• “Sex isn’t everything”: views of people with experience of psychosis on intimate relationships and implications for mental health services

      White, Rebecca; email: rebecca.white@manchester.ac.uk; Haddock, Gillian; Varese, Filippo; Haarmans, Maria (BioMed Central, 2021-06-14)
      Abstract: Background: The experience of psychosis and associated discrimination can be a barrier to forming and maintaining romantic relationships. Sexual health interventions within mental health services often focus on contraception and reducing risk. There are no known studies that seek to understand what support, if any, people who experience psychosis want regarding psychosocial aspects of intimate relationships. Methods: To address this gap in the literature, qualitative data was collected to investigate how people with experience of psychosis conceptualise romantic relationships and what support they would like in this area of their lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 mental health service users (four women, six men) with experience of psychosis. Interviews were analysed from a critical realist social constructionism perspective using thematic analysis. Results: Stigma was a prominent theme, described as impacting numerous aspects of romantic relationships. Power imbalance within services meant participants were wary of having conversations about relationships with professionals and identified a therapeutic alliance as a prerequisite. However, abusive relationships were highlighted as a needed area for support by services. Conclusion: Services should be trauma-informed and help those in abusive relationships. The power and autonomy of people with experience of psychosis should be maintained in any discussions or interventions regarding intimate relationships. A strong therapeutic alliance is essential for any work in this area.
    • Sexual minority prevalence and attitudes within the British horseracing industry

      Letts, David; orcid: 0000-0003-1541-3118; email: d.letts.19@unimail.winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-01)
      This article utilises the theories of Inclusive Masculinity and Organisational Cultural Lag to provide the first comprehensive exploration of sexual minority inclusion in the British horseracing industry. The study employs a quantitative approach, involving a survey distributed to two mixed-gender populations within the sport: jockeys (n = 149) and non-athlete stakeholders (n = 308). Results indicate that approximately one fifth of jockeys selected a response other than ‘straight’, while less than 4% of the population of jockeys and stakeholders would view a sexual minority colleague ‘very negatively’. However, despite the relatively high proportion of sexual minority individuals working within the industry, and the positive attitudinal responses towards having a sexual minority colleague, only one of the 149 jockeys surveyed identified as a sexual minority and were publicly ‘out’.
    • Sexuality and the human rights of persons with dementia

      Peisah, Carmelle; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin
      We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualisation of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fuelled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, non-categorical conceptualisation of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner.
    • Sexuality and the Human Rights of Persons With Dementia

      Peisah, Carmelle; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin (Elsevier, 2021-09-13)
      We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualization of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fueled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, noncategorical conceptualization of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner.
    • Sexuality and the Human Rights of Persons With Dementia.

      Peisah, Carmelle; email: cpeisah62@bigpond.com; Ayalon, Liat; Verbeek, Hilde; Benbow, Susan Mary; Wiskerke, Esther; Rabheru, Kiran; Sorinmade, Oluwatoyin (2021-05-30)
      We explore barriers to enjoyment of human rights to sexuality of persons with dementia and remedies for addressing these. Enjoyment of sexuality is contingent upon actualization of rights to dignity, autonomy, respect for will and preferences, abuse safeguarding and equitable access to highest standards of sexual health. Persons with dementia living at home or in care face systemic barriers to enjoyment of sexuality fueled by ageism, apathy and ignorance, compounded by complex legal barriers in relation to consent. Such challenges can be tackled with awareness raising and education of care staff, families and physicians, including training for capacity assessment with dimensional, noncategorical conceptualization of capacity, leaving room for supported decision-making. These measures, together with strengthened legislative and human rights frameworks to cater to the specific needs of older people, may allow people to live well with dementia and exercise their human rights to enjoy sexuality in a safe and lawful manner. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Shifting attention between modalities: Revisiting the modality-shift effect in autism.

      Poole, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0002-7399-2499; email: daniel.poole@manchester.ac.uk; Miles, Eleanor; Gowen, Emma; Poliakoff, Ellen (2021-04-30)
      Selective attention to a sensory modality has been observed experimentally in studies of the modality-shift effect - a relative performance benefit for targets preceded by a target in the same modality, compared to a different modality. Differences in selective attention are commonly observed in autism and we investigated whether exogenous (automatic) shift costs between modalities are increased. Autistic adults and neurotypical controls made speeded discrimination responses to simple visual, tactile and auditory targets. Shift costs were observed for each target modality in participant response times and were largest for auditory targets, reflective of fast responses on auditory repeat trials. Critically, shift costs were similar between the groups. However, integrating speed and accuracy data using drift-diffusion modelling revealed that shift costs in drift rates (reflecting the quality of information extracted from the stimulus) were reduced for autistic participants compared with neurotypicals. It may be that, unlike neurotypicals, there is little difference between attention within and between sensory modalities for autistic people. This finding also highlights the benefit of combining reaction time and accuracy data using decision models to better characterise selective attention in autism.
    • Shingles, Zostavax vaccination and risk of developing dementia: a nested case-control study-results from the UK Biobank cohort.

