• Vaginal Examinations During Childbirth: Consent, Coercion and COVID-19

      Nelson, Anna; orcid: 0000-0003-3686-9333; email: anna.nelson@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-04-08)
      Abstract: In this paper I assess the labour ward admission policies introduced by some National Health Service (NHS) trusts during the COVID-19 pandemic, arguing that these intersected with other policies in a manner which may have coerced birthing people into consenting to vaginal examinations they might have otherwise refused. In order to fully understand the potential severity of these policies, I situate this critique in the historical and contemporary context of the problematic relationship between consent and vaginal examinations. Identifying the legal wrongs associated with performing coerced vaginal examinations, I highlight that the law is inadequately equipped to provide appropriate redress. Further, I illustrate that the issue explored in this paper reflects broader problems which exist with regard to the focus of, and the (under)investment in, the maternity services.
    • Validation of CIP2A as a Biomarker of Subsequent Disease Progression and Treatment Failure in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

      Clark, Richard E.; email: clarkre@liverpool.ac.uk; Basabrain, Ammar A.; email: a.a.basabrain@liverpool.ac.uk; Austin, Gemma M.; email: gemmajon2003@yahoo.co.uk; Holcroft, Alison K.; email: alisonkholcroft@hotmail.co.uk; Loaiza, Sandra; email: sandra.loaiza@nhs.net; Apperley, Jane F.; email: j.apperley@imperial.ac.uk; Law, Christopher; email: K.C.Law@liverpool.ac.uk; Scott, Laura; email: l.scott1@liverpool.ac.uk; Parry, Alexandra D.; email: alexparry@virginmedia.com; Bonnett, Laura; orcid: 0000-0002-6981-9212; email: L.J.Bonnett@liverpool.ac.uk; et al. (MDPI, 2021-04-29)
      Background: It would be clinically useful to prospectively identify the risk of disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (CIP2A) protein is an adverse prognostic indicator in many cancers. Methods: We examined CIP2A protein levels in diagnostic samples from the SPIRIT2 trial in 172 unselected patients, of whom 90 received imatinib and 82 dasatinib as first-line treatment. Results: High CIP2A levels correlated with inferior progression-free survival (p = 0.04) and with worse freedom from progression (p = 0.03), and these effects were confined to dasatinib recipients. High CIP2A levels were associated with a six-fold higher five-year treatment failure rate than low CIP2A levels (41% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.0002), in both imatinib (45% vs. 11%; p = 0.02) and dasatinib recipients (36% vs. 4%; p = 0.007). Imatinib recipients with low CIP2A levels had a greater risk of treatment failure (p = 0.0008). CIP2A levels were independent of Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS (EUropean Treatment and Outcome Study), or EUTOS long-term survival scores (ELTS) or the presence of major route cytogenetic abnormalities. No association was seen between CIP2A levels and time to molecular response or the levels of the CIP2A-related proteins PP2A, SET, SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1), or AKT. Conclusions: These data confirm that high diagnostic CIP2A levels correlate with subsequent disease progression and treatment failure. CIP2A is a simple diagnostic biomarker that may be useful in planning treatment strategies.
    • Validation of CIP2A as a Biomarker of Subsequent Disease Progression and Treatment Failure in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia.

      Clark, Richard E; Basabrain, Ammar A; Austin, Gemma M; Holcroft, Alison K; Loaiza, Sandra; Apperley, Jane F; Law, Christopher; Scott, Laura; Parry, Alexandra D; Bonnett, Laura; orcid: 0000-0002-6981-9212; et al. (2021-04-29)
      It would be clinically useful to prospectively identify the risk of disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (CIP2A) protein is an adverse prognostic indicator in many cancers. We examined CIP2A protein levels in diagnostic samples from the SPIRIT2 trial in 172 unselected patients, of whom 90 received imatinib and 82 dasatinib as first-line treatment. High CIP2A levels correlated with inferior progression-free survival ( = 0.04) and with worse freedom from progression ( = 0.03), and these effects were confined to dasatinib recipients. High CIP2A levels were associated with a six-fold higher five-year treatment failure rate than low CIP2A levels (41% vs. 7.5%; = 0.0002), in both imatinib (45% vs. 11%; = 0.02) and dasatinib recipients (36% vs. 4%; = 0.007). Imatinib recipients with low CIP2A levels had a greater risk of treatment failure ( = 0.0008). CIP2A levels were independent of Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS (EUropean Treatment and Outcome Study), or EUTOS long-term survival scores (ELTS) or the presence of major route cytogenetic abnormalities. No association was seen between CIP2A levels and time to molecular response or the levels of the CIP2A-related proteins PP2A, SET, SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1), or AKT. These data confirm that high diagnostic CIP2A levels correlate with subsequent disease progression and treatment failure. CIP2A is a simple diagnostic biomarker that may be useful in planning treatment strategies.
    • Valorization of Aquatic Weed and Agricultural Residues for Innovative Biopolymer Production and Their Biodegradation

