• Spatio-temporal temperature fields generated coronally with bulk-fill resin composites: A thermography study.

      Yang, Jiawei; Algamaiah, Hamad; email: dr.algamaiah@gmail.com; Watts, David C; email: david.watts@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-15)
      This study aimed to investigate the effects of (i) a high-irradiance (3s) light-curing protocol versus (ii) two standard-irradiance (10s) protocols on 2D temperature maps during intra-dental photo-irradiation within a molar cavity restored with either Ultra-Rapid Photo-Polymerized Bulk Fill (URPBF) composites or a pre-heated thermo-viscous bulk-fill composite, compared to a standard bulk-fill resin-based-composite (RBC). The specific objectives included visual assessment of the temperature maps and quantitative assessment of several temperature/time plots at four different locations. A caries-free lower first molar cavity served as a natural tooth mold. Resin composites were placed without intermediary adhesive. Two URPBF composites (PFill; PFlow) and one pre-heated thermo-viscous bulk-fill composite (Viscalor: VC) were compared to a contemporary bulk-fill composite (One Bulk Fill: OBF). Two LED-LCU devices were used: Bluephase PowerCure (PC) and Elipar S10 (S10), with three light-irradiation protocols (PC-3s, PC-10s and S10-10s). 2D temperature maps over the entire coronal area were recorded for 120 s during and after irradiation using a thermal imaging camera. Changes at four different levels were selected from the data sets: (0, 2 and 4 mm from the cavity top and at 1 mm below the dentin cavity floor). The maximum temperature attained (T ), the mean temperature rise (ΔT), the time (s) to reach maximum temperature and the integrated areas (°C s) under the temperature/time (T/t) plots were identified. Data were analysed via three-way ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, independent t-tests and Tukey post-hoc tests (p < 0.05). All RBCs showed qualitatively similar temperature-time profiles. PFlow reached T in the shortest time. PC-3s (3000 mW/cm ) generated comparable ΔT to S10-10s, except with PFill, where ΔT was greater. Despite the same irradiance (1200 mW/cm ), Elipar S10 led to higher T and ΔT compared to PC-10s. The highest T and ΔT were observed at the 2 mm level, and the lowest were at 1 mm depth into the underlying dentin. Coronal 2D temperature maps showed rises largely confined within the bulk-fill RBC materials, with maxima at 2 mm rather than 4 mm depth indicating some extent of thermal insulation for the underlying dentin and pulp. RBCs polymerized via different irradiation protocols showed similar temperature changes. With the PC-3s protocol - also with pre-heated VC - minimal temperature rises at 1 mm within dentin suggest their clinical safety when sufficient remaining dentin thickness is present. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Spatiofunctional Dynamics of NKX3.1 to Safeguard the Prostate from Cancer.

      Finch, Andrew J; orcid: 0000-0002-8065-4623; Baena, Esther; orcid: 0000-0003-4157-3684; email: esther.baena@cruk.manchester.ac.uk (2021-09)
      A novel role of NKX3.1 in the mitochondria regulating the transcription of the electron transport chain components is reported. Mechanistically, HSPA9 chaperones NKX3.1 into the mitochondria in response to oxidative stress to regulate reactive oxygen species and suppress tumor initiation. . [Abstract copyright: ©2021 American Association for Cancer Research.]
    • Special Issue: Agents and Robots for Reliable Engineered Autonomy

      Cardoso, Rafael C.; orcid: 0000-0001-6666-6954; email: rafael.cardoso@manchester.ac.uk; Ferrando, Angelo; orcid: 0000-0002-8711-4670; email: angelo.ferrando@dibris.unige.it; Briola, Daniela; orcid: 0000-0003-1994-8929; email: daniela.briola@unimib.it; Menghi, Claudio; orcid: 0000-0001-5303-8481; email: claudio.menghi@uni.lu; Ahlbrecht, Tobias; orcid: 0000-0002-4652-901X; email: tobias.ahlbrecht@tu-clausthal.de (MDPI, 2021-07-13)
      The study of autonomous agents is a well-established area that has been researched for decades, both from a design and implementation viewpoint [...]
    • Special issue—before translational medicine: laboratory clinic relations lost in translation? Cortisone and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Britain, 1950–1960

