• Sexuality and the Human Rights of Persons With Dementia

      Peisah, Carmelle; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin (Elsevier, 2021-09-13)
      We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualization of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fueled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, noncategorical conceptualization of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner.
    • Sexuality and the Human Rights of Persons With Dementia.

      Peisah, Carmelle; email: cpeisah62@bigpond.com; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin (2021-05-30)
      We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualization of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fueled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, noncategorical conceptualization of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Shift work is associated with positive COVID-19 status in hospitalised patients.

      Maidstone, Robert; Anderson, Simon G; Ray, David W; Rutter, Martin K; Durrington, Hannah J; orcid: 0000-0002-9990-9446; Blaikley, John F; orcid: 0000-0001-7651-5682 (2021-04-26)
      Shift work is associated with lung disease and infections. We therefore investigated the impact of shift work on significant COVID-19 illness. 501 000 UK Biobank participants were linked to secondary care SARS-CoV-2 PCR results from Public Health England. Healthcare worker occupational testing and those without an occupational history were excluded from analysis. Multivariate logistic regression (age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation index) revealed that irregular shift work (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.92 to 3.05), permanent shift work (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.19), day shift work (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.6), irregular night shift work (OR 3.04, 95% CI 2.37 to 3.9) and permanent night shift work (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.67 to 3.7) were all associated with positive COVID-19 tests compared with participants that did not perform shift work. This relationship persisted after adding sleep duration, chronotype, premorbid disease, body mass index, alcohol and smoking to the model. The effects of workplace were controlled for in three ways: (1) by adding in work factors (proximity to a colleague combined with estimated disease exposure) to the multivariate model or (2) comparing participants within each job sector (non-essential, essential and healthcare) and (3) comparing shift work and non-shift working colleagues. In all cases, shift work was significantly associated with COVID-19. In 2017, 120 307 UK Biobank participants had their occupational history reprofiled. Using this updated occupational data shift work remained associated with COVID-19 (OR 4.48 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.18). Shift work is associated with a higher likelihood of in-hospital COVID-19 positivity. This risk could potentially be mitigated via additional workplace precautions or vaccination. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.]
    • Shifting attention between modalities: Revisiting the modality-shift effect in autism

      Poole, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-2499; email: daniel.poole@manchester.ac.uk; Miles, Eleanor; Gowen, Emma; Poliakoff, Ellen (Springer US, 2021-04-30)
      Abstract: Selective attention to a sensory modality has been observed experimentally in studies of the modality-shift effect – a relative performance benefit for targets preceded by a target in the same modality, compared to a different modality. Differences in selective attention are commonly observed in autism and we investigated whether exogenous (automatic) shift costs between modalities are increased. Autistic adults and neurotypical controls made speeded discrimination responses to simple visual, tactile and auditory targets. Shift costs were observed for each target modality in participant response times and were largest for auditory targets, reflective of fast responses on auditory repeat trials. Critically, shift costs were similar between the groups. However, integrating speed and accuracy data using drift-diffusion modelling revealed that shift costs in drift rates (reflecting the quality of information extracted from the stimulus) were reduced for autistic participants compared with neurotypicals. It may be that, unlike neurotypicals, there is little difference between attention within and between sensory modalities for autistic people. This finding also highlights the benefit of combining reaction time and accuracy data using decision models to better characterise selective attention in autism.
    • Shifting attention between modalities: Revisiting the modality-shift effect in autism.

      Poole, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-2499; email: daniel.poole@manchester.ac.uk; Miles, Eleanor; Gowen, Emma; Poliakoff, Ellen (2021-04-30)
      Selective attention to a sensory modality has been observed experimentally in studies of the modality-shift effect - a relative performance benefit for targets preceded by a target in the same modality, compared to a different modality. Differences in selective attention are commonly observed in autism and we investigated whether exogenous (automatic) shift costs between modalities are increased. Autistic adults and neurotypical controls made speeded discrimination responses to simple visual, tactile and auditory targets. Shift costs were observed for each target modality in participant response times and were largest for auditory targets, reflective of fast responses on auditory repeat trials. Critically, shift costs were similar between the groups. However, integrating speed and accuracy data using drift-diffusion modelling revealed that shift costs in drift rates (reflecting the quality of information extracted from the stimulus) were reduced for autistic participants compared with neurotypicals. It may be that, unlike neurotypicals, there is little difference between attention within and between sensory modalities for autistic people. This finding also highlights the benefit of combining reaction time and accuracy data using decision models to better characterise selective attention in autism.
    • Shingles, Zostavax vaccination and risk of developing dementia: a nested case-control study-results from the UK Biobank cohort.

