many condensed matter phenomena, and it is tempting to find a way to control them by changing the interactions’ strength. One possible approach is to place a studied system in proximity of a metal, which induces additional screening and hence suppresses electron interactions. Here, using devices with atomically-thin gate dielectrics and atomically-flat metallic gates, we measure the electron-electron scattering length in graphene and report qualitative deviations from the standard behavior. The changes induced by screening become important only at gate dielectric thicknesses of a few nm, much smaller than a typical separation between electrons. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with the scattering rates extracted from measurements of electron viscosity in monolayer graphene and of umklapp electron-electron scattering in graphene superlattices. The results provide a guidance for future attempts to achieve proximity screening of many-body phenomena in two-dimensional systems.