      Worboys, Michael; orcid: 0000-0001-8583-7931; email: michael.worboys@manchester.ac.uk; Toon, Elizabeth (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-07)
      Abstract: Cortisone, initially known as ‘compound E’ was the medical sensation of the late 1940s and early 1950s. As early as April 1949, only a week after Philip Hench and colleagues first described the potential of ‘compound E’ at a Mayo Clinic seminar, the New York Times reported the drug’s promise as a ‘modern miracle’ in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given its high profile, it is unsurprising that historians of medicine have been attracted to study the innovation of cortisone. It arrived at the end of a decade of ‘therapeutic revolutions’, kicked off by penicillin transforming the treatment of bacterial infections and ending with hopes of a revolution in the treatment of non-infectious, chronic inflammatory diseases. Despite these studies of cortisone’s introduction, few historians have taken the story forward and considered how cortisone was adopted and adapted into clinical practice. This article tells the longer of how the drug and its derivatives were taken from research laboratories and integrated into clinical practice; what has in recent decades become known as translational medicine (TM). In exploring cortisone’s first decade in Britain, we focus specifically on its role in the treatment of RA. Our approach is always to consider cortisone’s use in the context of other treatments available to clinicians, and at local and national institutional settings. We do not discuss the many other therapeutic uses of cortisone, which ranged for topical applications for skin diseases to the management of cancers, especially childhood leukaemia, nor do we discuss its close analogue ACTH—AdenoCorticoTropic Hormone. We think there are lessons in our study for TM policies today.
    • Specialist palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a European perspective

      Soosaipillai, Gehan; Wu, Anjui; Dettorre, Gino M; orcid: 0000-0002-4751-3810; Diamantis, Nikolaos; Chester, John; Moss, Charlotte; Aguilar-Company, Juan; orcid: 0000-0002-9838-1950; Bower, Mark; Sng, Christopher CT; Salazar, Ramon; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2021-09-02)
      Background:: Specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement has been shown to improve symptom control and end-of-life care for patients with cancer, but little is known as to how these have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report SPCT involvement during the first wave of the pandemic and compare outcomes for patients with cancer who received and did not receive SPCT input from multiple European cancer centres. Methods:: From the OnCovid repository (N = 1318), we analysed cancer patients aged ⩾18 diagnosed with COVID-19 between 26 February and 22 June 2020 who had complete specialist palliative care team data (SPCT+ referred; SPCT− not referred). Results:: Of 555 eligible patients, 317 were male (57.1%), with a median age of 70 years (IQR 20). At COVID-19 diagnosis, 44.7% were on anti-cancer therapy and 53.3% had ⩾1 co-morbidity. Two hundred and six patients received SPCT input for symptom control (80.1%), psychological support (54.4%) and/or advance care planning (51%). SPCT+ patients had more ‘Do not attempt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation’ orders completed prior to (12.6% versus 3.7%) and during admission (50% versus 22.1%, p < 0.001), with more SPCT+ patients deemed suitable for treatment escalation (50% versus 22.1%, p < 0.001). SPCT involvement was associated with higher discharge rates from hospital for end-of-life care (9.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001). End-of-life anticipatory prescribing was higher in SPCT+ patients, with opioids (96.3% versus 47.1%) and benzodiazepines (82.9% versus 41.2%) being used frequently for symptom control. Conclusion:: SPCT referral facilitated symptom control, emergency care and discharge planning, as well as high rates of referral for psychological support than previously reported. Our study highlighted the critical need of SPCTs for patients with cancer during the pandemic and should inform service planning for this population.
    • Specialist palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a European perspective

