• Doing Dirty Theology: How Ensoiled Humans Participate in the Flourishing of All Earthlings

      Biddington, Terry; email: Terry.Biddington@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-10)
      Traditional theological ideas, language and imagery tend to take their cue and inspiration from the Beyond: from heaven; the transcendent realm and all that is ‘above us’ that we might inspire to attain. But, given that all life arises from and is dependent upon the soil/earth, what possibilities might exist for new ‘ensoiled’ forms of thinking and practice? We are all earthlings and groundlings and our human qualities and spiritual sensitivities and aspirations must, in an evolutionary sense, arise from our connectivity to the soil and earth. What then can the soil and the life it contains teach us about living harmoniously as part of a community of planetary flourishing? This article will explore how a theology influenced by the soil – an ‘edapho-theology’ – might offer fresh perspectives for re-engaging with the need to create a sustainable future for all life on the planet.
    • Effect of combined home-based, overground robotic-assisted gait training and usual physiotherapy on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial

      Wright, Amy; orcid: 0000-0002-7006-6465; Stone, Keeron; Martinelli, Louis; Fryer, Simon; Smith, Grace; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; orcid: 0000-0002-0682-2270; Jobson, Simon; Faulkner, James; orcid: 0000-0002-3704-6737 (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-27)
      Objectives: To assess the effect of a home-based over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program using the AlterG Bionic Leg orthosis on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Home. Participants: Thirty-four ambulatory chronic stroke patients who recieve usual physiotherapy. Intervention: Usual physiotherapy plus either (1)10-week over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program ( n = 16), using the device for ⩾30 minutes per day, or (2) control group ( n = 18), 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Measurements: The primary outcome was the Six-Minute Walk Test. Secondary outcomes included: Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometry. All measurements were completed at baseline, 10 and 22 weeks after baseline. Results: Significant increases in walking distance were observed for the Six-Minute Walk Test between baseline and 10 weeks for over-ground robotic-assisted gait training (135 ± 81 m vs 158 ± 93 m, respectively; P ⩽ 0.001) but not for control (122 ± 92 m vs 119 ± 84 m, respectively). Findings were similar for Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale (all P ⩽ 0.01). For over-ground robotic-assisted gait training, there were increases in time spent stepping, number of steps taken, number of sit-to-stand transitions, and reductions in time spent sitting/supine between baseline and 10 weeks (all P < 0.05). The differences observed in all of the aforementioned outcome measures were maintained at 22 weeks, 12 weeks after completing the intervention (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: Over-ground robotic-assisted gait training combined with physiotherapy in chronic stroke patients led to significant improvements in clinical functional outcomes and physical activity compared to the control group. Improvements were maintained at 22 weeks.
    • Experimental and numerical study of helical auxetic yarns

      Gao, Yajie; orcid: 0000-0003-2726-1502; email: xiaogang.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Chen, Xiaogang; orcid: 0000-0001-5223-2397; Studd, Rachel (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-13)
      Auxetic materials, including textiles, exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which is of interest for many applications. This research aims to optimize the structural parameters of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) and to evaluate the auxetic performance of these yarns. The research reports on the improvement of auxetic yarn quality and the yarn auxeticity through studying the effect of helical angles, diameter ratio and tensile moduli of the two plies, as well as the binder filament feeding. The maximum NPR of the optimized auxetic yarns was experimentally achieved as low as –9.6, with the helical angle of around 14.0° on average using the optimal machine setting. The optimized yarn parameters enabled the making of high-quality auxetic yarns with a wider range of machine settings than before. In parallel, theoretical and numerical studies were carried out for the engineering design of auxetic yarns, which enabled comparisons among the experimental results, calculated results and results from finite element analysis. The comparison showed that a lower initial helical angle, higher tensile modulus of the wrap ply and lower tensile modulus of the core ply led to a higher auxetic effect. A new finding is reported in that a concave relationship between the diameter ratio and the NPR was discovered. The results of this study could assist researchers in producing HAYs, and this type of HAY could be used for many potential applications, such as filtration and impact protection.
    • Exploring engagement with digital screens for collecting patient feedback in clinical waiting rooms: The role of touch and place

