• Ultra-thin g-C

      Liu, Chengcheng; Luo, Tian; Sheveleva, Alena M; Han, Xue; Kang, Xinchen; orcid: 0000-0003-0593-0840; Sapchenko, Sergei; Tuna, Floriana; orcid: 0000-0002-5541-1750; McInnes, Eric J L; Han, Buxing; orcid: 0000-0003-0440-809X; Yang, Sihai; orcid: 0000-0002-1111-9272; et al. (2021-07-05)
      growth of the metal-organic framework material MFM-300(Fe) on an ultra-thin sheet of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C N ) has been achieved exfoliation of bulk carbon nitride using supercritical CO . The resultant hybrid structure, CNNS/MFM-300(Fe), comprising carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNS) and MFM-300(Fe), shows excellent performance towards photocatalytic aerobic oxidation of benzylic C-H groups at room temperature under visible light. The catalytic activity is significantly improved compared to the parent g-C N , MFM-300(Fe) or physical mixtures of both. This facile strategy for preparing heterojunction photocatalysts demonstrates a green pathway for the efficient and economic oxidation of benzylic carbons to produce fine chemicals. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • Ultraviolet light-induced collagen degradation inhibits melanoma invasion.

      Budden, Timothy; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Porter, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-3353-7002; Kay, Emily; Gurung, Shilpa; Earnshaw, Charles H; orcid: 0000-0002-7926-8506; Roeck, Katharina; Craig, Sarah; orcid: 0000-0003-1928-582X; Traves, Víctor; Krutmann, Jean; orcid: 0000-0001-8433-1517; et al. (2021-05-12)
      Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damages the dermis and fibroblasts; and increases melanoma incidence. Fibroblasts and their matrix contribute to cancer, so we studied how UVR modifies dermal fibroblast function, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and melanoma invasion. We confirmed UVR-damaged fibroblasts persistently upregulate collagen-cleaving matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP1) expression, reducing local collagen (COL1A1), and COL1A1 degradation by MMP1 decreased melanoma invasion. Conversely, inhibiting ECM degradation and MMP1 expression restored melanoma invasion. Primary cutaneous melanomas of aged humans show more cancer cells invade as single cells at the invasive front of melanomas expressing and depositing more collagen, and collagen and single melanoma cell invasion are robust predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Thus, primary melanomas arising over collagen-degraded skin are less invasive, and reduced invasion improves survival. However, melanoma-associated fibroblasts can restore invasion by increasing collagen synthesis. Finally, high COL1A1 gene expression is a biomarker of poor outcome across a range of primary cancers.
    • UN treaty-based bodies and the Islamic Republic of Iran: Human rights dialogue (1990–2016)

      Moinipour, Shabnam; orcid: 0000-0003-1764-0832; Bendall, Mark (Informa UK Limited, 2018-03-02)
    • Understanding the electrochemistry of "water-in-salt" electrolytes: basal plane highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model system.

      Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Ejigu, Andinet; Dryfe, Robert A W; orcid: 0000-0002-9335-4451 (2020-06-08)
      A new approach to expand the accessible voltage window of electrochemical energy storage systems, based on so-called "water-in-salt" electrolytes, has been expounded recently. Although studies of transport in concentrated electrolytes date back over several decades, the recent demonstration that concentrated aqueous electrolyte systems can be used in the lithium ion battery context has rekindled interest in the electrochemical properties of highly concentrated aqueous electrolytes. The original aqueous lithium ion battery conception was based on the use of concentrated solutions of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, although these electrolytes still possess some drawbacks including cost, toxicity, and safety. In this work we describe the electrochemical behavior of a simple 1 : 1 electrolyte based on highly concentrated aqueous solutions of potassium fluoride (KF). Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is used as well-defined model carbon to study the electrochemical properties of the electrolyte, as well as its basal plane capacitance, from a microscopic perspective: the KF electrolyte exhibits an unusually wide potential window (up to 2.6 V). The faradaic response on HOPG is also reported using K Fe(CN) as a model redox probe: the highly concentrated electrolyte provides good electrochemical reversibility and protects the HOPG surface from adsorption of contaminants. Moreover, this electrolyte was applied to symmetrical supercapacitors (using graphene and activated carbon as active materials) in order to quantify its performance in energy storage applications. It is found that the activated carbon and graphene supercapacitors demonstrate high gravimetric capacitance (221 F g for activated carbon, and 56 F g for graphene), a stable working voltage window of 2.0 V, which is significantly higher than the usual range of water-based capacitors, and excellent stability over 10 000 cycles. These results provide fundamental insight into the wider applicability of highly concentrated electrolytes, which should enable their application in future of energy storage technologies. [Abstract copyright: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.]
    • University College Chester: the impact of investment in electronic resources

      Fiander, Wendy; Peters, Lisa (Library and Information Research Group, 2005)
      This article discusses the impact of electronic information services on teaching and learning, the production of "impact indicators" to evaludate the usefulness of electronic resources, and how to increase the percieved value of electronic resources in the academic community.
    • Unravelling the potential of graphene in glioblastoma therapy.

