• Many-Objective Optimization of Sustainable Drainage Systems in Urban Areas with Different Surface Slopes

      Seyedashraf, Omid; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; orcid: 0000-0002-7702-1745; email: andrea.bottacinbusolin@manchester.ac.uk; Harou, Julien J. (Springer Netherlands, 2021-06-09)
      Abstract: Sustainable urban drainage systems are multi-functional nature-based solutions that can facilitate flood management in urban catchments while improving stormwater runoff quality. Traditionally, the evaluation of the performance of sustainable drainage infrastructure has been limited to a narrow set of design objectives to simplify their implementation and decision-making process. In this study, the spatial design of sustainable urban drainage systems is optimized considering five objective functions, including minimization of flood volume, flood duration, average peak runoff, total suspended solids, and capital cost. This allows selecting an ensemble of admissible portfolios that best trade-off capital costs and the other important urban drainage services. The impact of the average surface slope of the urban catchment on the optimal design solutions is discussed in terms of spatial distribution of sustainable drainage types. Results show that different subcatchment slopes result in non-uniform distributional designs of sustainable urban drainage systems, with higher capital costs and larger surface areas of green assets associated with steeper slopes. This has two implications. First, urban areas with different surface slopes should not have a one-size-fits-all design policy. Second, spatial equality must be taken into account when applying optimization models to urban subcatchments with different surface slopes to avoid unequal distribution of environmental and human health co-benefits associated with green drainage infrastructure.
    • Microwave spectro-polarimetry of matter and radiation across space and time

      Delabrouille, Jacques; email: delabrouille@apc.in2p3.fr; Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Aghanim, Nabila; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Alonso, David; Alvarez, Marcelo; Banday, Anthony J.; Bartlett, James G.; Baselmans, Jochem; Basu, Kaustuv; email: kbasu@astro.uni-bonn.de; et al. (Springer Netherlands, 2021-07-03)
      Abstract: This paper discusses the science case for a sensitive spectro-polarimetric survey of the microwave sky. Such a survey would provide a tomographic and dynamic census of the three-dimensional distribution of hot gas, velocity flows, early metals, dust, and mass distribution in the entire Hubble volume, exploit CMB temperature and polarisation anisotropies down to fundamental limits, and track energy injection and absorption into the radiation background across cosmic times by measuring spectral distortions of the CMB blackbody emission. In addition to its exceptional capability for cosmology and fundamental physics, such a survey would provide an unprecedented view of microwave emissions at sub-arcminute to few-arcminute angular resolution in hundreds of frequency channels, a data set that would be of immense legacy value for many branches of astrophysics. We propose that this survey be carried out with a large space mission featuring a broad-band polarised imager and a moderate resolution spectro-imager at the focus of a 3.5 m aperture telescope actively cooled to about 8K, complemented with absolutely-calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer modules observing at degree-scale angular resolution in the 10–2000 GHz frequency range. We propose two observing modes: a survey mode to map the entire sky as well as a few selected wide fields, and an observatory mode for deeper observations of regions of specific interest.
    • Now, Imagine an Actually Existing Unicorn: On Russellian Worries for Modal Meinongianism

      de Jong, Andreas; email: andreas.dejong@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-04-23)
      Abstract: Modal Meinongianism provides the semantics of sentences involving intentional verbs Priest (Towards Nonbeing, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016). To that end, Modal Meinongianism employs a pointed non-normal quantified modal logic model. Like earlier Meinongian views Modal Meinongianism has a characterisation principle (QCP), that claims that any condition whatsoever is satisfied by some object in some world. Recently, Everett (The nonexistent, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, 169, p. 36) has proposed an argument against QCP that, if successful, gives rise to problems identical to those Russell (Mind 14:530–538, 1905, p. 533) raised for Naïve Meinongianism, namely that it allows for true contradictions, and allows us to define anything into existence. Everett claims that the ordinary meanings of “actual” license an inference pattern, such that if an object satisfies Actual A at some world, then that object satisfies A in the actual world. Given that actual world is the designated point of evaluation for truth simpliciter, QCP would fall prey to Russell’s criticisms. As opposed to Everett, I argue that, even if we grant Everett the assumption that “actual” is a modal indexical that rigidly refers to the actual world, it does not conform to the inference pattern above. This is because when an object satisfies Actual A at some world, this alters the assertoric force of “actual”, because “actual” is interpreted in the scope of some modal or intentional operator. I also explain that Everett’s proposed example carries existential commitment because the problematic noun-phrase occurs outside the scope of a modal or intentional operator.
    • Opportunity Costs Pacifism

