• Ultra-thin g-C

      Liu, Chengcheng; Luo, Tian; Sheveleva, Alena M; Han, Xue; Kang, Xinchen; orcid: 0000-0003-0593-0840; Sapchenko, Sergei; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; McInnes, Eric J L; Han, Buxing; orcid: 0000-0003-0440-809X; Yang, Sihai; orcid: 0000-0002-1111-9272; et al. (2021-07-05)
      growth of the metal-organic framework material MFM-300(Fe) on an ultra-thin sheet of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C N ) has been achieved exfoliation of bulk carbon nitride using supercritical CO . The resultant hybrid structure, CNNS/MFM-300(Fe), comprising carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNS) and MFM-300(Fe), shows excellent performance towards photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of benzylic C-H groups at room temperature under visible light. The catalytic activity is significantly improved compared to the parent g-C N , MFM-300(Fe) or physical mixtures of both. This facile strategy for preparing heterojunction photocatalysts demonstrates a green pathway for the efficient and economic oxidation of benzylic carbons to produce fine chemicals. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • Ultraviolet light-induced collagen degradation inhibits melanoma invasion.

      Budden, Timothy; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Porter, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-3353-7002; Kay, Emily; Gurung, Shilpa; Earnshaw, Charles H; orcid: 0000-0002-7926-8506; Roeck, Katharina; Craig, Sarah; orcid: 0000-0003-1928-582X; Traves, Víctor; Krutmann, Jean; orcid: 0000-0001-8433-1517; et al. (2021-05-12)
      Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damages the dermis and fibroblasts; and increases melanoma incidence. Fibroblasts and their matrix contribute to cancer, so we studied how UVR modifies dermal fibroblast function, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and melanoma invasion. We confirmed UVR-damaged fibroblasts persistently upregulate collagen-cleaving matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP1) expression, reducing local collagen (COL1A1), and COL1A1 degradation by MMP1 decreased melanoma invasion. Conversely, inhibiting ECM degradation and MMP1 expression restored melanoma invasion. Primary cutaneous melanomas of aged humans show more cancer cells invade as single cells at the invasive front of melanomas expressing and depositing more collagen, and collagen and single melanoma cell invasion are robust predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Thus, primary melanomas arising over collagen-degraded skin are less invasive, and reduced invasion improves survival. However, melanoma-associated fibroblasts can restore invasion by increasing collagen synthesis. Finally, high COL1A1 gene expression is a biomarker of poor outcome across a range of primary cancers.
    • UN treaty-based bodies and the Islamic Republic of Iran: Human rights dialogue (1990–2016)

      Moinipour, Shabnam; orcid: 0000-0003-1764-0832; Bendall, Mark (Informa UK Limited, 2018-03-02)
    • Uncovering genetic mechanisms of hypertension through multi-omic analysis of the kidney.

      Eales, James M; orcid: 0000-0001-6238-5952; Jiang, Xiao; orcid: 0000-0002-1442-8927; Xu, Xiaoguang; orcid: 0000-0003-4568-1623; Saluja, Sushant; Akbarov, Artur; Cano-Gamez, Eddie; McNulty, Michelle T; Finan, Christopher; orcid: 0000-0002-3319-1937; Guo, Hui; orcid: 0000-0003-0282-6933; Wystrychowski, Wojciech; et al. (2021-05-06)
      The kidney is an organ of key relevance to blood pressure (BP) regulation, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. However, genetically mediated renal mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypertension remain poorly understood. We integrated genotype, gene expression, alternative splicing and DNA methylation profiles of up to 430 human kidneys to characterize the effects of BP index variants from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on renal transcriptome and epigenome. We uncovered kidney targets for 479 (58.3%) BP-GWAS variants and paired 49 BP-GWAS kidney genes with 210 licensed drugs. Our colocalization and Mendelian randomization analyses identified 179 unique kidney genes with evidence of putatively causal effects on BP. Through Mendelian randomization, we also uncovered effects of BP on renal outcomes commonly affecting patients with hypertension. Collectively, our studies identified genetic variants, kidney genes, molecular mechanisms and biological pathways of key relevance to the genetic regulation of BP and inherited susceptibility to hypertension.
    • Understanding minimum and ideal factor levels for participation in physical activities by people with haemophilia: An expert elicitation exercise

      Martin, Antony P.; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; Burke, Tom; Asghar, Sohaib; Noone, Declan; Pedra, Gabriel; orcid: 0000-0002-2023-5224; O'Hara, Jamie (Wiley, 2020-04-08)
    • Understanding minimum and ideal factor levels for participation in physical activities by people with haemophilia: An expert elicitation exercise

      Martin, Antony P.; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; Burke, Tom; Asghar, Sohaib; Noone, Declan; Pedra, Gabriel; orcid: 0000-0002-2023-5224; O'Hara, Jamie (Wiley, 2020-04-08)
    • Understanding the electrochemistry of "water-in-salt" electrolytes: basal plane highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model system.

      Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Ejigu, Andinet; Dryfe, Robert A W; orcid: 0000-0002-9335-4451 (2020-06-08)
      A new approach to expand the accessible voltage window of electrochemical energy storage systems, based on so-called "water-in-salt" electrolytes, has been expounded recently. Although studies of transport in concentrated electrolytes date back over several decades, the recent demonstration that concentrated aqueous electrolyte systems can be used in the lithium ion battery context has rekindled interest in the electrochemical properties of highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes. The original aqueous lithium ion battery conception was based on the use of concentrated solutions of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, although these electrolytes still possess some drawbacks including cost, toxicity, and safety. In this work we describe the electrochemical behavior of a simple 1 : 1 electrolyte based on highly concentrated aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride (KF). Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is used as well-defined model carbon to study the electrochemical properties of the electrolyte, as well as its basal plane capacitance, from a microscopic perspective: the KF electrolyte exhibits an unusually wide potential window (up to 2.6 V). The faradaic response on HOPG is also reported using K Fe(CN) as a model redox probe: the highly concentrated electrolyte provides good electrochemical reversibility and protects the HOPG surface from adsorption of contaminants. Moreover, this electrolyte was applied to symmetrical supercapacitors (using graphene and activated carbon as active materials) in order to quantify its performance in energy storage applications. It is found that the activated carbon and graphene supercapacitors demonstrate high gravimetric capacitance (221 F g for activated carbon, and 56 F g for graphene), a stable working voltage window of 2.0 V, which is significantly higher than the usual range of water-based capacitors, and excellent stability over 10 000 cycles. These results provide fundamental insight into the wider applicability of highly concentrated electrolytes, which should enable their application in future of energy storage technologies. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • Universal Credit, lone mothers and poverty: some context and challenges for social work with children and families

      Carey, Malcolm; Bell, Sophie (Bristol University Press, 2020-08-01)
      Universal Credit is a streamlined benefits delivery system initially introduced in the UK in 2008. Conditionality-based welfare policies are increasingly international in scale, and are now widely adopted by neoliberal governments on the basis that paid employment offers the most efficacious route out of poverty for citizen-subjects. Numerous studies suggest otherwise and highlight their negative impact upon the social rights, lived experiences and attempts to alleviate poverty for claimants. This article analyses the effect of the reformed benefit system and wider workfare policies upon lone mothers, including as a consequence of engagement with an ever-more stigmatising benefit system, and associated risks posed by sanctions or precarious low-paid employment. It highlights some of the consequences for social work with children and families of Universal Credit, including ongoing tensions and challenges created for the profession by the punitive policies of the workfare-oriented centaur state.
    • University College Chester: the impact of investment in electronic resources

      Fiander, Wendy; Peters, Lisa (Library and Information Research Group, 2005)
      This article discusses the impact of electronic information services on teaching and learning, the production of "impact indicators" to evaludate the usefulness of electronic resources, and how to increase the percieved value of electronic resources in the academic community.
    • Unravelling the potential of graphene in glioblastoma therapy.

      Foo, Cher Ying; Fu, Richard Z; email: richard.fu@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-21)
      Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant types of central nervous system tumours. Despite advances in treatment modalities, it remains largely incurable with an extremely poor prognosis. Treatment of GBM is associated with several difficulties such as the risk of damaging healthy brain tissues during surgery, drug resistance and inadequate drug delivery across the blood brain barrier. The new nanomaterial graphene, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique physico-chemical characteristics, good biocompatibility, specific targeting and small size. Starting from simple drug delivery systems, the application of graphene-based nanomaterials has been extended to a versatile platform of multiple therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy, gene therapy, photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy. Graphene-based materials can also be engineered to integrate multiple functions into a single platform for combination therapy for enhanced anticancer activity and reduced side effects. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based materials in GBM diagnosis and therapy. In addition, future challenges and prospects regarding this promising field are discussed, which may pave the way towards improving the safety and efficacy of graphene-based therapeutics. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Upskilling health and care workers with augmented and virtual reality: protocol for a realist review to develop an evidence-informed programme theory.