      Ong, Bie Nio; Sanders, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0002-0539-928X; email: caroline.sanders@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2019-12-09)
      Health service settings are increasingly installing digital devices to enable people to engage digitally with multiple processes, including automated ‘check-in’, as well as collecting feedback on experiences of care. In addition, policy is increasingly driving digital agendas to promote patient engagement with online services, management of health records and routine monitoring. While this tendency towards widespread digital diffusion has been viewed as a means of enabling greater empowerment of patients and improved responsiveness of services to ‘patient voice’, social scientists have provided critical insights on the use of digital technologies in practice. However, there remains limited understanding of the mechanisms and contexts for digital engagement. In particular, there is a need for further research on the sensory and spatial aspects of engagement that are integral to everyday use (or non-use) of technology in practice. This article reports new insights from detailed qualitative case studies utilising in-depth interviews with patients, carers and staff, in addition to ethnographic observations of different digital modalities and their usage in specific health care contexts. A sociomaterial approach and concepts of affective atmosphere and technogeography are drawn upon to analyse the role of touch and place in the collection of digital feedback in multiple waiting room settings for people with physical and mental health long-term conditions. The findings highlight how barriers to engagement varied by context such as particular concerns about privacy for those with mental health problems and physical and sensory barriers for those with physical impairments. The findings demonstrate how digital inequalities can play out in practice and have implications for the design and development of digital innovations and tackling inequalities that may be associated with implementation of new digital technologies in healthcare.
    • Friend or fiend? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of moral and relational orientation in authentic leadership

      guest-editor: Iszatt-White, Marian; guest-editor: Carroll, Brigid; guest-editor: Gardiner, Rita A; guest-editor: Kempster, Steve; Bradley-Cole, Kim; orcid: 0000-0003-0853-6080; email: kim.bradley-cole@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-14)
      Authentic leadership has been developed with insufficient empirical challenge to its definitional components, and alternative conceptualizations have largely been ignored. The theory remains heavily criticized and its distinctiveness from other higher-purpose leadership theories remains in doubt, leading to a circular debate as to its usefulness in practice. In response to the call to return to the definitional drawing table, this article presents the findings of an interpretative phenomenological study that reimagines authentic leadership as a two-component moral and relational model that is closer to Heidegger’s notions of ‘being true’ and ‘care’. The study inductively explores how leaders themselves make sense of authenticity in practice, when it is enacted by their own leaders within the social exchange relationship. It richly describes how managers perceive and attribute authenticity to their leaders within the lived experience of contemporary work. The study also identifies that working for a leader who is perceived as authentic feels like a friendship and is beneficial to followers’ own psychological experience of work, facilitates their own authentic expression and is worthy of retention as a distinct leadership theory that explains how performance is enabled within proximal leader relationships.
    • Global technology companies and the politics of urban socio-technical imaginaries in the digital age: Processual proxies, Trojan horses and global beachheads

      Hodson, Mike; email: michael.hodson@manchester.ac.uk; McMeekin, Andrew (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-16)
      In this paper, we take the concept of ‘new urban spaces’ as our jumping off point to engage with the efforts of Alphabet/Google affiliate Sidewalk Labs to cultivate a new integrated digital and infrastructural urban space on the Toronto waterfront. We interrogate the process and politics of imagining this new, digital urban space as an urban socio-technical imaginary. The paper critically examines the central role of ‘big tech’ in producing the urban socio-technical imaginary not as a snapshot but, rather, as a ‘process of becoming’. This processual focus on the role of big tech allows us to develop three interrelated analytical contributions. First, we generate in-depth understanding of the proxy politics of urban socio-technical imaginaries in constituting new digital urban spaces. Second, we argue that an urban socio-technical imaginary was used as a Trojan horse to promote private experimentation with urban governance. Third, we demonstrate attempts to imagine a global beachhead via ‘the global model’ of a new digital urban space predicated on the digital control of integrated urban infrastructure systems.
    • Haunting, ruination and encounter in the ordinary Anthropocene: storying the return Florida’s wild flamingos

      Fredriksen, Aurora; orcid: 0000-0003-4287-3443; email: aurora.fredriksen@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-21)
      In the spring of 2006 wild flamingos returned to Florida, though not to the places their kind had inhabited 100 years and more ago at the southern edge of the Everglades and the Florida Keys. Instead this group of flamingos alighted 80 miles northward in Palm Beach County’s Stormwater Treatment Area 2 (STA-2), a human-made facility for filtering anthropogenic pollutants from storm runoff. This paper takes the return of wild flamingos to Florida as a case for thinking through haunting, ruination and encounters in what I call ‘the ordinary Anthropocene’: the ongoing, everyday more-than-human relationships, actions and less-than-planetary assemblages through which the Anthropocene is sensed and lived. After setting out a case for thinking with haunting, ruination and encounter as a way of making sense in the ordinary Anthropocene, I trace three interwoven narrative threads that unspool from the encounter with the STA-2 flamingos: First, I trace the transfiguration of living wild flamingos into idealised symbols of tropical dreamworlds over the 20th century. This leads me sideways to the present-absence of flamingos in the mid-century writings of Rachel Carson and through her backwards to John J. Audubon and the genocidal ruinations of the 19th century as they flicker in the margins of his ornithological writings. I end by returning to the present, to the encounter with STA-2 flamingos in the ongoing moment of living with others in the late capitalist ecologies of south Florida. The conclusion considers what might be taken forward, into the uncertain future, from this telling.
    • Impact of integrating mental health services within existing tuberculosis treatment facilities