      Pattison, James; orcid: 0000-0002-4649-358X; email: james.pattison@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: If the resources used to wage wars could be spent elsewhere and save more lives, does this mean that wars are unjustified? This article considers this question, which has been largely overlooked by Just War Theorists and pacifists. It focuses on whether the opportunity costs of war lead to a form of pacifism, which it calls ‘Opportunity Costs Pacifism’. The article argues that Opportunity Costs Pacifism is, at the more ideal level, compelling. It suggests that the only plausible response to Opportunity Costs Pacifism applies in highly nonideal circumstances. This has major implications for Just War Theory and pacifism since it is only at the highly nonideal level that war can be justified.
    • Process-Dependent Solute Transport in Porous Media

      Erfani, Hamidreza; orcid: 0000-0002-9472-555X; Karadimitriou, Nikolaos; Nissan, Alon; Walczak, Monika S.; An, Senyou; Berkowitz, Brian; Niasar, Vahid; email: vahid.niasar@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-10-01)
      Abstract: Solute transport under single-phase flow conditions in porous micromodels was studied using high-resolution optical imaging. Experiments examined loading (injection of ink-water solution into a clear water-filled micromodel) and unloading (injection of clear water into an ink-water filled micromodel). Statistically homogeneous and fine-coarse porous micromodels patterns were used. It is shown that the transport time scale during unloading is larger than that under loading, even in a micromodel with a homogeneous structure, so that larger values of the dispersion coefficient were obtained for transport during unloading. The difference between the dispersion values for unloading and loading cases decreased with an increase in the flow rate. This implies that diffusion is the key factor controlling the degree of difference between loading and unloading transport time scales, in the cases considered here. Moreover, the patterned heterogeneity micromodel, containing distinct sections of fine and coarse porous media, increased the difference between the transport time scales during loading and unloading processes. These results raise the question of whether this discrepancy in transport time scales for the same hydrodynamic conditions is observable at larger length and time scales.
    • Rollercoasters are not Fun for Mary: Against Indexical Contextualism

      Berškytė, Justina; orcid: 0000-0001-5356-6698; email: justina.berskyte@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-06-25)
      Abstract: Indexical contextualism (IC) is an account of predicates of personal taste (PPTs) which views the semantic content of PPTs as sensitive to the context in which they are uttered, by virtue of their containing an implicit indexical element. Should the context of utterance change, the semantic content carried by the PPT will also change. The main aim of this paper is to show that IC is unable to provide a satisfactory account of PPTs. I look at what I call “pure” IC accounts and show that because they fail to respect empirical data regarding disagreements where neither person is at fault, known as “faultless disagreements”, they must be rejected. I then go on to consider what I call IC “plus” (IC+) accounts. Such accounts attempt to account for the faultlessness of such disagreements using a simple indexical semantics, whilst introducing some extra ingredient to account for the disagreement part. I focus on two main versions of IC+: Gutzmann’s (in: Meier, van Wijnberger-Huitink (eds) Subjective meaning: alternatives to relativism, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2016) expressivist account, and López de Sa’s (in: García-Carpintero, Kölbel (eds) Relative truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008; Erkenntnis 80(Supp 1):153–165, 2015) presuppositional account. I discuss some internal worries with these accounts before going on to some final remarks about IC/IC+ in general. I conclude that neither IC nor IC+ can provide a satisfactory semantics for PPTs.
    • Rollercoasters are not Fun for Mary: Against Indexical Contextualism