      Gasteiger, Norina; orcid: 0000-0001-7801-7417; email: norina.gasteiger@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; van der Veer, Sabine N; orcid: 0000-0003-0929-436X; Wilson, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-2657-5780; Dowding, Dawn; orcid: 0000-0001-5672-8605 (2021-07-05)
      Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are increasingly used to upskill health and care providers, including in surgical, nursing and acute care settings. Many studies have used AR/VR to deliver training, providing mixed evidence on their effectiveness and limited evidence regarding contextual factors that influence effectiveness and implementation. This review will develop, test and refine an evidence-informed programme theory on what facilitates or constrains the implementation of AR or VR programmes in health and care settings and understand how, for whom and to what extent they 'work'. This realist review adheres to the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) standards and will be conducted in three steps: theory elicitation, theory testing and theory refinement. First, a search will identify practitioner, academic and learning and technology adoption theories from databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO and Web of Science), practitioner journals, snowballing and grey literature. Information regarding contexts, mechanisms and outcomes will be extracted. A narrative synthesis will determine overlapping configurations and form an initial theory. Second, the theory will be tested using empirical evidence located from the above databases and identified from the first search. Quality will be assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), and relevant information will be extracted into a coding sheet. Third, the extracted information will be compared with the initial programme theory, with differences helping to make refinements. Findings will be presented as a narrative summary, and the MMAT will determine our confidence in each configuration. Ethics approval is not required. This review will develop an evidence-informed programme theory. The results will inform and support AR/VR interventions from clinical educators, healthcare providers and software developers. Upskilling through AR/VR learning interventions may improve quality of care and promote evidence-based practice and continued learning. Findings will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal articles. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.]
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A review

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E; Jones, Christopher E
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached advanced stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV.
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E; Jones, Christopher E (Elsevier, 2021-12-06)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV.
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review.

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E; Jones, Christopher E; email: christopher.jones@chester.ac.uk (2021-11-23)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Use of past care markers in risk-adjustment: accounting for systematic differences across providers.

      Anselmi, Laura; orcid: 0000-0002-2499-7656; email: laura.anselmi@manchester.ac.uk; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Sutton, Matt; Everton, Anna; Shaw, Rob; Lorrimer, Stephen (2021-07-31)
      Risk-adjustment models are used to predict the cost of care for patients based on their observable characteristics, and to derive efficient and equitable budgets based on weighted capitation. Markers based on past care contacts can improve model fit, but their coefficients may be affected by provider variations in diagnostic, treatment and reporting quality. This is problematic when distinguishing need and supply influences on costs is required.We examine the extent of this bias in the national formula for mental health care using administrative records for 43.7 million adults registered with 7746 GP practices in England in 2015. We also illustrate a method to control for provider effects.A linear regression containing a rich set of individual, GP practice and area characteristics, and fixed effects for local health organisations, had goodness-of-fit equal to R  = 0.007 at person level and R  = 0.720 at GP practice level. The addition of past care markers changed substantially the coefficients on the other variables and increased the goodness-of-fit to R  = 0.275 at person level and R  = 0.815 at GP practice level. The further inclusion of provider effects affected the coefficients on GP practice and area variables and on local health organisation fixed effects, increasing goodness-of-fit at GP practice level to R  = 0.848.With adequate supply controls, it is possible to estimate coefficients on past care markers that are stable and unbiased. Nonetheless, inconsistent reporting may affect need predictions and penalise populations served by underreporting providers. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
    • Use of vision-based augmented reality to improve student learning of the spine and spinal deformities. An exploratory study.