      Foo, Cher Ying; Fu, Richard Z; email: richard.fu@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-21)
      Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant types of central nervous system tumours. Despite advances in treatment modalities, it remains largely incurable with an extremely poor prognosis. Treatment of GBM is associated with several difficulties such as the risk of damaging healthy brain tissues during surgery, drug resistance and inadequate drug delivery across the blood brain barrier. The new nanomaterial graphene, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique physico-chemical characteristics, good biocompatibility, specific targeting and small size. Starting from simple drug delivery systems, the application of graphene-based nanomaterials has been extended to a versatile platform of multiple therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy, gene therapy, photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy. Graphene-based materials can also be engineered to integrate multiple functions into a single platform for combination therapy for enhanced anticancer activity and reduced side effects. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art applications of graphene-based materials in GBM diagnosis and therapy. In addition, future challenges and prospects regarding this promising field are discussed, which may pave the way towards improving the safety and efficacy of graphene-based therapeutics. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Upskilling health and care workers with augmented and virtual reality: protocol for a realist review to develop an evidence-informed programme theory.

      Gasteiger, Norina; orcid: 0000-0001-7801-7417; email: norina.gasteiger@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; van der Veer, Sabine N; orcid: 0000-0003-0929-436X; Wilson, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-2657-5780; Dowding, Dawn; orcid: 0000-0001-5672-8605 (2021-07-05)
      Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are increasingly used to upskill health and care providers, including in surgical, nursing and acute care settings. Many studies have used AR/VR to deliver training, providing mixed evidence on their effectiveness and limited evidence regarding contextual factors that influence effectiveness and implementation. This review will develop, test and refine an evidence-informed programme theory on what facilitates or constrains the implementation of AR or VR programmes in health and care settings and understand how, for whom and to what extent they 'work'. This realist review adheres to the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) standards and will be conducted in three steps: theory elicitation, theory testing and theory refinement. First, a search will identify practitioner, academic and learning and technology adoption theories from databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO and Web of Science), practitioner journals, snowballing and grey literature. Information regarding contexts, mechanisms and outcomes will be extracted. A narrative synthesis will determine overlapping configurations and form an initial theory. Second, the theory will be tested using empirical evidence located from the above databases and identified from the first search. Quality will be assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT), and relevant information will be extracted into a coding sheet. Third, the extracted information will be compared with the initial programme theory, with differences helping to make refinements. Findings will be presented as a narrative summary, and the MMAT will determine our confidence in each configuration. Ethics approval is not required. This review will develop an evidence-informed programme theory. The results will inform and support AR/VR interventions from clinical educators, healthcare providers and software developers. Upskilling through AR/VR learning interventions may improve quality of care and promote evidence-based practice and continued learning. Findings will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal articles. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.]
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review.

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E.; Jones, Christopher E; email: christopher.jones@chester.ac.uk (2021-11-23)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Use of vision-based augmented reality to improve student learning of the spine and spinal deformities. An exploratory study.

      Kandasamy, Gok; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Cordry, Julien; McSherry, Rob (2021-10-29)
      <h4>Background</h4>Knowledge of anatomy and pathology of the spine together with spinal deformities is integral to several healthcare disciplines. This knowledge is crucial for graduates for assessment and management of patients with spinal problems. Physiotherapy students generally find it difficult to conceptualise the integrity of the structure and function of the spine that affects their acquisition of related physiotherapy skills.<h4>Objective</h4>Our first objective was to introduce and evaluate the use of a Vision-Based Augmented Reality (VBAR) mobile application to teach students the anatomy and accessory movements of the spine. A further objective was to explore student experiences of and engagement with VBAR by conducting a post-lecture survey comparing VBAR to traditional teaching.<h4>Methods</h4>This post-intervention crossover design study included two groups: final year physiotherapy students (<i>n</i> = 74) and mean age of 23 (±1.8). The computing department at Teesside University developed the VBAR mobile application. Moreover, a survey adapted from a previously published article was disseminated to students to evaluate their level of understanding following the use of the VBAR application.<h4>Results</h4>The results demonstrated that the median questionnaire scores in students' perceived level of understanding for the VBAR group were significantly higher than for the traditional teaching group (<i>p</i> < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of this post-intervention survey suggest that the integration of VBAR learning activities results in gains relating to students' understanding of spinal anatomy, function, pathology and deformities. These findings suggest that VBAR could be an additional teaching tool to support student learning.<h4>Clinical implications</h4>Greater understanding is expected to increase the quality of clinical practice.
    • Using face masks with spectacles versus contact lenses.