      Lophatananon, Artitaya; orcid: 0000-0003-0550-4657; Mekli, Krisztina; Cant, Rachel; Burns, Alistair; Dobson, Curtis; Itzhaki, Ruth; Muir, Kenneth; orcid: 0000-0001-6429-988X; email: kenneth.muir@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-08)
      To investigate the association between shingles and dementia, and between Zostavax vaccination and dementia. Nested case-control study. Data were drawn from the UK Biobank cohort study with a total of 228 223 participants with Hospital Episodes Statistics and primary care linkage health records. The analyses included 2378 incident dementia cases and 225 845 controls. Inclusion criteria for incident cases were a dementia diagnosis 3 years or more after the first assessment date derived from all sources including International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, ICD-9, self-report and primary care linkage records. Subjects with no dementia code from all sources were coded as controls. Both shingles and Zostavax vaccination were investigated for their association with dementia risk. There was a small but non-significant increase in the risk of dementia in subjects with shingles diagnosed 3 years or more prior to dementia diagnosis (OR: 1.088 with 95% CI: 0.978 to 1.211). In those subjects who had had Zostavax vaccination, the risk of dementia significantly decreased (OR: 0.808 with 95% CI: 0.657 to 0.993). A history of shingles was not associated with an increased risk of dementia. In subjects who were eligible for the immunisation and vaccinated with Zostavax, we saw reduced risk of developing dementia. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Shipping and the Paris climate agreement: a focus on committed emissions

      Bullock, Simon; orcid: 0000-0002-1935-1519; email: Simon.Bullock@manchester.ac.uk; Mason, James; orcid: 0000-0001-7435-9954; Broderick, John; orcid: 0000-0003-1486-9789; Larkin, Alice; orcid: 0000-0003-4551-1608 (BioMed Central, 2020-06-12)
      Abstract: The concept of “committed emissions” allows us to understand what proportion of the Paris-constrained and rapidly diminishing global carbon dioxide (CO2) budget is potentially taken up by existing infrastructure. Here, this concept is applied to international shipping, where long-lived assets increase the likelihood for high levels of committed emissions. To date, committed emissions studies have focussed predominantly on the power sector, or on global analyses in which shipping is a small element, with assumptions of asset lifetimes extrapolated from other transport modes. This study analyses new CO2, ship age and scrappage datasets covering the 11,000 ships included in the European Union’s new emissions monitoring scheme (EU MRV), to deliver original insights on the speed at which new and existing shipping infrastructure must be decarbonised. These results, using ship-specific assumptions on asset lifetimes, show higher committed emissions for shipping than previous estimates based on asset lifetimes similar to the road transport sector. The estimated baseline committed emissions value is equivalent to 85–212% of the carbon budget for 1.5 °C that is available for these EU MRV ships, with the central case exceeding the available carbon budget. The sector does, however, have significant potential to reduce this committed emissions figure without premature scrappage through a combination of slow speeds, operational and technical efficiency measures, and the timely retrofitting of ships to use zero-carbon fuels. Here, it is shown that if mitigation measures are applied comprehensively through strong and rapid policy implementation in the 2020s, and if zero-carbon ships are deployed rapidly from 2030, it is still possible for the ships in the EU MRV system to stay within 1.5 °C carbon budgets. Alongside this, as there are wide variations between and within ship types, this new analysis sheds light on opportunities for decision-makers to tailor policy interventions to deliver more effective CO2 mitigation. Delays to appropriately stringent policy implementation would mean additional measures, such as premature scrappage or curbing the growth in shipping tonne-km, become necessary to meet the Paris climate goals.
    • Shock wave lithotripsy, for the treatment of kidney stones, results in changes to routine blood tests and novel biomarkers: a prospective clinical pilot-study