      Berškytė, Justina; orcid: 0000-0001-5356-6698; email: justina.berskyte@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-06-25)
      Abstract: Indexical contextualism (IC) is an account of predicates of personal taste (PPTs) which views the semantic content of PPTs as sensitive to the context in which they are uttered, by virtue of their containing an implicit indexical element. Should the context of utterance change, the semantic content carried by the PPT will also change. The main aim of this paper is to show that IC is unable to provide a satisfactory account of PPTs. I look at what I call “pure” IC accounts and show that because they fail to respect empirical data regarding disagreements where neither person is at fault, known as “faultless disagreements”, they must be rejected. I then go on to consider what I call IC “plus” (IC+) accounts. Such accounts attempt to account for the faultlessness of such disagreements using a simple indexical semantics, whilst introducing some extra ingredient to account for the disagreement part. I focus on two main versions of IC+: Gutzmann’s (in: Meier, van Wijnberger-Huitink (eds) Subjective meaning: alternatives to relativism, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2016) expressivist account, and López de Sa’s (in: García-Carpintero, Kölbel (eds) Relative truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008; Erkenntnis 80(Supp 1):153–165, 2015) presuppositional account. I discuss some internal worries with these accounts before going on to some final remarks about IC/IC+ in general. I conclude that neither IC nor IC+ can provide a satisfactory semantics for PPTs.
    • SDP-Based Robust Formation-Containment Coordination of Swarm Robotic Systems with Input Saturation

      Wu, Kefan; Hu, Junyan; orcid: 0000-0001-7409-3885; email: junyan.hu@manchester.ac.uk; Lennox, Barry; Arvin, Farshad; email: farshad.arvin@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-04-19)
      Abstract: There are many potential applications of swarm robotic systems in real-world scenarios. In this paper, formation-containment controller design for single-integrator and double-integrator swarm robotic systems with input saturation is investigated. The swarm system contains two types of robots—leaders and followers. A novel control protocol and an implementation algorithm are proposed that enable the leaders to achieve the desired formation via semidefinite programming (SDP) techniques. The followers then converge into the convex hull formed by the leaders simultaneously. In contrast to conventional consensus-based formation control methods, the relative formation reference signal is not required in the real-time data transmission, which provides greater feasibility for implementation on hardware platforms. The effectiveness of the proposed formation-containment control algorithm is demonstrated with both numerical simulations and experiments using real robots that utilize the miniature mobile robot, Mona.
    • Secret Hunger: The Case of Anorexia Nervosa

      Giordano, Simona; orcid: 0000-0002-3608-0263; email: Simona.giordano@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-09-28)
      Abstract: Anorexia nervosa is currently classed as a mental disorder. It is considered as a puzzling condition, scarcely understood and recalcitrant to treatment. This paper reviews the main hypotheses relating to the aetiology of anorexia nervosa. In particular, it focuses on family and sociological studies of anorexia. By reflecting on the hypotheses provided within these domains, and on the questions that these studies leave unanswered, this paper suggests that anorexic behaviour is understandable and rational, if seen in light of ordinary moral values.
    • Secret Hunger: The Case of Anorexia Nervosa

      Giordano, Simona; orcid: 0000-0002-3608-0263; email: Simona.giordano@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-09-28)
      Abstract: Anorexia nervosa is currently classed as a mental disorder. It is considered as a puzzling condition, scarcely understood and recalcitrant to treatment. This paper reviews the main hypotheses relating to the aetiology of anorexia nervosa. In particular, it focuses on family and sociological studies of anorexia. By reflecting on the hypotheses provided within these domains, and on the questions that these studies leave unanswered, this paper suggests that anorexic behaviour is understandable and rational, if seen in light of ordinary moral values.
    • The bodily-attitudinal theory of emotion

      Mitchell, Jonathan; email: jonathan.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-10-10)
      Abstract: This paper provides an assessment of the bodily-attitudinal theory of emotions, according to which emotions are felt bodily attitudes of action readiness. After providing a reconstruction of the view and clarifying its central commitments two objections are considered (absence of bodily phenomenology and what kind of bodily awareness). An alternative object side interpretation of felt action readiness is then provided, which undermines the motivation for the bodily-attitudinal theory and creates problems for its claims concerning the content of emotional experience. The conclusion is that while the bodily-attitudinal theory marks out a distinctive proposal concerning the question of what emotions are, there remain significant issues which need addressing if it is to be a plausible competitor to existing theories of emotion.
    • The bodily-attitudinal theory of emotion