      Lophatananon, Artitaya; orcid: 0000-0003-0550-4657; Mekli, Krisztina; Cant, Rachel; Burns, Alistair; Dobson, Curtis; Itzhaki, Ruth; Muir, Kenneth; orcid: 0000-0001-6429-988X; email: kenneth.muir@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-08)
      To investigate the association between shingles and dementia, and between Zostavax vaccination and dementia. Nested case-control study. Data were drawn from the UK Biobank cohort study with a total of 228 223 participants with Hospital Episodes Statistics and primary care linkage health records. The analyses included 2378 incident dementia cases and 225 845 controls. Inclusion criteria for incident cases were a dementia diagnosis 3 years or more after the first assessment date derived from all sources including International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, ICD-9, self-report and primary care linkage records. Subjects with no dementia code from all sources were coded as controls. Both shingles and Zostavax vaccination were investigated for their association with dementia risk. There was a small but non-significant increase in the risk of dementia in subjects with shingles diagnosed 3 years or more prior to dementia diagnosis (OR: 1.088 with 95% CI: 0.978 to 1.211). In those subjects who had had Zostavax vaccination, the risk of dementia significantly decreased (OR: 0.808 with 95% CI: 0.657 to 0.993). A history of shingles was not associated with an increased risk of dementia. In subjects who were eligible for the immunisation and vaccinated with Zostavax, we saw reduced risk of developing dementia. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Simulating Topological Robustness of Fano Resonance in Rotated Honeycomb Photonic Crystals

      Hajivandi, J.; Kaya, E.; Edwards, G.; Kurt, H.
      The Fano resonance with a distinctive ultra-sharp, asymmetric line shape and high quality factor, is a widely occurring phenomena, that has a large variety of optical, plasmonic and microwave manifestations. In this paper, we explore the characteristic robustness of a Fano resonance mode, which is topologically protected by engineering a band inversion, induced by breaking the mirror symmetry of a two-dimensional honeycomb photonic crystal (HPC), associated with C 6 point group symmetry. Dark and bright topological edge modes appear in the band gap which arise when Dirac cone is opened up. Destructive and constructive interference of the dark and bright modes leads to the asymmetric line shape of the Fano resonance. The Fano resonance is very sensitive to the material changes and structural perturbations. This property can be applied to obtain new sensor designs. Here we demonstrate that the topological Fano resonance mode preserves its asymmetric, ultra-sharp line shape in the presence of the disorder, defects and cavities.The stability of the Fano resonance mode has useful optical device applications such as in low threshold lasers, and extremely precise interferometers.
    • Simulating topological robustness of Fano resonance in rotated Honeycomb photonic crystals

      Hajivandi, J.; Kaya, E.; Edwards, G.; Kurt, H. (Elsevier, 2021-07-08)
      The Fano resonance with a distinctive ultra-sharp, asymmetric line shape and high quality factor, is a widely occurring phenomena, that has a large variety of optical, plasmonic and microwave manifestations. In this paper, we explore the characteristic robustness of a Fano resonance mode, which is topologically protected by engineering a band inversion, induced by breaking the mirror symmetry of a two-dimensional honeycomb photonic crystal (HPC), associated with C 6 point group symmetry. Dark and bright topological edge modes appear in the band gap which arise when Dirac cone is opened up. Destructive and constructive interference of the dark and bright modes leads to the asymmetric line shape of the Fano resonance. The Fano resonance is very sensitive to the material changes and structural perturbations. This property can be applied to obtain new sensor designs. Here we demonstrate that the topological Fano resonance mode preserves its asymmetric, ultra-sharp line shape in the presence of the disorder, defects and cavities.The stability of the Fano resonance mode has useful optical device applications such as in low threshold lasers, and extremely precise interferometers.
    • Single-cell analysis defines a pancreatic fibroblast lineage that supports anti-tumor immunity.