      Hughes, Stephen F.; orcid: 0000-0001-6558-9037; email: Stephen.hughes6@wales.nhs.uk; Jones, Nathan; Thomas-Wright, Samantha J.; Banwell, Joseph; Moyes, Alyson J.; Shergill, Iqbal (BioMed Central, 2020-06-01)
      Abstract: Background: The number of patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for kidney stones is increasing annually, and as such the development of post-operative complications, such as haematuria and acute kidney injury (AKI) following SWL, is likely to increase. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in routine blood and novel biomarkers following SWL, for the treatment of kidney stones. Methods: Twelve patients undergoing SWL for solitary unilateral kidney stones were recruited. From patients (8 males and 4 females) aged between 31 and 72 years (median 43 years), venous blood samples were collected pre-operatively (baseline), at 30, 120 and 240 min post-operatively. Routine blood tests were performed using a Sysmex XE-5000, and Beckman Coulter AU5800 and AU680 analysers. NGAL, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8 concentrations were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Results: Significant (p ≤ 0.05) changes were observed in several blood parameters following SWL. NGAL concentration significantly increased, with values peaking at 30 min post-treatment (p = 0.033). Although IL-18 concentration increased, these changes were not significant (p = 0.116). IL-6 revealed a statistically significant rise from pre-operative up to 4 h post-operatively (p < 0.001), whilst TNF-α significantly increased, peaking at 30 min post-SWL (p = 0.05). There were no significant changes to IL-10 and IL-8 concentrations post-SWL (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Changes to routine blood tests and specific biomarkers, in the future, may be more useful for clinicians. In turn, identification of a panel of biomarkers could provide valuable data on “normal” physiological response after lithotripsy. Ultimately, studies could be expanded to identify or predict those patients at increased risk of developing post-operative complications, such as acute kidney injury or. These studies, however, need validating involving larger cohorts.
    • Shut and re-open: the role of schools in the spread of COVID-19 in Europe

      Stage, Helena B.; orcid: 0000-0001-9938-8452; email: helena.stage@manchester.ac.uk; Shingleton, Joseph; orcid: 0000-0002-1628-3231; email: Joseph.Shingleton@phe.gov.uk; Ghosh, Sanmitra; orcid: 0000-0002-4879-7587; Scarabel, Francesca; orcid: 0000-0003-0250-4555; Pellis, Lorenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-3436-6487; Finnie, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0001-5962-4211 (The Royal Society, 2021-05-31)
      We investigate the effect of school closure and subsequent reopening on the transmission of COVID-19, by considering Denmark, Norway, Sweden and German states as case studies. By comparing the growth rates in daily hospitalizations or confirmed cases under different interventions, we provide evidence that school closures contribute to a reduction in the growth rate approximately 7 days after implementation. Limited school attendance, such as older students sitting exams or the partial return of younger year groups, does not appear to significantly affect community transmission. In countries where community transmission is generally low, such as Denmark or Norway, a large-scale reopening of schools while controlling or suppressing the epidemic appears feasible. However, school reopening can contribute to statistically significant increases in the growth rate in countries like Germany, where community transmission is relatively high. In all regions, a combination of low classroom occupancy and robust test-and-trace measures were in place. Our findings underscore the need for a cautious evaluation of reopening strategies. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK’.
    • Shut and re-open: the role of schools in the spread of COVID-19 in Europe