      Mitchell, Jonathan; email: jonathan.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-10-10)
      Abstract: This paper provides an assessment of the bodily-attitudinal theory of emotions, according to which emotions are felt bodily attitudes of action readiness. After providing a reconstruction of the view and clarifying its central commitments two objections are considered (absence of bodily phenomenology and what kind of bodily awareness). An alternative object side interpretation of felt action readiness is then provided, which undermines the motivation for the bodily-attitudinal theory and creates problems for its claims concerning the content of emotional experience. The conclusion is that while the bodily-attitudinal theory marks out a distinctive proposal concerning the question of what emotions are, there remain significant issues which need addressing if it is to be a plausible competitor to existing theories of emotion.
    • The epidemiology of moral bioenhancement

      Gibson, R. B.; orcid: 0000-0002-3982-4029; email: Richard.Gibson@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-10-06)
      Abstract: In their 2008 paper, Persson and Savulescu suggest that for moral bioenhancement (MBE) to be effective at eliminating the danger of ‘ultimate harm’ the intervention would need to be compulsory. This is because those most in need of MBE would be least likely to undergo the intervention voluntarily. By drawing on concepts and theories from epidemiology, this paper will suggest that MBE may not need to be universal and compulsory to be effective at significantly improving the collective moral standing of a human populace and reducing the threat of ultimate harm. It will identify similarities between the mechanisms that allow biological contagions (such as a virus) and behaviours (such as those concerned with ethical and unethical actions) to develop, spread, and be reinforced within a population. It will then go onto suggest that, just as with the epidemiological principle of herd immunity, if enough people underwent MBE to reach a minimum threshold then the incidence and spread of immoral behaviours could be significantly reduced, even in those who have not received MBE.
    • Thinking with ‘lexical’ features to reconceptualize the ‘grammar’ of schooling: Shifting the focus from school to society

      Courtney, Steven J.; orcid: 0000-0003-2379-7035; email: steven.courtney@manchester.ac.uk; Mann, Bryan (Springer Netherlands, 2020-08-13)
      Abstract: Achieving changes to education practices and structures is a significant issue facing reformers internationally, and researchers have confronted how such changes, and the conditions for these, might be conceptualized. These issues resonate particularly as researchers grapple with imagining a post-COVID-19 landscape where social and educational norms may change. Tyack and Tobin, in their 1994 article ‘The “Grammar” of Schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?’ argued that several features of the American education system are so persistent as to warrant being understood as the ‘grammar’ of schooling. In this article, we reconceptualize this ‘grammar’ by taking seriously Tyack and Tobin’s insistence that ‘grammar’ organises meaning. Starting here, we argue that what they took to be grammatical features are the products and not the producers of meaning. We draw on the cases of the United States and England to argue that four international discourses have performed this meaning-making work: industrialization; welfarism; neoliberalism and neoconservatism. These are the ‘grammars’ of schooling—and of society. Their discursive products, including age grading and sorting into subjects are, we suggest, ‘lexical’ features that express the grammar. We use lexical features to explain the multi-directional interplay between discourse and educational feature: the lexical may endure longer than the grammatical, changes to which may be effected and/or legitimated through appealing to a lexical feature. We conclude by outlining key implications for realizing and conceptualizing educational change, including for a post-COVID-19 landscape.
    • Thinking with ‘lexical’ features to reconceptualize the ‘grammar’ of schooling: Shifting the focus from school to society