      Pasha, Aneeta; orcid: 0000-0002-2699-4301; Siddiqui, Hasha; Ali, Shiza; Brooks, Meredith B; Maqbool, Naveen R; Khan, Aamir J (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-27)
      Introduction: Depression and anxiety among tuberculosis (TB) patients can adversely affect TB treatment adherence and completion. Aim: We studied whether integrating mental health services into existing TB treatment programs would reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve treatment completion among patients with drug-susceptible TB. Methods: Integrated practice units (IPUs) for TB and mental health were established within six existing TB treatment facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were screened for depression and anxiety and, if symptomatic, offered a mental health intervention consisting of at least four counseling sessions. We measured changes in reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms from baseline following completion of counseling sessions, and rates of TB treatment completion. Results: Between February 2017 and June 2018, 3500 TB patients were screened for depression and anxiety. 1057 (30.2%) symptomatic patients received a baseline adherence session. 1012 enrolled for a mental health intervention received at least 1 counseling session. 522 (51.5%) reported no symptoms after four to six sessions. Symptomatic patients who completed at least four counseling sessions had higher rates of TB treatment completion than those who did not (92.9% vs 75.1%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Mental health interventions integrated within TB programs can help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve TB treatment completion.
    • Impact of integrating mental health services within existing tuberculosis treatment facilities

      Pasha, Aneeta; orcid: 0000-0002-2699-4301; email: aneeta.pasha@ird.global; Siddiqui, Hasha; Ali, Shiza; Brooks, Meredith B; Maqbool, Naveen R; Khan, Aamir J (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-27)
      Introduction:: Depression and anxiety among tuberculosis (TB) patients can adversely affect TB treatment adherence and completion. Aim:: We studied whether integrating mental health services into existing TB treatment programs would reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve treatment completion among patients with drug-susceptible TB. Methods:: Integrated practice units (IPUs) for TB and mental health were established within six existing TB treatment facilities in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were screened for depression and anxiety and, if symptomatic, offered a mental health intervention consisting of at least four counseling sessions. We measured changes in reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms from baseline following completion of counseling sessions, and rates of TB treatment completion. Results:: Between February 2017 and June 2018, 3500 TB patients were screened for depression and anxiety. 1057 (30.2%) symptomatic patients received a baseline adherence session. 1012 enrolled for a mental health intervention received at least 1 counseling session. 522 (51.5%) reported no symptoms after four to six sessions. Symptomatic patients who completed at least four counseling sessions had higher rates of TB treatment completion than those who did not (92.9% vs 75.1%; p < 0.0001). Conclusion:: Mental health interventions integrated within TB programs can help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety and improve TB treatment completion.
    • Integrating visual arts into post-diagnostic dementia support groups in Memory Services

      Ponsillo, Nick; orcid: 0000-0003-1030-8028; Boot, Julia; Jones, Katy (SAGE Publications, 2020-09-15)
    • Interviewer Effects in Biosocial Survey Measurements

      Cernat, Alexandru; email: alexandru.cernat@manchester.ac.uk; Sakshaug, Joseph W. (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-11)
      Increasingly surveys are using interviewers to collect objective health measures, also known as biomeasures, to replace or supplement traditional self-reported health measures. However, the extent to which interviewers affect the (im)precision of biomeasurements is largely unknown. This article investigates interviewer effects on several biomeasures collected in three waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). Overall, we find low levels of interviewer effects, on average. This nevertheless hides important variation with touch sensory tests being especially high with 30% interviewer variation, and smell tests and timed balance/walk/chair stands having moderate interviewer variation of around 10%. Accounting for contextual variables that potentially interact with interviewer performance, including housing unit type and presence of a third person, failed to explain the interviewer variation. A discussion of these findings, their potential causes, and their implications for survey practice is provided.
    • Lost Property and the Materiality of Absence