      Stage, Helena B.; orcid: 0000-0001-9938-8452; email: helena.stage@manchester.ac.uk; Shingleton, Joseph; orcid: 0000-0002-1628-3231; email: Joseph.Shingleton@phe.gov.uk; Ghosh, Sanmitra; orcid: 0000-0002-4879-7587; Scarabel, Francesca; orcid: 0000-0003-0250-4555; Pellis, Lorenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-3436-6487; Finnie, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0001-5962-4211 (The Royal Society, 2021-05-31)
      We investigate the effect of school closure and subsequent reopening on the transmission of COVID-19, by considering Denmark, Norway, Sweden and German states as case studies. By comparing the growth rates in daily hospitalizations or confirmed cases under different interventions, we provide evidence that school closures contribute to a reduction in the growth rate approximately 7 days after implementation. Limited school attendance, such as older students sitting exams or the partial return of younger year groups, does not appear to significantly affect community transmission. In countries where community transmission is generally low, such as Denmark or Norway, a large-scale reopening of schools while controlling or suppressing the epidemic appears feasible. However, school reopening can contribute to statistically significant increases in the growth rate in countries like Germany, where community transmission is relatively high. In all regions, a combination of low classroom occupancy and robust test-and-trace measures were in place. Our findings underscore the need for a cautious evaluation of reopening strategies. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK’.
    • Sieve-Like CNT Film Coupled with TiO 2 Nanowire for High-Performance Continuous-Flow Photodegradation of Rhodamine B under Visible Light Irradiation

      Yang, Zhengpeng; email: zhengpengyang2013@163.com; Lv, Xiaoting; email: 18339113590@163.com; Liu, Xuqing; orcid: 0000-0001-5998-6546; email: xuqing.liu@manchester.ac.uk; Jia, Shengmin; email: smjia2019@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Yongyi; email: yyzhang2011@sinano.ac.cn; Yu, Yingying; orcid: 0000-0002-6364-2831; email: yyyu2019@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Chunjing; email: chunjingzhang2013@163.com; Liu, Dandan; email: ddliu2015@sinano.ac.cn (MDPI, 2021-05-19)
      Continuous-flow photoreactors hold great promise for the highly efficient photodegradation of pollutants due to their continuity and sustainability. However, how to enable a continuous-flow photoreactor with the combined features of high photodegradation efficiency and durability as well as broad-wavelength light absorption and large-scale processing remains a significant challenge. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and effective strategy to construct a sieve-like carbon nanotube (CNT)/TiO2 nanowire film (SCTF) with superior flexibility (180° bending), high tensile strength (75–82 MPa), good surface wettability, essential light penetration and convenient visible light absorption. Significantly, the unique architecture, featuring abundant, well-ordered and uniform mesopores with ca. 70 µm in diameter, as well as a homogenous distribution of TiO2 nanowires with an average diameter of ca. 500 nm, could act as a “waterway” for efficient solution infiltration through the SCTF, thereby, enabling the photocatalytic degradation of polluted water in a continuous-flow mode. The optimized SCTF-2.5 displayed favorable photocatalytic behavior with 96% degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) within 80 min and a rate constant of 0.0394 min−1. The continuous-flow photodegradation device made using SCTF-2.5 featured exceptional photocatalytic behavior for the continuous degradation of RhB under simulated solar irradiation with a high degradation ratio (99.6%) and long-term stability (99.2% retention after working continuously for 72 h). This work sheds light on new strategies for designing and fabricating high-performance continuous-flow photoreactors toward future uses.
    • Simmel and Shakespeare on Lying and Love

      Balmer, Andrew; email: andrew.balmer@manchester.ac.uk; Durrant, Michael (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-31)
      This article contributes to the development of the sociology of lying by exploring some of the earliest comments on the topic, which are to be found amongst Georg Simmel’s writings about secrecy. We outline Simmel’s broader approach to interaction, as an experience that is conditioned upon non-knowledge, and work towards the attribution to him of the discovery of an aesthetic of concealment and revelation. This, we argue, can be used as a founding block in the sociology of lying. We then examine what Simmel has to say about lying specifically and find he falls into contradiction as he tries to link lying to other social forms, such as love, and to the shifting patterns of life which he understood to define modernity. To refine his approach, we look back to the period of early modernity during which questions of self-revelation and concealment are being explored in literature and lived uncertainly. Specifically, we take a detailed look at William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 138, for it clearly articulates the complex, relational dynamics of lying and love and allows us to read this back into Simmel’s account and explain why he falls into confusion. We then conclude by posing a series of questions and taking the position that sociologists should study lying as a relational phenomenon.
    • Simulating Ionising Radiation in Gazebo for Robotic Nuclear Inspection Challenges