      Soosaipillai, Gehan; Wu, Anjui; Dettorre, Gino M; orcid: 0000-0002-4751-3810; Diamantis, Nikolaos; Chester, John; Moss, Charlotte; Aguilar-Company, Juan; orcid: 0000-0002-9838-1950; Bower, Mark; Sng, Christopher CT; Salazar, Ramon; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2021-09-02)
      Background: Specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement has been shown to improve symptom control and end-of-life care for patients with cancer, but little is known as to how these have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report SPCT involvement during the first wave of the pandemic and compare outcomes for patients with cancer who received and did not receive SPCT input from multiple European cancer centres. Methods: From the OnCovid repository ( N = 1318), we analysed cancer patients aged ⩾18 diagnosed with COVID-19 between 26 February and 22 June 2020 who had complete specialist palliative care team data (SPCT+ referred; SPCT− not referred). Results: Of 555 eligible patients, 317 were male (57.1%), with a median age of 70 years (IQR 20). At COVID-19 diagnosis, 44.7% were on anti-cancer therapy and 53.3% had ⩾1 co-morbidity. Two hundred and six patients received SPCT input for symptom control (80.1%), psychological support (54.4%) and/or advance care planning (51%). SPCT+ patients had more ‘Do not attempt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation’ orders completed prior to (12.6% versus 3.7%) and during admission (50% versus 22.1%, p &lt; 0.001), with more SPCT+ patients deemed suitable for treatment escalation (50% versus 22.1%, p &lt; 0.001). SPCT involvement was associated with higher discharge rates from hospital for end-of-life care (9.7% versus 0%, p &lt; 0.001). End-of-life anticipatory prescribing was higher in SPCT+ patients, with opioids (96.3% versus 47.1%) and benzodiazepines (82.9% versus 41.2%) being used frequently for symptom control. Conclusion: SPCT referral facilitated symptom control, emergency care and discharge planning, as well as high rates of referral for psychological support than previously reported. Our study highlighted the critical need of SPCTs for patients with cancer during the pandemic and should inform service planning for this population.
    • Specialist palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection: a European perspective.

      Soosaipillai, Gehan; Wu, Anjui; Dettorre, Gino M; orcid: 0000-0002-4751-3810; Diamantis, Nikolaos; Chester, John; Moss, Charlotte; Aguilar-Company, Juan; orcid: 0000-0002-9838-1950; Bower, Mark; orcid: 0000-0002-4077-6351; Sng, Christopher CT; Salazar, Ramon; et al. (2021-09-02)
      <h4>Background</h4>Specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement has been shown to improve symptom control and end-of-life care for patients with cancer, but little is known as to how these have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report SPCT involvement during the first wave of the pandemic and compare outcomes for patients with cancer who received and did not receive SPCT input from multiple European cancer centres.<h4>Methods</h4>From the OnCovid repository (<i>N</i> = 1318), we analysed cancer patients aged ⩾18 diagnosed with COVID-19 between 26 February and 22 June 2020 who had complete specialist palliative care team data (SPCT+ referred; SPCT- not referred).<h4>Results</h4>Of 555 eligible patients, 317 were male (57.1%), with a median age of 70 years (IQR 20). At COVID-19 diagnosis, 44.7% were on anti-cancer therapy and 53.3% had ⩾1 co-morbidity. Two hundred and six patients received SPCT input for symptom control (80.1%), psychological support (54.4%) and/or advance care planning (51%). SPCT+ patients had more 'Do not attempt cardio-pulmonary resuscitation' orders completed prior to (12.6% <i>versus</i> 3.7%) and during admission (50% <i>versus</i> 22.1%, <i>p</i> < 0.001), with more SPCT+ patients deemed suitable for treatment escalation (50% <i>versus</i> 22.1%, <i>p</i> < 0.001). SPCT involvement was associated with higher discharge rates from hospital for end-of-life care (9.7% <i>versus</i> 0%, <i>p</i> < 0.001). End-of-life anticipatory prescribing was higher in SPCT+ patients, with opioids (96.3% <i>versus</i> 47.1%) and benzodiazepines (82.9% <i>versus</i> 41.2%) being used frequently for symptom control.<h4>Conclusion</h4>SPCT referral facilitated symptom control, emergency care and discharge planning, as well as high rates of referral for psychological support than previously reported. Our study highlighted the critical need of SPCTs for patients with cancer during the pandemic and should inform service planning for this population.
    • Specific arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal–plant interactions determine radionuclide and metal transfer into Plantago lanceolata