      Hutton, Colin; Heider, Felix; Blanco-Gomez, Adrian; Banyard, Antonia; Kononov, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaohong; Karim, Saadia; Paulus-Hock, Viola; Watt, Dale; Steele, Nina; et al. (2021-07-14)
      Fibroblasts display extensive transcriptional heterogeneity, yet functional annotation and characterization of their heterocellular relationships remains incomplete. Using mass cytometry, we chart the stromal composition of 18 murine tissues and 5 spontaneous tumor models, with an emphasis on mesenchymal phenotypes. This analysis reveals extensive stromal heterogeneity across tissues and tumors, and identifies coordinated relationships between mesenchymal and immune cell subsets in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Expression of CD105 demarks two stable and functionally distinct pancreatic fibroblast lineages, which are also identified in murine and human healthy tissues and tumors. Whereas CD105-positive pancreatic fibroblasts are permissive for tumor growth in vivo, CD105-negative fibroblasts are highly tumor suppressive. This restrictive effect is entirely dependent on functional adaptive immunity. Collectively, these results reveal two functionally distinct pancreatic fibroblast lineages and highlight the importance of mesenchymal and immune cell interactions in restricting tumor growth. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Single-use plastic and COVID-19 in the NHS: Barriers and opportunities.

      Hu, Xiaocheng; email: x.hu@exeter.ac.uk; Davies, Roz; email: rozdavies@nhs.net; Morrissey, Karyn; email: k.morrissey@exeter.ac.uk; Smith, Richard; email: rich.smith@exeter.ac.uk; Fleming, Lora E; email: l.e.fleming@exeter.ac.uk; Sharmina, Maria; email: maria.sharmina@manchester.ac.uk; St Clair, Rebecca; email: rebecca.stclair@manchester.ac.uk; Hopkinson, Peter; email: p.hopkinson@exeter.ac.uk (2021-08-04)
      Single-use personal protective equipment (PPE) has been essential to protect healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, intensified use of PPE could counteract the previous efforts made by the UK NHS Trusts to reduce their plastic footprint. In this study, we conducted an in-depth case study in the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust to investigate plastic-related issues in a typical NHS Trust before, during and after the pandemic. We first collected hospital routine data on both procurement and usage of single-use PPE (including face masks, aprons, and gowns) for the time period between April 2019 and August 2020. We then interviewed 12 hospital staff across a wide remit, from senior managers to consultants, nurses and catering staff, to gather qualitative evidence on the overall impact of COVID-19 on the Trust regarding plastic use. We found that although COVID-19 had increased the procurement and the use of single-use plastic substantially during the pandemic, it did not appear to have changed the focus of the hospital on implementing measures to reduce single-use plastic in the long term. We then discussed the barriers and opportunities to tackle plastic issues within the NHS in the post-COVID world, for example, a circular healthcare model. investment is needed in technologies and processes that can recycle and reuse a wider range of single-use plastics, and innovate sustainable alternatives to replace single-use consumables used in the NHS to construct a fully operational closed material loop healthcare system.
    • Site-to-site peptide transport on a molecular platform using a small-molecule robotic arm.

      Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T L; Leigh, David A; orcid: 0000-0002-1202-4507; Markevicius, Augustinas; Tetlow, Daniel J; orcid: 0000-0001-6323-3483; Toriumi, Naoyuki; orcid: 0000-0001-5963-4735 (2020-12-10)
      Peptides attached to a cysteine hydrazide 'transporter module' are transported selectively in either direction between two chemically similar sites on a molecular platform, enabled by the discovery of new operating methods for a molecular transporter that functions through ratcheting. Substrate repositioning is achieved using a small-molecule robotic arm controlled by a protonation-mediated rotary switch and attachment/release dynamic covalent chemistry. A polar solvent mixtures were found to favour to isomerization of the doubly-protonated switch, transporting cargo in one direction (arbitrarily defined as 'forward') in up to 85% yield, while polar solvent mixtures were unexpectedly found to favour to isomerization enabling transport in the reverse ('backward') direction in >98% yield. Transport of the substrates proceeded in a matter of hours (compared to 6 days even for simple cargoes with the original system) without the peptides at any time dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with others in the bulk. Under the new operating conditions, key intermediates of the switch are sufficiently stabilized within the macrocycle formed between switch, arm, substrate and platform that they can be identified and structurally characterized by H NMR. The size of the peptide cargo has no significant effect on the rate or efficiency of transport in either direction. The new operating conditions allow detailed physical organic chemistry of the ratcheted transport mechanism to be uncovered, improve efficiency, and enable the transport of more complex cargoes than was previously possible. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • Site-to-site peptide transport on a molecular platform using a small-molecule robotic arm.

      Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T L; Leigh, David A; orcid: 0000-0002-1202-4507; Markevicius, Augustinas; Tetlow, Daniel J; orcid: 0000-0001-6323-3483; Toriumi, Naoyuki; orcid: 0000-0001-5963-4735 (2020-12-10)
      Peptides attached to a cysteine hydrazide 'transporter module' are transported selectively in either direction between two chemically similar sites on a molecular platform, enabled by the discovery of new operating methods for a molecular transporter that functions through ratcheting. Substrate repositioning is achieved using a small-molecule robotic arm controlled by a protonation-mediated rotary switch and attachment/release dynamic covalent chemistry. A polar solvent mixtures were found to favour <i>Z</i> to <i>E</i> isomerization of the doubly-protonated switch, transporting cargo in one direction (arbitrarily defined as 'forward') in up to 85% yield, while polar solvent mixtures were unexpectedly found to favour <i>E</i> to <i>Z</i> isomerization enabling transport in the reverse ('backward') direction in >98% yield. Transport of the substrates proceeded in a matter of hours (compared to 6 days even for simple cargoes with the original system) without the peptides at any time dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with others in the bulk. Under the new operating conditions, key intermediates of the switch are sufficiently stabilized within the macrocycle formed between switch, arm, substrate and platform that they can be identified and structurally characterized by <sup>1</sup>H NMR. The size of the peptide cargo has no significant effect on the rate or efficiency of transport in either direction. The new operating conditions allow detailed physical organic chemistry of the ratcheted transport mechanism to be uncovered, improve efficiency, and enable the transport of more complex cargoes than was previously possible.
    • Size at birth and cognitive ability in late life: A systematic review

      Krishna, Murali; orcid: 0000-0002-5354-9027; Jones, Steven; Maden, Michelle; Du, Bharath; Mc, Ramya; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Karat, Samuel Christraprasad; Fall, Caroline H.D. (Wiley, 2019-06-13)
    • Slow magnetic relaxation in distorted tetrahedral Dy(III) aryloxide complexes.

      Parmar, Vijay S; orcid: 0000-0002-7133-5532; Gransbury, Gemma K; orcid: 0000-0002-7579-4226; Whitehead, George F S; orcid: 0000-0003-1949-4250; Mills, David P; orcid: 0000-0003-1575-7754; Winpenny, Richard E P; orcid: 0000-0002-7101-3963 (2021-09-14)
      Three distorted tetrahedral Dy(III) aryloxide complexes, [Na(THF) ][Dy(OAr ) Cl ] (1) (OAr = OC H Adamantyl -2,6- Bu-4) and [Na(THF) ][Dy(OMes*) X] (X = Cl, 2; BH , 3), (OMes* = OC H Bu -2,4,6) exhibit easy axis magnetic anisotropy and slow magnetic relaxation at zero field, with relaxation rates 1 < 2 < 3.
    • Small Area Estimation of Latent Economic Well-being

      Moretti, Angelo; orcid: 0000-0001-6543-9418; email: angelo.moretti@manchester.ac.uk; Shlomo, Natalie; Sakshaug, Joseph W. (SAGE Publications, 2019-02-13)
      Small area estimation (SAE) plays a crucial role in the social sciences due to the growing need for reliable and accurate estimates for small domains. In the study of well-being, for example, policy makers need detailed information about the geographical distribution of a range of social indicators. We investigate data dimensionality reduction using factor analysis models and implement SAE on the factor scores under the empirical best linear unbiased prediction approach. We contrast this approach with the standard approach of providing a dashboard of indicators or a weighted average of indicators at the local level. We demonstrate the approach in a simulation study and a real data application based on the European Union Statistics for Income and Living Conditions for the municipalities of Tuscany.
    • Small-RNA Sequencing Reveals Altered Skeletal Muscle microRNAs and snoRNAs Signatures in Weanling Male Offspring from Mouse Dams Fed a Low Protein Diet during Lactation