      Kandasamy, Gok; orcid: 0000-0002-2569-2205; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; orcid: 0000-0001-7784-500X; Cordry, Julien; orcid: 0000-0002-6489-3026; McSherry, Rob; orcid: 0000-0003-1335-5014 (2021-10-29)
      Knowledge of anatomy and pathology of the spine together with spinal deformities is integral to several healthcare disciplines. This knowledge is crucial for graduates for assessment and management of patients with spinal problems. Physiotherapy students generally find it difficult to conceptualise the integrity of the structure and function of the spine that affects their acquisition of related physiotherapy skills. Our first objective was to introduce and evaluate the use of a Vision-Based Augmented Reality (VBAR) mobile application to teach students the anatomy and accessory movements of the spine. A further objective was to explore student experiences of and engagement with VBAR by conducting a post-lecture survey comparing VBAR to traditional teaching. This post-intervention crossover design study included two groups: final year physiotherapy students ( = 74) and mean age of 23 (±1.8). The computing department at Teesside University developed the VBAR mobile application. Moreover, a survey adapted from a previously published article was disseminated to students to evaluate their level of understanding following the use of the VBAR application. The results demonstrated that the median questionnaire scores in students' perceived level of understanding for the VBAR group were significantly higher than for the traditional teaching group ( < 0.05). The results of this post-intervention survey suggest that the integration of VBAR learning activities results in gains relating to students' understanding of spinal anatomy, function, pathology and deformities. These findings suggest that VBAR could be an additional teaching tool to support student learning. Greater understanding is expected to increase the quality of clinical practice. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Authors.]
    • Using face masks with spectacles versus contact lenses.

      Maldonado-Codina, Carole; email: carole.m-codina@manchester.ac.uk; Navascues-Cornago, Maria; Plowright, Andrew J; Mirza, Aftab; Smith, Sarah; Read, Michael L; Vega, Jose; Orsborn, Gary N; Morgan, Philip B (2021-10-01)
      To test the hypothesis that various subjective ocular and task-related parameters associated with wearing a face mask would be better in neophyte contact lens (CL) wear compared to habitual spectacle (Sp) wear. Thirty participants were randomised to continue in Sp (n = 15) or wear somofilcon A daily disposable CL (n = 15) ('group'). A surgical face mask (Type II R) was worn for at least one hour per day on four or more days per week. After two weeks, participants completed the Quality of Life Impact of Refractive Correction Questionnaire (QIRC), a two-part face mask usability questionnaire and graded ocular-related symptoms using 0-100 visual analogue scales. There was no difference between groups for overall QIRC score but some individual question scores reflected better quality of life in the CL: 'outdoor activities', 'keep fit' and 'able to do things' (all p < 0.05). Differences in favour of the CL were seen for the following in the face mask usability questionnaire: 'breathing', 'heat', 'comfort on ears', 'overall comfort', 'walking', 'driving', 'reading', 'computer use', 'exercising' and 'socialising' (all p < 0.05). Significant differences were also seen for the 0-100 VAS symptoms probing vision quality in favour of the CL: glare, distance and near vision, fogging, restricted field of view and peripheral blur. This work supports anecdotal reports that CL are a better vision correction option than Sp when used in conjunction with a face mask. Participants reported a range of benefits to the CL/face mask combination for vision-related symptoms, breathing and heat-related symptoms and a number of day-to-day activities including walking, driving and exercising. All of the benefits relating to the CL are likely to result in improved adherence to face mask use. Overall, the findings of this work suggest that where possible, CL should be the preferred vision correction option for people using face masks. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.]
    • Using Human Biomonitoring Data to Support Risk Assessment of Cosmetic Ingredients—A Case Study of Benzophenone-3

      Rousselle, Christophe; email: christophe.rousselle@anses.fr; Meslin, Matthieu; orcid: 0000-0001-5620-1344; email: matthieu.meslin@anses.fr; Berman, Tamar; email: tamar.berman@moh.gov.il; Woutersen, Marjolijn; email: marjolijn.woutersen@rivm.nl; Bil, Wieneke; email: wieneke.bil@rivm.nl; Wildeman, Jenna; email: jennawildeman@outlook.com; Chaudhry, Qasim; email: q.chaudhry@chester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2022-02-19)
      Safety assessment of UV filters for human health by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is based on the estimation of internal dose following external (skin) application of cosmetic products, and comparison with a toxicological reference value after conversion to internal dose. Data from human biomonitoring (HBM) could be very useful in this regard, because it is based on the measurement of real-life internal exposure of the human population to a chemical. UV filters were included in the priority list of compounds to be addressed under the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU), and risk assessment of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) was carried out based on HBM data. Using BP-3 as an example, this study investigated the benefits and limitations of the use of external versus internal exposure data to explore the usefulness of HBM to support the risk assessment of cosmetic ingredients. The results show that both approaches did indicate a risk to human health under certain levels of exposure. They also highlight the need for more robust exposure data on BP-3 and other cosmetic ingredients, and a standardized framework for incorporating HBM data in the risk assessment of cosmetic products.