      Rosas‐Moreno, Jeanette; Pittman, Jon K.; orcid: 0000-0001-7197-1494; email: jon.pittman@manchester.ac.uk; Robinson, Clare H. (2021-02-22)
      Societal Impact Statement: Industrial activity has left a legacy of pollution by radionuclides and heavy metals. The exposure of terrestrial environments to increased levels of ionising radiation and toxic elements is of concern, not only because of the immediate effects to biota but also because of the potential risk of mobilisation into higher levels of a food chain. Here, we present a study that extends our knowledge of how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi contribute to the mobilisation of non‐essential elements in environments such as former mine sites, and provides a perspective that will be of interest for the management and remediation of such sites. Summary Accumulation and transfer of long‐lived radionuclides and toxic metals in terrestrial environments is of major concern because of potential mobilisation into food chains. In this study, we aimed to compare the role of four different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) cultures on the transfer of non‐essential elements into Plantago lanceolata from a naturally contaminated soil source. Soil from an abandoned uranium (238U) mine was collected as a natural source of 238U, thorium (232Th), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). P. lanceolata was inoculated with four AMF cultures (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM181602, Acaulospora longula BEG8, Scutellospora calospora BEG245 and Funneliformis mosseae BEG12) to compare the uptake and transfer from root to shoot. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectroscopy and ICP‐absorption emission spectroscopy analyses provided quantification of total elemental concentrations in soil and plant tissues. Two of the AMF cultures, A. longula and F. mosseae, had contrasting roles in toxic element partitioning in plant tissue of P. lanceolata. F. mosseae increased the accumulation of 238U, 232Th, Pb, As and Cu in shoots whereas A. longula induced increased partitioning of 232Th, Ca, Fe and Zn in roots. The inoculation treatments and the differential accumulation of these elements had no significant effect on plant biomass. The use of different AMF cultures in enhancing phytoremediation of contaminated environments requires a wider understanding of the contribution of different AMF cultures to non‐essential element acquisition as well as to plant nutrition.
    • Speed-Related Energy Flow and Joint Function Change During Human Walking

      Hu, Zheqi; Ren, Lei; email: lei.ren@manchester.ac.uk; Hu, Dan; Gao, Yilei; Wei, Guowu; Qian, Zhihui; Wang, Kunyang; email: kywang@jlu.edu.cn (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-05-31)
      During human walking, mechanical energy transfers between segments via joints. Joint mechanics of the human body are coordinated with each other to adapt to speed change. The aim of this study is to analyze the functional behaviors of major joints during walking, and how joints and segments alter walking speed during different periods (collision, rebound, preload, and push-off) of stance phase. In this study, gait experiment was performed with three different self-selected speeds. Mechanical works of joints and segments were determined with collected data. Joint function indices were calculated based on net joint work. The results show that the primary functional behaviors of joints would not change with altering walking speed, but the function indices might be changed slightly (e.g., strut functions decrease with increasing walking speed). Waist acts as strut during stance phase and contributes to keep stability during collision when walking faster. Knee of stance leg does not contribute to altering walking speed. Hip and ankle absorb more mechanical energy to buffer the strike during collision with increasing walking speed. What is more, hip and ankle generate more energy during push-off with greater motion to push distal segments forward with increasing walking speed. Ankle also produces more mechanical energy during push-off to compensate the increased heel-strike collision of contralateral leg during faster walking. Thus, human may utilize the cooperation of hip and ankle during collision and push-off to alter walking speed. These findings indicate that speed change in walking leads to fundamental changes to joint mechanics.
    • Spinal Inhibitory Dysfunction in Patients With Painful or Painless Diabetic Neuropathy.

      Worthington, Anne; Kalteniece, Alise; Ferdousi, Maryam; D'Onofrio, Luca; Dhage, Shaishav; Azmi, Shazli; Adamson, Clare; Hamdy, Shaheen; Malik, Rayaz A; Calcutt, Nigel A; et al. (2021-06-18)
      Impaired rate-dependent depression of the Hoffman reflex (HRDD) is a marker of spinal inhibitory dysfunction and has previously been associated with painful neuropathy in a proof-of-concept study in patients with type 1 diabetes. We have now undertaken an assessment of HRDD in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A total of 148 participants, including 34 healthy control subjects, 42 patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, and 62 patients with diabetic neuropathy without pain, underwent an assessment of HRDD and a detailed assessment of peripheral neuropathy, including nerve conduction studies, corneal confocal microscopy, and thermal threshold testing. Compared with healthy control subjects ( < 0.001) and patients without pain ( < 0.001), we found that HRDD is impaired in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with neuropathic pain. These impairments are unrelated to diabetes type and the presence or severity of neuropathy. In contrast, patients without neuropathic pain ( < 0.05) exhibited enhanced HRDD compared with control subjects. We suggest that loss or impairment of HRDD may help to identify a subpopulation of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy mediated by impaired spinal inhibitory systems who may respond optimally to therapies that target spinal or supraspinal mechanisms. Enhanced RDD in patients without pain may reflect engagement of spinal pain-suppressing mechanisms. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 by the American Diabetes Association.]
    • Sporting celebrity and conspicuous consumption: A case study of professional footballers in England