      Ungprasoot, Prapaipan; email: un_prapaipan@kkumail.com; Muanruksa, Papasanee; email: m.papasanee@kkumail.com; Tanamool, Varavut; email: varavut.t@nrru.ac.th; Winterburn, James; email: James.Winterburn@Machester.ac.uk; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee; email: Pakawadee.kku@gmail.com (MDPI, 2021-08-24)
      In this work, water hyacinths, bagasse and rice straw were valorized to produce an innovative biopolymer. Serial steps of extraction, bleaching and conversion of cellulose to be carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as well as the last steps of blending and molding were performed. The CMC was mixed with tapioca starch solution by a ratio of 9:18, and a plastic sizer of glycerol was varied at 2%, 4% and 6% by volume. In addition, bioplastic sheets were further determined in their properties and biodegradation. The results revealed that bioplastics with 6% glycerol showed a high moisture content of 23% and water solubility was increased by about 47.94% over 24 h. The effect of temperature on bioplastic stability was found in the ranges of 146.28–169.25 °C. Furthermore, bioplastic sheets with 2% glycerol could maintain their shape. Moreover, for texture analysis, the highest elastic texture in the range of 33.74–38.68% with 6% glycerol was used. Moreover, bioplastics were then tested for their biodegradation by landfill method. Under natural conditions, they degraded at about 10.75% by weight over 24 h after burying in 10 cm soil depth. After 144 h, bioplastics were completely decomposed. Successfully, the application of water, weed and agricultural wastes as raw materials to produce innovative bioplastic showed maximum benefits for an environmentally friendly product, which could also be a guideline for an alternative to replace synthetic plastics derived from petroleum.
    • Verification and refutation of C programs based on k -induction and invariant inference

      Alhawi, Omar M.; email: omar.alhawi@manchester.ac.uk; Rocha, Herbert; Gadelha, Mikhail R.; Cordeiro, Lucas C.; Batista, Eddie (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-05-18)
      Abstract: DepthK is a source-to-source transformation tool that employs bounded model checking (BMC) to verify and falsify safety properties in single- and multi-threaded C programs, without manual annotation of loop invariants. Here, we describe and evaluate a proof-by-induction algorithm that combines k-induction with invariant inference to prove and refute safety properties. We apply two invariant generators to produce program invariants and feed these into a k-induction-based verification algorithm implemented in DepthK, which uses the efficient SMT-based context-bounded model checker (ESBMC) as sequential verification back-end. A set of C benchmarks from the International Competition on Software Verification (SV-COMP) and embedded-system applications extracted from the available literature are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Experimental results show that k-induction with invariants can handle a wide variety of safety properties, in typical programs with loops and embedded software applications from the telecommunications, control systems, and medical domains. The results of our comparative evaluation extend the knowledge about approaches that rely on both BMC and k-induction for software verification, in the following ways. (1) The proposed method outperforms the existing implementations that use k-induction with an interval-invariant generator (e.g., 2LS and ESBMC), in the category ConcurrencySafety, and overcame, in others categories, such as SoftwareSystems, other software verifiers that use plain BMC (e.g., CBMC). Also, (2) it is more precise than other verifiers based on the property-directed reachability (PDR) algorithm (i.e., SeaHorn, Vvt and CPAchecker-CTIGAR). This way, our methodology demonstrated improvement over existing BMC and k-induction-based approaches.
    • Veteran help-seeking behaviour for mental health issues: a systematic review.