      Wright, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0002-9913-5487; email: thomas.wright@manchester.ac.uk; West, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0003-4553-8640; email: andrew.west@manchester.ac.uk; Licata, Mauro; email: m.licata@lancaster.ac.uk; Hawes, Nick; orcid: 0000-0002-7556-6098; email: nickh@robots.ox.ac.uk; Lennox, Barry; orcid: 0000-0003-0905-8324; email: barry.lennox@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-07)
      The utilisation of robots in hazardous nuclear environments has potential to reduce risk to humans. However, historical use has been largely limited to specific missions rather than broader industry-wide adoption. Testing and verification of robotics in realistic scenarios is key to gaining stakeholder confidence but hindered by limited access to facilities that contain radioactive materials. Simulations offer an alternative to testing with actual radioactive sources, provided they can readily describe the behaviour of robotic systems and ionising radiation within the same environment. This work presents a quick and easy way to generate simulated but realistic deployment scenarios and environments which include ionising radiation, developed to work within the popular robot operating system compatible Gazebo physics simulator. Generated environments can be evolved over time, randomly or user-defined, to simulate the effects of degradation, corrosion or to alter features of certain objects. Interaction of gamma radiation sources within the environment, as well as the response of simulated detectors attached to mobile robots, is verified against the MCNP6 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The benefits these tools provide are highlighted by inclusion of three real-world nuclear sector environments, providing the robotics community with opportunities to assess the capabilities of robotic systems and autonomous functionalities.
    • Simulating topological robustness of Fano resonance in rotated Honeycomb photonic crystals

      Hajivandi, J.; Kaya, E.; Edwards, G.; Kurt, H. (Elsevier, 2021-07-08)
      The Fano resonance with a distinctive ultra-sharp, asymmetric line shape and high quality factor, is a widely occurring phenomena, that has a large variety of optical, plasmonic and microwave manifestations. In this paper, we explore the characteristic robustness of a Fano resonance mode, which is topologically protected by engineering a band inversion, induced by breaking the mirror symmetry of a two-dimensional honeycomb photonic crystal (HPC), associated with C 6 point group symmetry. Dark and bright topological edge modes appear in the band gap which arise when Dirac cone is opened up. Destructive and constructive interference of the dark and bright modes leads to the asymmetric line shape of the Fano resonance. The Fano resonance is very sensitive to the material changes and structural perturbations. This property can be applied to obtain new sensor designs. Here we demonstrate that the topological Fano resonance mode preserves its asymmetric, ultra-sharp line shape in the presence of the disorder, defects and cavities.The stability of the Fano resonance mode has useful optical device applications such as in low threshold lasers, and extremely precise interferometers.
    • Simulating Topological Robustness of Fano Resonance in Rotated Honeycomb Photonic Crystals

      Hajivandi, J.; Kaya, E.; Edwards, G.; Kurt, H.
      The Fano resonance with a distinctive ultra-sharp, asymmetric line shape and high quality factor, is a widely occurring phenomena, that has a large variety of optical, plasmonic and microwave manifestations. In this paper, we explore the characteristic robustness of a Fano resonance mode, which is topologically protected by engineering a band inversion, induced by breaking the mirror symmetry of a two-dimensional honeycomb photonic crystal (HPC), associated with C 6 point group symmetry. Dark and bright topological edge modes appear in the band gap which arise when Dirac cone is opened up. Destructive and constructive interference of the dark and bright modes leads to the asymmetric line shape of the Fano resonance. The Fano resonance is very sensitive to the material changes and structural perturbations. This property can be applied to obtain new sensor designs. Here we demonstrate that the topological Fano resonance mode preserves its asymmetric, ultra-sharp line shape in the presence of the disorder, defects and cavities.The stability of the Fano resonance mode has useful optical device applications such as in low threshold lasers, and extremely precise interferometers.
    • Simulations of Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Production from Relativistic Black-Hole Microquasar Jets