      Holmes, Helen; orcid: 0000-0002-4918-2007; email: helen.holmes@manchester.ac.uk; Ehgartner, Ulrike (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-02)
      This article explores material loss and develops a new conceptual agenda. Synthesising and developing debates on the sociology of consumption and material culture in combination with those of the sociology of nothing, it argues that material loss is crucial to understanding people’s everyday relationships to the material world and to practices of consumption. Abstract notions of absence, nothingness and loss are becoming increasingly intriguing phenomena for sociologists interested in the everyday. However, whilst their theoretical connotations are being discussed more and more, empirical investigation into these phenomena remains somewhat (ironically) absent. This article draws on a recent project exploring lost property, based on qualitative interviews with lost property offices, households and museums. Developing previous work on material affinities and material culture, the authors argue that lost property reveals the enduring relationships people have with objects which are no longer in their possession. These relationships disrupt and develop contemporary debates on the sociology of consumption regarding how objects are devalued, divested and disposed of, as well as how they are acquired, appropriated and appreciated. In turn, we contend that the transformative potential of material loss and absence offers a way of thinking about alternative, non-material practices of accumulation.
    • Management of ‘disorders of sex development’/intersex variations in children: Results from a freedom of information exercise

      Garland, Fae; orcid: 0000-0002-6725-7682; email: fae.garland@manchester.ac.uk; Thomson, Michael; Travis, Mitchell; Warburton, Joshua (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Non-therapeutic medical interventions on the bodies of children born with disorders of sex development (DSD)/intersex variations have been subject to increasing critical scrutiny. In response to recent criticism directed at the United Kingdom, and early moves to consider reform, we report on a freedom of information exercise that sought to evaluate whether National Health Service England is meeting international standards on optimal clinical management of DSD/intersex variations. The study explored what medical protocols are being followed to help inform potential reform, particularly with regard to non-therapeutic surgery. While the exercise revealed limited examples of promising practice, current protocols in the majority of Trusts appear unlikely to meet the complex needs of these children. We identify areas where significant improvement is needed, including data management, consistency in guideline use, composition of multidisciplinary teams and addressing disciplinary hierarchies within teams. These concerns sharpen criticisms of the lack of recognition of children’s rights in this context.
    • Maxmaladaptation, occupant behaviour and energy performance gap

      Levermore, Geoffrey; orcid: 0000-0001-5723-8309; email: geoff.levermore@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-15)
      Occupant behaviour is a key factor in the energy consumption and performance of a building. However, it is difficult to model and simulate hence there is often a mismatch between the predicted and actual performance of a new or refurbished buildings and surprising variations in the consumptions of similar and identical buildings. Although environmental conditions affect people significantly, there are also non-environmental factors including how well employers manage people and how well dwelling occupants understand their controls. Rarely are these factors considered in building performance, especially commercial buildings. Poor management can lead to varying degrees of occupant maladaptation. Maladaptation taken here to mean behaviour patterns that are detrimental to the optimal functioning of the building. This paper proposes a novel concept for designers that examines the worst possible energy performance gap (“extreme” scenario testing) where the theoretical occupants do their best to make the building consume as much energy as possible. The novel concept is called “maxmaladaptation”. By considering maxmaladaptation, designers can attempt to reduce it, so reducing the energy gap. This paper briefly reviews the energy gap and social psychology and its contribution to understanding energy consumption with some examples, underlying the concept of maxmaladaptation. Practical application: Building energy performance gaps often exist because predicted design consumptions are often less than actual consumptions due to the occupants not behaving as designers expect. Using the concept of maxmaladaptation, an extreme scenario of maximum energy use by occupants, designers can design buildings to avoid unexpected energy consumption. Often the influences of occupant behaviour are not considered in detail. Social psychology gives an insight into non-environmental factors that can cause maladaptation, a constituent of maxmaladaptation.
    • Multiplicities of sandscapes and granular geographies

      Kothari, Uma; email: uma.kothari@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-30)
      This commentary on William Jamieson’s article, ‘For Granular Geography’, which illuminates the granular relations of sand as it is transformed by capitalist urbanism, suggests that understanding what might constitute granular geographies requires further consideration of the multiplicities of granular material. It considers the manifold values of sand beyond its worth as an economic resource and explores the temporalities associated with the movement and fixity of sand. It goes on to argue that there is a need for renewed focus on the impacts of sand extraction for local communities and landscapes as well as for more substantive accounts of the myriad mobile choreographies of sand in processes of place-making.
    • Negotiating Journalism: Core Values and Cultural Diversities

      Mbaya, Nancy, B. (SAGE Publications, 2019-06-17)
    • ‘No idea of time’: Parents report differences in autistic children’s behaviour relating to time in a mixed-methods study