      Kanakis, Ioannis; Alameddine, Moussira; Folkes, Leighton; Moxon, Simon; Myrtziou, Ioanna; Ozanne, Susan E.; Peffers, Mandy J.; Goljanek-Whysall, Katarzyna; Vasilaki, Aphrodite (MDPI, 2021-05-11)
      Maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the development of skeletal muscles in offspring and determines muscle health in later life. In this paper, we describe the association between maternal low protein diet-induced changes in offspring skeletal muscle and the differential expression (DE) of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs). We used a mouse model of maternal protein restriction, where dams were fed either a normal (N, 20%) or a low protein (L, 8%) diet during gestation and newborns were cross-fostered to N or L lactating dams, resulting in the generation of NN, NL and LN offspring groups. Total body and tibialis anterior (TA) weights were decreased in weanling NL male offspring but were not different in the LN group, as compared to NN. However, histological evaluation of TA muscle revealed reduced muscle fibre size in both groups at weaning. Small RNA-sequencing demonstrated DE of multiple miRs, snoRNAs and snRNAs. Bioinformatic analyses of miRs-15a, -34a, -122 and -199a, in combination with known myomiRs, confirmed their implication in key muscle-specific biological processes. This is the first comprehensive report for the DE of sncRNAs in nutrition-associated programming of skeletal muscle development, highlighting the need for further research to unravel the detailed molecular mechanisms.
    • Social Influences on Flood Preparedness and Mitigation Measures Adopted by People Living with Flood Risk

      Houston, Donald; orcid: 0000-0002-7178-9630; email: donald.houston@port.ac.uk; Ball, Tom; email: tom.ball@winchester.ac.uk; Werritty, Alan; email: a.werritty@dundee.ac.uk; Black, Andrew R.; orcid: 0000-0001-9292-1146; email: a.z.black@dundee.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-10-21)
      This paper aims to analyse evidence, based on one of the largest and most representative samples of households previously flooded or living with flood risk to date, of social patterns in a range of flood resilience traits relating to preparedness prior to a flood (e.g., property adaptations, contents insurance, etc.) and mitigations enacted during and immediately following a flood (e.g., receiving a warning, evacuation into temporary accommodation, etc.). The data were collected from a 2006 survey of 1223 households from a variety of locations across Scotland between one and twelve years after major local floods. Our analysis identifies remarkably few social differences in flood preparedness and mitigation measures, although some aspects of demography, housing and length of residence in an area, as well as personal flood history, are important. In light of this finding, we argue that social differences in vulnerability and resilience to flooding arise from deep-seated socio-economic and socio-spatial inequalities that affect exposure to flood risk and ability to recover from flood impacts. The engrained, but well-meaning, assumption in flood risk management that impoverished households and communities are lacking or deficient in flood preparedness or mitigation knowledge and capabilities is somewhat pejorative and misses fundamental, yet sometimes invisible, social stratifications play out in subtle but powerful ways to affect households’ and communities’ ability to avoid and recover from floods. We argue that general poverty and inequality alleviation measures, such as tax and welfare policy and urban and community regeneration schemes, are likely to be as, if not more, important in alleviating social inequalities in the long-term impacts of floods than social targeting of flood risk management policy.
    • Social Network Analysis of a Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) Group in Captivity Following the Integration of a New Adult Member

      Díaz, Sergio; email: s.gonzalezdiaz@chester.ac.uk; Murray, Lindsay; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Rodway, Paul (Springer US, 2020-10-10)
      Abstract: Management of primates in captivity often presents the challenge of introducing new individuals into a group, and research investigating the stability of the social network in the medium term after the introduction can help inform management decisions. We investigated the behavior of a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Chester Zoo, UK over 12 months (divided into three periods of 4 months) following the introduction of a new adult female. We recorded grooming, proximity, other affiliative behaviors, and agonistic behaviors and used social network analysis to investigate the stability, reciprocity, and structure of the group, to examine the effect of rearing history on grooming network position and the role of sex in agonistic behavior. Both the grooming and agonistic networks correlated across all three periods, while affiliative networks correlated only between periods 2 and 3. Males had significantly higher out-degree centrality in agonistic behaviors than females, indicating that they carried out agonistic behaviors more often than females. There was no significant difference in centrality between hand-reared and mother-reared chimpanzees. Overall, the group structure was stable and cohesive during the first year after the introduction of the new female, suggesting that this change did not destabilize the group. Our findings highlight the utility of social network analysis in the study of primate sociality in captivity, and how it can be used to better understand primate behavior following the integration of new individuals.
    • Social network analysis of small social groups: Application of a hurdle GLMM approach in the Alpine marmot ( Marmota marmota )

      Panaccio, Matteo; orcid: 0000-0002-1903-154X; Ferrari, Caterina; Bassano, Bruno; Stanley, Christina R.; orcid: 0000-0002-5053-4831; von Hardenberg, Achaz; orcid: 0000-0002-9899-1687 (Wiley, 2021-03-24)