      Randles, Rebecca; orcid: 0000-0002-7401-5817; Finnegan, A; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; email: a.finnegan@chester.ac.uk (2021-07-12)
      Serving military personnel and veterans have been identified to have a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Despite this, only a significantly small number seek mental healthcare. With the UK beginning to invest further support to the armed forces community, identification of barriers and facilitators of help-seeking behaviour is needed. Corresponding literature search was conducted in PsycINFO, PsycArticles, Medline, Web of Science and EBSCO. Articles which discussed barriers and facilitators of seeking help for mental health concerns in the veteran population were included. Those which discussed serving personnel or physical problems were not included within this review. A total of 26 papers were analysed. A number of barriers and facilitators of help-seeking for a mental health issue within the veteran population were identified. Barriers included stigma, military culture of stoicism and self-reliance, as well as deployment characteristics of combat exposure and different warzone deployments. Health service difficulties such as access and lack of understanding by civilian staff were also identified. Facilitators to help combat these barriers included a campaign to dispel the stigma, including involvement of veterans and training of military personnel, as well as more accessibility and understanding from healthcare staff. While some barriers and facilitators have been identified, much of this research has been conducted within the USA and on male veterans and lacks longitudinal evidence. Further research is needed within the context of other nations and female veterans and to further indicate the facilitators of help-seeking among veterans. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Views of Practitioners and Researchers on the Use of Virtual Reality in Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

      Skeva, Rigina; email: rigina.skeva@manchester.ac.uk; Gregg, Lynsey; Jay, Caroline; Pettifer, Steve (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-05-21)
      Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) has been shown to be effective in treating anxiety disorders and phobias, but has not yet been widely tested for Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and it is not known whether health care practitioners working with SUDs would use VRT if it were available. We report the results of an interview study exploring practitioners’ and researchers’ views on the utility of VRT for SUD treatment. Practitioners and researchers with at least two years’ experience delivering or researching and designing SUD treatments were recruited (n = 14). Interviews were thematically analyzed, resulting in themes relating to the safety and realism of VRT, and the opportunity for the additional insight it could offer to during SUD treatment. Participants were positive about employing VRT as an additional treatment for SUD. VRT was thought suitable for treating adults and people with mental health issues or trauma, provided that risks were appropriately managed. Subsequent relapse, trauma and over-confidence in the success of treatment were identified as risks. The opportunity VRT offered to include other actors in therapy (via avatar use), and observe reactions, were benefits that could not currently be achieved with other forms of therapy. Overall, VRT was thought to offer the potential for safe, realistic, personalized and insightful exposure to diverse triggering scenarios, and to be acceptable for integration into a wide range of SUD treatments.
    • Vinculin is required for neuronal mechanosensing but not for axon outgrowth.

      Wang, De-Yao; Melero, Cristina; Albaraky, Ashwaq; Atherton, Paul; Jansen, Karin A; Dimitracopoulos, Andrea; Dajas-Bailador, Federico; Reid, Adam; Franze, Kristian; Ballestrem, Christoph; email: christoph.ballestrem@manchester.ac.uk (2021-09-04)
      Integrin receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind to the extracellular matrix (ECM). In most animal cell types integrins cluster together with adaptor proteins at focal adhesions that sense and respond to external mechanical signals. In the central nervous system (CNS), ECM proteins are sparsely distributed, the tissue is comparatively soft and neurons do not form focal adhesions. Thus, how neurons sense tissue stiffness is currently poorly understood. Here, we found that integrins and the integrin-associated proteins talin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are required for the outgrowth of neuronal processes. Vinculin, however, whilst not required for neurite outgrowth was a key regulator of integrin-mediated mechanosensing of neurons. During growth, growth cones of axons of CNS derived cells exerted dynamic stresses of around 10-12 Pa on their environment, and axons grew significantly longer on soft (0.4 kPa) compared to stiff (8 kPa) substrates. Depletion of vinculin blocked this ability of growth cones to distinguish between soft and stiff substrates. These data suggest that vinculin in neurons acts as a key mechanosensor, involved in the regulation of growth cone motility. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]
    • Viral Transduction of Human Rod Opsin or Channelrhodopsin Variants to Mouse ON Bipolar Cells Does Not Impact Retinal Anatomy or Cause Measurable Death in the Targeted Cells