      Papavasileiou, Theodora; orcid: 0000-0002-2044-1845; email: th.papavasileiou@uowm.gr; Kosmas, Odysseas; orcid: 0000-0002-7047-9438; email: odysseas.kosmas@manchester.ac.uk; Sinatkas, Ioannis; email: isinatkas@uowm.gr (MDPI, 2021-09-13)
      Recently, microquasar jets have aroused the interest of many researchers focusing on the astrophysical plasma outflows and various jet ejections. In this work, we concentrate on the investigation of electromagnetic radiation and particle emissions from the jets of stellar black hole binary systems characterized by the hadronic content in their jets. Such emissions are reliably described within the context of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. Our model calculations are based on the Fermi acceleration mechanism through which the primary particles (mainly protons and electrons) of the jet are accelerated. As a result, a small portion of thermal protons of the jet acquire relativistic energies, through shock-waves generated into the jet plasma. From the inelastic collisions of fast (non-thermal) protons with the thermal (cold) ones, secondary charged and neutral particles (pions, kaons, muons, η-particles, etc.) are created, as well as electromagnetic radiation from the radio wavelength band to X-rays and even very high energy gamma-rays. One of our main goals is, through the appropriate solution of the transport equation and taking into account the various mechanisms that cause energy losses to the particles, to study the secondary particle concentrations within hadronic astrophysical jets. After assessing the suitability and sensitivity of the derived (for this purpose) algorithms on the Galactic MQs SS 433 and Cyg X-1, as a concrete extragalactic binary system, we examine the LMC X-1 located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way Galaxy. It is worth mentioning that, for the companion O star (and its extended nebula structure) of the LMC X-1 system, new observations using spectroscopic data from VLT/UVES have been published a few years ago.
    • Single step synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles by wire explosion process and its photocatalytic behaviour

      Ranjan, Prem; orcid: 0000-0001-7840-9904; email: prem.ranjan@manchester.ac.uk; Suematsu, H.; Sarathi, R. (IOP Publishing, 2021-05-11)
      Tungsten (W) wires are exploded in oxygen ambience to get tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles (NPs). Energy stored in the capacitors (EC) is used to overcome the sublimation energy of wire. Energy ratio (K, ratio of EC and sublimation energy) and oxygen pressure (P) are two control parameters for the particle phase and morphology in the wire explosion process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the partial oxidation of W for low values of K. For K = 2, oxidation increases with increase in P. For K = 10, complete oxidation was achieved irrespective of P. Particles are spherical in shape as observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs. Particle size follows a log-normal distribution with a least mean size of 24.1 nm. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to measure the absorbance of NPs (complete WO3 with least mean size) for band gap measurement. The band gap was found to be 2.92 eV (visible region). NPs are used as photocatalyst to degrade aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. 500 mg l−1 of WO3 NPs were optimum to degrade 10 mg l−1 MB in 120 min.
    • Single step synthesis of WO 3 nanoparticles by wire explosion process and its photocatalytic behaviour

      Ranjan, Prem; orcid: 0000-0001-7840-9904; email: prem.ranjan@manchester.ac.uk; Suematsu, H.; Sarathi, R. (IOP Publishing, 2021-05-11)
      Tungsten (W) wires are exploded in oxygen ambience to get tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles (NPs). Energy stored in the capacitors (EC) is used to overcome the sublimation energy of wire. Energy ratio (K, ratio of EC and sublimation energy) and oxygen pressure (P) are two control parameters for the particle phase and morphology in the wire explosion process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the partial oxidation of W for low values of K. For K = 2, oxidation increases with increase in P. For K = 10, complete oxidation was achieved irrespective of P. Particles are spherical in shape as observed from scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs. Particle size follows a log-normal distribution with a least mean size of 24.1 nm. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to measure the absorbance of NPs (complete WO3 with least mean size) for band gap measurement. The band gap was found to be 2.92 eV (visible region). NPs are used as photocatalyst to degrade aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. 500 mg l−1 of WO3 NPs were optimum to degrade 10 mg l−1 MB in 120 min.
    • Single-cell analysis defines a pancreatic fibroblast lineage that supports anti-tumor immunity.