      Law, Graeme; orcid: 0000-0001-5047-6208; email: g.law@yorksj.ac.uk; Bloyce, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0003-4114-3588; Waddington, Ivan (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-01)
      Association football is a lucrative sport with high financial rewards for top players. However, there has been little empirical work on the lifestyles of professional footballers. Based on interviews with 29 current and former male professional footballers, this paper examines the relationship between money, status and image management within and outside the changing room. The concept of conspicuous consumption is used to help explain players’ attitudes to money, their relationships with others within the football environment and how they advertise their earnings in an environment where open discussion of wages is seen as taboo. Our findings suggest that professional footballers are expected to display a particular image of the professional footballer and this constrains players, even those on lower incomes, to buy expensive clothes and accessories in order to be accepted by others. Players who do not conform to the expected image may be subject to sanctions by their teammates.
    • Stable Plastid Transformation of Petunia for Studies in Basic Research.

      Avila, Elena Martin; Day, Anil; email: anil.day@manchester.ac.uk (2021)
      Petunia hybrida is a commercial ornamental plant and is also an important model species for genetic analysis and transgenic research. Here we describe the steps required to isolate stable plastid transformants in P. hybrida using the commercial Pink Wave cultivar. Wave cultivars are popular spreading Petunias sold as ground cover and potted plants. Transgenes introduced into P. hybrida plastids exhibit stable expression over many generations. The development of plastid transformation in P. hybrida provides an enabling technology to bring the benefits of plastid engineering, including maternal inheritance and stable expression of performance-enhancing trait genes, to the important floriculture and horticulture industries.
    • ‘Stay home you murderer!’: populist policing of COVID-19 in Italy

      Scalia, Vincenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-5331-7349; email: Vincenzo.Scalia@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-19)
      Italy was the first European country to experience the impact of COVID-19. In order to deal with the health emergency, in early March 2020, the Italian government enforced strict lockdown measures. The different Italian police forces, the Polizia di Stato, Carabinieri and city police forces (Polizia Municipale), patrolled the streets, ensuring that people stayed at home and non-essential shops remained closed. These police forces received unprecedented support from the public in enforcing lockdown. People were active in their neighbourhoods, taking pictures of alleged violators and reporting them to the police, as well as posting pictures of those violating the rules on social networks. Local administrators encouraged citizens to report lockdown violations and in the case of Rome, introduced an online reporting system. This article focuses on the policing of lockdown in Italy. The article develops the argument that public attitudes, defined as policing from below, combined with policing from above by local administrators, produced a populist policing of the lockdown. Qualitative methodology is used to discuss interviews with police officers and analyse newspaper articles. Populist political forces are hegemonising in Italy, relying on the feelings of insecurity that the virus has embittered. Populist hegemony strongly influenced the policing of problems related to COVID. The lack of community policing or plural policing models within the organisation of Italian police forces, which remain a combination of continental and colonial models, has been decisive in the development of populist policing. The consequence of this is a type of ‘policing on demand’, with the public providing the police with intelligence and demanding enforcement.
    • Stem cell therapy and diabetic erectile dysfunction: A critical review.

      Pakpahan, Cennikon; Ibrahim, Raditya; William, William; Faizah, Zakiyatul; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Lusida, Maria I; Oceandy, Delvac; email: delvac.oceandy@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-26)
      Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified as one of the most frequent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of ED is estimated to be about 67.4% in all DM cases worldwide. The pathophysiological process leading to ED involves endothelial, neurological, hormonal, and psychological factors. In DM, endothelial and neurological factors play a crucial role. Damages in the blood vessels and erectile tissue due to insulin resistance are the hallmark of ED in DM. The current treatments for ED include phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and penile prosthesis surgery. However, these treatments are limited in terms of just relieving the symptoms, but not resolving the cause of the problem. The use of stem cells for treating ED is currently being studied mostly in experimental animals. The stem cells used are derived from adipose tissue, bone, or human urine. Most of the studies observed an improvement in erectile quality in the experimental animals as well as an improvement in erectile tissue. However, research on stem cell therapy for ED in humans remains to be limited. Nevertheless, significant findings from studies using animal models indicate a potential use of stem cells in the treatment of ED. [Abstract copyright: ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Stent Frame Movement Following Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing in the Abdominal Aorta