      Wright, Phillip; email: phill_wright90@hotmail.co.uk; Rodgers, Jessica; email: jessica.rodgers@manchester.ac.uk; Wynne, Jonathan; email: Jonathan.Wynne@manchester.ac.uk; Bishop, Paul N.; orcid: 0000-0001-7937-7932; email: paul.n.bishop@manchester.ac.uk; Lucas, Robert J.; email: Robert.Lucas@manchester.ac.uk; Milosavljevic, Nina; orcid: 0000-0001-8859-1797; email: nina.milosavljevic@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-12-03)
      The viral gene delivery of optogenetic actuators to the surviving inner retina has been proposed as a strategy for restoring vision in advanced retinal degeneration. We investigated the safety of ectopic expression of human rod opsin (hRHO), and two channelrhodopsins (enhanced sensitivity CoChR-3M and red-shifted ReaChR) by viral gene delivery in ON bipolar cells of the mouse retina. Adult Grm6Cre mice were bred to be retinally degenerate or non-retinally degenerate (homozygous and heterozygous for the rd1Pde6b mutation, respectively) and intravitreally injected with recombinant adeno-associated virus AAV2/2(quad Y-F) serotype containing a double-floxed inverted transgene comprising one of the opsins of interest under a CMV promoter. None of the opsins investigated caused changes in retinal thickness; induced apoptosis in the retina or in transgene expressing cells; or reduced expression of PKCα (a specific bipolar cell marker). No increase in retinal inflammation at the level of gene expression (IBA1/AIF1) was found within the treated mice compared to controls. The expression of hRHO, CoChR or ReaChR under a strong constitutive promoter in retinal ON bipolar cells following intravitreal delivery via AAV2 does not cause either gross changes in retinal health, or have a measurable impact on the survival of targeted cells.
    • Virtual reality training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in schools

      Rees, Nigel; Beever, Lee; Vaughan, Neil; Powell, Carl; Fletcher, Adam; John, Nigel (Mark Allen Group, 2021-09-02)
      The UK average survival rate from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is 8.6%, which is significantly lower than in comparable countries where survival rates can exceed 20%. A cardiac arrest victim is two to four times more likely to survive OHCA with bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Mandatory teaching of CPR in schools is an effective way, endorsed by the World Health Organization, to train the entire population and improve the bystander CPR rate. Despite this, as with other UK home nations, there is significant variation in provision of CPR training within schools in Wales. Virtual reality (VR) technology offers an accessible, immersive way to teach CPR skills to schoolchildren. Computer scientists at the University of Chester and the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust developed Virtual Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (VCPR), which can be used to teach children CPR skills. There were three stages: identifying requirements and specifications; development of a prototype; and management—development of software, further funding and exploring opportunities for commercialisation.
    • Visual impairment and medication safety: a protocol for a scoping review

      Giles, Sally J.; orcid: 0000-0003-1623-6029; email: sally.giles@manchester.ac.uk; Panagioti, Maria; Riste, Lisa; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Lewis, Penny; Adeyemi, Isabel; Davies, Karen; Morris, Rebecca; Phipps, Denham; Dickenson, Christine; et al. (BioMed Central, 2021-09-15)
      Abstract: Background: The number of individuals with a visual impairment in the UK was estimated a few years ago to be around 1.8 million. People can be visually impaired from birth, childhood, early adulthood or later in life. Those with visual impairment are subject to health inequities and increased risk for patient safety incidents in comparison to the general population. They are also known to be at an increased risk of experiencing medication errors compared to those without visual impairment. In view of this, this review aims to understand the issues of medication safety for VI people. Methods/design: Four electronic bibliographic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo and CINAHL. Our search strategy will include search combinations of two key blocks of terms. Studies will not be excluded based on design. Included studies will be empirical studies. They will include studies that relate to both medication safety and visual impairment. Two reviewers (SG and LR) will screen all the titles and abstracts. SG, LR, RM, SCS and PL will perform study selection and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data to be collected will include study characteristics (year, objective, research method, setting, country), participant characteristics (number, age, gender, diagnoses), medication safety incident type and characteristics. Discussion: The review will summarise the literature relating to medication safety and visual impairment.
    • Visual impairment and medication safety: a protocol for a scoping review.