      Courtney, Steven J.; orcid: 0000-0003-2379-7035; email: steven.courtney@manchester.ac.uk; Mann, Bryan (Springer Netherlands, 2020-08-13)
      Abstract: Achieving changes to education practices and structures is a significant issue facing reformers internationally, and researchers have confronted how such changes, and the conditions for these, might be conceptualized. These issues resonate particularly as researchers grapple with imagining a post-COVID-19 landscape where social and educational norms may change. Tyack and Tobin, in their 1994 article ‘The “Grammar” of Schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?’ argued that several features of the American education system are so persistent as to warrant being understood as the ‘grammar’ of schooling. In this article, we reconceptualize this ‘grammar’ by taking seriously Tyack and Tobin’s insistence that ‘grammar’ organises meaning. Starting here, we argue that what they took to be grammatical features are the products and not the producers of meaning. We draw on the cases of the United States and England to argue that four international discourses have performed this meaning-making work: industrialization; welfarism; neoliberalism and neoconservatism. These are the ‘grammars’ of schooling—and of society. Their discursive products, including age grading and sorting into subjects are, we suggest, ‘lexical’ features that express the grammar. We use lexical features to explain the multi-directional interplay between discourse and educational feature: the lexical may endure longer than the grammatical, changes to which may be effected and/or legitimated through appealing to a lexical feature. We conclude by outlining key implications for realizing and conceptualizing educational change, including for a post-COVID-19 landscape.
    • Vaginal Examinations During Childbirth: Consent, Coercion and COVID-19

      Nelson, Anna; orcid: 0000-0003-3686-9333; email: anna.nelson@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-04-08)
      Abstract: In this paper I assess the labour ward admission policies introduced by some National Health Service (NHS) trusts during the COVID-19 pandemic, arguing that these intersected with other policies in a manner which may have coerced birthing people into consenting to vaginal examinations they might have otherwise refused. In order to fully understand the potential severity of these policies, I situate this critique in the historical and contemporary context of the problematic relationship between consent and vaginal examinations. Identifying the legal wrongs associated with performing coerced vaginal examinations, I highlight that the law is inadequately equipped to provide appropriate redress. Further, I illustrate that the issue explored in this paper reflects broader problems which exist with regard to the focus of, and the (under)investment in, the maternity services.
    • What’s so naïve about naïve realism?

      Raineri, Carlo; orcid: 0000-0003-2011-0322; email: Carlo.raineri@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-03-08)
      Abstract: Naïve Realism claims that veridical perceptual experiences essentially consist in genuine relations between perceivers and mind-independent objects and their features. The contemporary debate in the philosophy of perception has devoted little attention to assessing one of the main motivations to endorse Naïve Realism–namely, that it is the only view which articulates our ‘intuitive’ conception of perception. In this paper, I first clarify in which sense Naïve Realism is supposed to be ‘naïve’. In this respect, I argue that it is put forward as the only view which can take our introspective knowledge of perception at face value, and I identify the two (alleged) key features of such introspective knowledge. Second, I challenge the claim that one of these features-namely, that it seems as one could not be in the same perceptual state unless the putative objects of perception existed and were perceived–is introspectively evident. Consequently, I argue that a view of perceptual experience–such as Intentionalism–which denies that this feature is true of perception can still take introspection at face value. This undermines the claim that Naïve Realism is the only account which accommodates our intuitions on the nature of perception.
    • Will South Asia Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030? Learning from the MDGs Experience

      Asadullah, M. Niaz; Savoia, Antonio; orcid: 0000-0003-0639-9705; email: antonio.savoia@manchester.ac.uk; Sen, Kunal (Springer Netherlands, 2020-07-04)
      Abstract: This paper contributes to the debate on the Sustainable Development Goals progress by evaluating the MDGs achievements in South Asia and the policy and institutional challenges deriving from such experience. Using cross-country regressions and aggregate indicators of poverty, health, education and gender parity outcomes, we offer three sets of findings. First, comparative evidence shows that, while South Asia has converged with richer regions, there is still significant variation in gender equality, universal primary education, and income poverty achievements across countries. Second, projections based on past trends on where SDGs are expected to be by 2030 reveal that there is a long way to go, where emblematic targets as income poverty eradication may not be met in the populous South Asian countries. Finally, considering the expanded set of development targets in the SDGs and the growth slowdown in South Asia, we argue that further progress would simultaneously require increased public spending on health and education and reforms improving state capacity. A simulation exercise confirms that such a combination of interventions would deliver significant benefits in the region, particularly in areas that are critical to progress on the goals of ‘No Poverty’, ‘Quality Education’, ‘Gender Equality’, and ‘Inclusive Growth’.