      Yafawi, Asma; orcid: 0000-0002-8390-9951; McWilliams, Richard G.; Fisher, Robert K.; England, Andrew; Karouki, Maria; Torella, Francesco (SAGE Publications, 2018-11-28)
      Purpose: To investigate the incidence and extent of stent frame movement after endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) in the abdominal aorta and its relationships to aneurysm growth and the instructions for use (IFU) of the Nellix endograft. Methods: A retrospective single-center study was conducted to review the clinical data and computed tomography (CT) images of 75 patients (mean age 76±7.6 years; 57 men) who underwent infrarenal EVAS and had a minimum 1-year follow-up. The first postoperative CT scan at 1 month and the subsequent scans were used to measure the distances between the proximal end of the stent frames and a reference visceral vessel using a previously validated technique. Device migration was based on the Society of Vascular Surgery definition of &gt;10-mm downward movement of either Nellix stent frame in the proximal landing zone; a more conservative proximal displacement measure (downward movement ⩾4 mm) was also recorded. Patients were categorized according to adherence to the old (2013) or new (2016) Nellix IFU. Aneurysm diameter was measured for each scan; a change ⩾5 mm was deemed indicative of aneurysm growth. Results: Over a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12–48), proximal displacement ⩾4 mm occurred in 42 (56%) patients and migration &gt;10 mm in 16 (21%), with similar incidences in the right and left stent frames. Proximal displacement was significantly more frequent among patients whose anatomy did not conform to any IFU (p=0.025). Presence of aneurysm growth ⩾5 mm was observed in 14 (19%) patients and was significantly associated with proximal displacement ⩾4 mm (p=0.03). Conclusion: Infrarenal EVAS may be complicated by proximal displacement and migration, particularly when performed outside the IFU. The definition of migration used for endovascular aneurysm repair may be inappropriate for EVAS; a new consensus on definition and measurement technique is necessary.
    • Stern, gwiazda or star: Screening receptive vocabulary skills across languages in monolingual and bilingual German–Polish or German–Turkish children using a tablet application

      Schaefer, Blanca; Ehlert, Hanna; Kemp, Lisa; Hoesl, Kristina; Schrader, Verena; Warnecke, Clarissa; Herrmann, Frank (SAGE Publications, 2018-11-09)
      There is a need to provide bilingual assessments and reference data to identify those who struggle to acquire their heritage language (L1) or the language spoken in the country of residence (L2). However, bilingual assessments and data are still sparse. Therefore, the aim was to use a tablet application to screen receptive vocabulary in different languages and discuss this data in the context of lexical acquisition theories. Forty-four monolingual German, 15 bilingual German–Polish and 21 German–Turkish-speaking children aged between 3;5 (3 years and 5 months) and 6;1 were assessed. All children completed the German version of the Receptive Vocabulary Screener (RVS), a tablet application testing 20 nouns and 20 verbs, and two standardized vocabulary sub-tests. Additionally, the bilingual children completed the Turkish or Polish version of the RVS. Internal consistency showed that the RVS is a reliable tool for research purposes and validity was confirmed by significant and moderate to strong correlations with the two standardized vocabulary sub-tests. Monolingual children outperformed bilingual children when performance comparisons were solely based on the German items. However, group differences were not significant when total vocabulary was used, i.e. the number of words bilingual children named across both versions. For bilingual children, L1 and L2 scores did not differ, i.e. they showed a similar performance on the L1/L2 subtest. Paternal education, but not maternal education, was significantly correlated to vocabulary scores. Children with more translation equivalents, i.e. words they know in both languages, and with a higher level of language proficiency showed higher scores on the screener. The app provided a valuable opportunity to assess lexical knowledge across different languages. Results indicated that total vocabulary and translation equivalents must be considered to evaluate bilingual children’s lexical knowledge.
    • Stigma: an unmet public health priority in COPD.

      Mathioudakis, Alexander G; Ananth, Sachin; Vestbo, Jørgen; email: jorgen.vestbo@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-28)
    • Stigma: the representation of mental health in UK newspaper Twitter feeds

      Bowen, Matt; Lovell, Andy (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-10)
    • Still Wrexham's longest running newspaper - the Wrexham Advertiser

      Peters, Lisa; University of Chester (Bridge Books, 2012-03)
      This article discuss the Wrexham Advertiser - a newspaper which ran from 1850 to 1957.