      Giles, Sally J; orcid: 0000-0003-1623-6029; email: sally.giles@manchester.ac.uk; Panagioti, Maria; Riste, Lisa; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Lewis, Penny; Adeyemi, Isabel; Davies, Karen; Morris, Rebecca; Phipps, Denham; Dickenson, Christine; et al. (2021-09-15)
      <h4>Background</h4>The number of individuals with a visual impairment in the UK was estimated a few years ago to be around 1.8 million. People can be visually impaired from birth, childhood, early adulthood or later in life. Those with visual impairment are subject to health inequities and increased risk for patient safety incidents in comparison to the general population. They are also known to be at an increased risk of experiencing medication errors compared to those without visual impairment. In view of this, this review aims to understand the issues of medication safety for VI people.<h4>Methods/design</h4>Four electronic bibliographic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo and CINAHL. Our search strategy will include search combinations of two key blocks of terms. Studies will not be excluded based on design. Included studies will be empirical studies. They will include studies that relate to both medication safety and visual impairment. Two reviewers (SG and LR) will screen all the titles and abstracts. SG, LR, RM, SCS and PL will perform study selection and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data to be collected will include study characteristics (year, objective, research method, setting, country), participant characteristics (number, age, gender, diagnoses), medication safety incident type and characteristics.<h4>Discussion</h4>The review will summarise the literature relating to medication safety and visual impairment.
    • Visual Sensory Experiences From the Viewpoint of Autistic Adults

      Parmar, Ketan R.; email: ketan.parmar@manchester.ac.uk; Porter, Catherine S.; Dickinson, Christine M.; Pelham, James; Baimbridge, Peter; Gowen, Emma (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-06-08)
      Although previous research has investigated altered sensory reactivity in autistic individuals, there has been no specific focus on visual sensory experiences, particularly in adults. Using qualitative methods, this study aimed to characterize autistic visual sensory symptoms, contextualize their impact and document any associated coping strategies. A total of 18 autistic adults took part in four focus groups which involved questions around visual experiences, the impact of these on daily life, and strategies for their reduction. Transcripts of each session were thematically analyzed allocating six key themes. Participants described a range of visual hypersensitivities, including to light, motion, patterns and particular colors, which contributed to distraction and were frequently part of a wider multisensory issue. Such experiences had significant negative impacts on personal wellbeing and daily life with participants describing fatigue, stress and hindrances on day-to-day activities (e.g., travel and social activities). However, the degree of understanding that participants had about their visual experiences influenced their emotional response, with greater understanding reducing concern. Participants employed a variety of coping strategies to overcome visual sensory experiences but with varied success. Discussions also highlighted that there may be a poor public understanding of sensory issues in autism affecting how well autistic individuals are able manage their sensory symptoms. In summary, autistic adults expressed significant concern about their visual experiences and there is a need to improve understanding of visual experiences on a personal and public level as well as for developing potential support.
    • Visualising internal migration flows across local authorities in England and Wales

      Chen, Yu-wang; orcid: 0000-0002-2007-1821; email: yu-wang.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Ni, Lei; Ospina-Forero, Luis (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-25)
      Internal migration has significant impacts on the population structure, public services, economic and social development of local areas. In this research, we adopted the theory and methods of complex network analysis to visualise the internal migration flows across local authorities in England and Wales. The graphic prominently highlights two spatial and geographic characteristics of population mobility in England and Wales: a large proportion of internal migration is associated with clusters of neighbouring or nearby local authorities, and the most urban authorities, such as London and other major metropolitan cities, have net outward internal migration (i.e., more people moving out than in).
    • Visualising regional disparities in the risk of COVID-19 at different phases of lockdown in England

      Chen, Yu-wang; orcid: 0000-0002-2007-1821; email: yu-wang.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Ni, Lei; Xu, Dong-Ling; Yang, Jian-Bo (SAGE Publications, 2021-01-19)
      Since late January 2020 when the first coronavirus case reached England, United Kingdom, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly and widely across all local authorities (LAs) in England. In this featured graphic, we visualise how COVID-19 severity changes nationally and locally from 30 January to 23 November 2020. The geo-visualisation shows that there have been large regional disparities in the severity of the outbreak, and the epicentres have shifted from Greater London, Leicester, to the North of England and remained in the North during pre-lockdown, post-lockdown, easing lockdown and second national lockdown phases. We further find that the increase in the testing capacity may partially explain the sharp increase in the confirmed cases during the second wave of the pandemic. However, the disparities in the severity of COVID-19 (i.e., confirmed cases and deaths) among LAs in England become more significant over time. It further sheds light on the necessity of establishing decisive and timely responses to cope with local pandemic situations.
    • Vitamin B

      Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; orcid: 0000-0001-7349-9517; Delvin, Edgard; McCaddon, Andrew; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Harrington, Dominic J; orcid: 0000-0003-4786-9240 (2021-04-21)
      Vitamin B (cobalamin) is an essential cofactor for two metabolic pathways. It is obtained principally from food of animal origin. Cobalamin becomes bioavailable through a series of steps pertaining to its release from dietary protein, intrinsic factor-mediated absorption, haptocorrin or transcobalamin-mediated transport, cellular uptake, and two enzymatic conversions ( methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase) into cofactor forms: methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin. Vitamin B deficiency can masquerade as a multitude of illnesses, presenting different perspectives from the point of view of the hematologist, neurologist, gastroenterologist, general physician, or dietician. Increased physician vigilance and heightened patient awareness often account for its early presentation, and testing sometimes occurs during a phase of vitamin B insufficiency before the main onset of the disease. The chosen test often depends on its availability rather than on the diagnostic performance and sensitivity to irrelevant factors interfering with vitamin B markers. Although serum B is still the most commonly used and widely available test, diagnostics by holotranscobalamin, serum methylmalonic acid, and plasma homocysteine measurements have grown in the last several years in routine practice. The lack of a robust absorption test, coupled with compromised sensitivity and specificity of other tests (intrinsic factor and gastric parietal cell antibodies), hinders determination of the cause for depleted B status. This can lead to incorrect supplementation regimes and uncertainty regarding later treatment. This review discusses currently available knowledge on vitamin B , informs the reader about the pitfalls of tests for assessing its deficiency, reviews B status in various populations at different disease stages, and provides recommendations for interpretation, treatment, and associated risks. Future directions for diagnostics of B status and health interventions are also discussed.
    • Vitamin B12 status in health and disease: a critical review. Diagnosis of deficiency and insufficiency – clinical and laboratory pitfalls

      Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; orcid: 0000-0001-7349-9517; Delvin, Edgard; McCaddon, Andrew; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Harrington, Dominic J.; orcid: 0000-0003-4786-9240 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-21)
    • Vitamin B12 status in health and disease: a critical review. Diagnosis of deficiency and insufficiency – clinical and laboratory pitfalls

      Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; orcid: 0000-0001-7349-9517; Delvin, Edgard; McCaddon, Andrew; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Harrington, Dominic J.; orcid: 0000-0003-4786-9240 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-21)
    • Vitamin B12 status in health and disease: a critical review. Diagnosis of deficiency and insufficiency – clinical and laboratory pitfalls

      Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; orcid: 0000-0001-7349-9517; Delvin, Edgard; McCaddon, Andrew; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Harrington, Dominic J.; orcid: 0000-0003-4786-9240 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-04-21)
    • Volatile Liquid Detection by Terahertz Technologies

      Baxter, Harry W; Worrall, Adam A; Pang, Jie; Chen, Riqing; email: riqing.chen@fafu.edu.cn; Yang, Bin; email: b.yang@chester.ac.uk (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-04-08)
      The prospect of being able to move through security without the inconvenience of separating liquids from bags is an exciting one for passengers, and there are important operational benefits for airports as well. Here, two terahertz (THz) systems, 100 GHz sub-THz line scanner and attenuation total reflection-based THz time domain spectroscopy (TDS), have been used to demonstrate the capability of identifying different liquid samples. Liquid samples’ THz complex permittivities are measured and their differences have contributed to the variation of 100 GHz 2D images of volatile liquids with different volumes inside of cannister bottles. The acquired attenuation images at 100 GHz can easily be used to distinguish highly absorbed liquids (Water, Ethanol, Fuel Treatment Chemicals) and low loss liquids (Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene and Universal Bottle Cleaner). The results give a promising feasibility for mm-wave imager and THz spectroscopy to efficiently identify different volatile liquids.