      Poole, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-2499; email: daniel.poole@manchester.ac.uk; Gowen, Emma; orcid: 0000-0003-4788-4280; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jones, Luke A (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-30)
      An emerging body of research suggests that temporal processing may be disrupted in autistic children, although little is known about behaviours relating to time in daily life. In the present study, 113 parents of autistic and 201 parents of neurotypical children (aged 7–12 years) completed the It’s About Time questionnaire and open-ended questions about their child’s behaviour relating to time. The questionnaire scores were lower in the autistic compared with the neurotypical group, suggesting that behaviours are affected. Three key themes were identified using thematic analysis: autistic children had problems with temporal knowledge, learning about concepts relating to time, such as how to use the clock and language around time. There were differences in prospection with autistic children having more difficulties with how they thought about the future and prepared themselves for upcoming events. The final theme, monotropism, described how autistic children viewed their time as precious so they could maximise engagement in their interests. The present study indicates that behaviours relating to time can have a considerable impact on the daily lives of autistic children and their families. Further work exploring the development of temporal cognition in autism would be valuable for targeting effective educational and clinical support. Lay abstract: Many everyday activities require us to organise our behaviours with respect to time. There is some evidence that autistic children have problems with how they perceive and understand time. However, little is currently known about this, or the ways in which behaviours related to time are impacted in daily life. In this study, 113 parents of autistic children and 201 parents of neurotypical children completed a questionnaire and open-ended questions about their child’s behaviour relating to time. Questionnaire scores were lower in the autistic group compared with neurotypicals, which suggests that behaviours relating to time are affected in autistic children. The open-ended responses further confirmed that the autistic children struggled with time and that this impacted on them and their family. Three key themes were identified. Theme 1: autistic children have problems with learning about concepts relating to time such as telling the time from a clock and using words to describe time (hours, minutes, etc.) appropriately. Theme 2: autistic children think about the future differently. Planning and working under time pressure were described as a problem. Theme 3: autistic children have strong interests which take up a lot of their attention and worrying about having sufficient time to pursue these interests causes anxiety. This research indicates that behaviours related to time can have a considerable impact on the lives of autistic children and that targeted support may be required.
    • Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake of hurlers

      Murphy, John; orcid: 0000-0002-8337-722X; O’Reilly, James (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-26)
      The current study investigated the association between sports nutrition knowledge and dietary quality in a sample of adult Irish male hurling players. Nutrition knowledge was measured by the validated Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ). Diet quality was measured by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) calculated from food frequency questionnaire data. Analysis of variance and linear modelling were used to assess associations between variables. A total of 265 (129 elite, 136 sub-elite) players were recruited. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge (SNKQ) was found between groups. Results showed a significant difference (p = 0.02; d = 0.39 ± 0.25; small) in food score (ARFS) between groups. A weak, positive association (r = 0.3, p = 0.007) was found between nutrition knowledge and food score. Elite level players, aged 28–32, with college degrees, that have previously received nutritional guidance displayed the highest levels of both nutrition knowledge and food score. Higher levels of nutrition knowledge and food score were expected in elite players, however were only found in food score. Nutrition knowledge does contribute to dietary quality although future interventions should focus on specific gaps in knowledge such as how to meet total energy/carbohydrate requirements.
    • Older adults’ construal of sedentary behaviour: Implications for reducing sedentary behaviour in older adult populations

      McGowan, Laura J; orcid: 0000-0002-4054-9300; email: laura.mcgowan@manchester.ac.uk; Powell, Rachael; French, David P; orcid: 0000-0002-7663-7804 (SAGE Publications, 2020-03-01)
      Older adults are the most sedentary age group, with sedentary behaviour having negative health-related consequences. There is currently limited understanding of how older adults view sedentary behaviour. This study investigated older adults’ understanding of the concept of sedentary behaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 community-dwelling older adults in urban North-West England, selected to be diverse in socio-economic background and activity levels. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Participants often construed sedentary behaviour as synonymous with a lack of physical activity, and many perceived reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to be the same thing. Participants perceived the term ‘sedentary’ to have negative connotations and were often judgemental of people who engaged in high levels of sedentary behaviour. Most participants considered reducing sedentary behaviour to be of value, though more active individuals were unconvinced that reducing sedentary behaviour has value beyond the benefits of being physically active. Interventions may wish to provide education to address the misconception that increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is necessary in order to reduce sedentary behaviour. Educating older adults on the independent health consequences of sedentary behaviour may also prove beneficial.
    • People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Self-Reported Views on Their Own Condition Management Reveal a High Level of Insight into the Challenges Faced

      Stedman, Mike; Rea, Rustam; Livingston, Mark; McLoughlin, Katie; Wong, Louise; Brown, Stephen; orcid: 0000-0003-3715-580X; Grady, Katherine; Gadsby, Roger; Paisley, Angela; Heald, Adrian; orcid: 0000-0002-9537-4050; email: adrian.heald@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-17)