      Hutton, Colin; Heider, Felix; Blanco-Gomez, Adrian; Banyard, Antonia; Kononov, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaohong; Karim, Saadia; Paulus-Hock, Viola; Watt, Dale; Steele, Nina; et al. (2021-07-14)
      Fibroblasts display extensive transcriptional heterogeneity, yet functional annotation and characterization of their heterocellular relationships remains incomplete. Using mass cytometry, we chart the stromal composition of 18 murine tissues and 5 spontaneous tumor models, with an emphasis on mesenchymal phenotypes. This analysis reveals extensive stromal heterogeneity across tissues and tumors, and identifies coordinated relationships between mesenchymal and immune cell subsets in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Expression of CD105 demarks two stable and functionally distinct pancreatic fibroblast lineages, which are also identified in murine and human healthy tissues and tumors. Whereas CD105-positive pancreatic fibroblasts are permissive for tumor growth in vivo, CD105-negative fibroblasts are highly tumor suppressive. This restrictive effect is entirely dependent on functional adaptive immunity. Collectively, these results reveal two functionally distinct pancreatic fibroblast lineages and highlight the importance of mesenchymal and immune cell interactions in restricting tumor growth. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Single-ion magnetism in the extended solid-state: insights from X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy.

      Huzan, Myron S; orcid: 0000-0002-6238-3735; Fix, Manuel; Aramini, Matteo; Bencok, Peter; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; orcid: 0000-0001-6473-2743; Hayama, Shusaku; Breitner, Franziska A; Gee, Leland B; orcid: 0000-0002-5817-3997; Titus, Charles J; orcid: 0000-0001-6312-8552; Arrio, Marie-Anne; et al. (2020-10-07)
      Large single-ion magnetic anisotropy is observed in lithium nitride doped with iron. The iron sites are two-coordinate, putting iron doped lithium nitride amongst a growing number of two coordinate transition metal single-ion magnets (SIMs). Uniquely, the relaxation times to magnetisation reversal are over two orders of magnitude longer in iron doped lithium nitride than other 3d-metal SIMs, and comparable with high-performance lanthanide-based SIMs. To understand the origin of these enhanced magnetic properties a detailed characterisation of electronic structure is presented. Access to dopant electronic structure calls for atomic specific techniques, hence a combination of detailed single-crystal X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies are applied. Together K-edge, L<sub>2,3</sub>-edge and Kβ X-ray spectroscopies probe local geometry and electronic structure, identifying iron doped lithium nitride to be a prototype, solid-state SIM, clean of stoichiometric vacancies where Fe lattice sites are geometrically equivalent. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and angular dependent single-crystal X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy measurements determine Fe<sup>I</sup> dopant ions to be linearly coordinated, occupying a <i>D</i> <sub>6h</sub> symmetry pocket. The dopant engages in strong 3dπ-bonding, resulting in an exceptionally short Fe-N bond length (1.873(7) Å) and rigorous linearity. It is proposed that this structure protects dopant sites from Renner-Teller vibronic coupling and pseudo Jahn-Teller distortions, enhancing magnetic properties with respect to molecular-based linear complexes. The Fe ligand field is quantified by L<sub>2,3</sub>-edge XAS from which the energy reduction of 3d <sub><i>z</i> <sup>2</sup></sub> due to strong 4s mixing is deduced. Quantification of magnetic anisotropy barriers in low concentration dopant sites is inhibited by many established methods, including far-infrared and neutron scattering. We deduce variable temperature L<sub>3</sub>-edge XAS can be applied to quantify the <i>J</i> = 7/2 magnetic anisotropy barrier, 34.80 meV (∼280 cm<sup>-1</sup>), that corresponds with Orbach relaxation <i>via</i> the first excited, <i>M</i> <sub>J</sub> = ±5/2 doublet. The results demonstrate that dopant sites within solid-state host lattices could offer a viable alternative to rare-earth bulk magnets and high-performance SIMs, where the host matrix can be tailored to impose high symmetry and control lattice induced relaxation effects.