      Maldonado-Codina, Carole; email: carole.m-codina@manchester.ac.uk; Navascues-Cornago, Maria; Plowright, Andrew J; Mirza, Aftab; Smith, Sarah; Read, Michael L; Vega, Jose; Orsborn, Gary N; Morgan, Philip B (2021-10-01)
      To test the hypothesis that various subjective ocular and task-related parameters associated with wearing a face mask would be better in neophyte contact lens (CL) wear compared to habitual spectacle (Sp) wear. Thirty participants were randomised to continue in Sp (n = 15) or wear somofilcon A daily disposable CL (n = 15) ('group'). A surgical face mask (Type II R) was worn for at least one hour per day on four or more days per week. After two weeks, participants completed the Quality of Life Impact of Refractive Correction Questionnaire (QIRC), a two-part face mask usability questionnaire and graded ocular-related symptoms using 0-100 visual analogue scales. There was no difference between groups for overall QIRC score but some individual question scores reflected better quality of life in the CL: 'outdoor activities', 'keep fit' and 'able to do things' (all p < 0.05). Differences in favour of the CL were seen for the following in the face mask usability questionnaire: 'breathing', 'heat', 'comfort on ears', 'overall comfort', 'walking', 'driving', 'reading', 'computer use', 'exercising' and 'socialising' (all p < 0.05). Significant differences were also seen for the 0-100 VAS symptoms probing vision quality in favour of the CL: glare, distance and near vision, fogging, restricted field of view and peripheral blur. This work supports anecdotal reports that CL are a better vision correction option than Sp when used in conjunction with a face mask. Participants reported a range of benefits to the CL/face mask combination for vision-related symptoms, breathing and heat-related symptoms and a number of day-to-day activities including walking, driving and exercising. All of the benefits relating to the CL are likely to result in improved adherence to face mask use. Overall, the findings of this work suggest that where possible, CL should be the preferred vision correction option for people using face masks. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.]
    • Using Human Biomonitoring Data to Support Risk Assessment of Cosmetic Ingredients—A Case Study of Benzophenone-3

      Rousselle, Christophe; Meslin, Matthieu; Berman, Tamar; Woutersen, Marjolijn; Bil, Wieneke; Wildeman, Jenna; Chaudhry, Qasim (MDPI, 2022-02-19)
      Safety assessment of UV filters for human health by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is based on the estimation of internal dose following external (skin) application of cosmetic products, and comparison with a toxicological reference value after conversion to internal dose. Data from human biomonitoring (HBM) could be very useful in this regard, because it is based on the measurement of real-life internal exposure of the human population to a chemical. UV filters were included in the priority list of compounds to be addressed under the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU), and risk assessment of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) was carried out based on HBM data. Using BP-3 as an example, this study investigated the benefits and limitations of the use of external versus internal exposure data to explore the usefulness of HBM to support the risk assessment of cosmetic ingredients. The results show that both approaches did indicate a risk to human health under certain levels of exposure. They also highlight the need for more robust exposure data on BP-3 and other cosmetic ingredients, and a standardized framework for incorporating HBM data in the risk assessment of cosmetic products.
    • Using patient-generated health data in clinical practice: How timing influences its function in rheumatology outpatient consultations.

      Laverty, Louise; email: louise.laverty@manchester.ac.uk; Gandrup, Julie; Sharp, Charlotte A; Ercia, Angelo; Sanders, Caroline; Dowding, Dawn; Dixon, William G; van der Veer, Sabine N (2021-06-26)
      Utilizing patient-generated health data (PGHD) in clinical consultations and informing clinical and shared decision-making processes has the potential to improve clinical practice but has proven challenging to implement. Looking at consultations between people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and rheumatologists, this study examines when and how daily PGHD was discussed in outpatient consultations. We conducted a secondary qualitative analysis of 17 audio-recorded research outpatient consultations using thematic and interactional approaches. Clinicians decided when to look at the PGHD and what symptoms to prioritise during the consultation. When PGHD was introduced early in consultations, it was usually used to invite patients to collaborate (elicit new information). When introduced later, PGHD was used to corroborate patient accounts and to convince the patient about proposed actions and treatments. Clinicians occasionally disregarded PGHD if it did not fit into their clinical assessment. The time that PGHD is introduced may influence how PGHD is used in consultations. Further research is needed to understand how best to empower patients to discuss PGHD. Educating patients and clinicians about the importance of timing and strategies when using PGHD in consultations may help promote shared decision-making. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Using the CLA scanning licence to offer 24x7 access to in-demand book chapters and journal articles at the University of Chester

      Peters, Lisa; University of Chester (SCONUL, 2009-12)
      This article discusses the implementation and operation of the CLA scanning licence at the University of Chester library.
    • Validation of CIP2A as a Biomarker of Subsequent Disease Progression and Treatment Failure in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

      Clark, Richard E.; Basabrain, Ammar A.; Austin, Gemma M.; Holcroft, Alison K.; Loaiza, Sandra; Apperley, Jane F.; Law, Christopher; Scott, Laura; Parry, Alexandra D.; Bonnett, Laura; et al. (MDPI, 2021-04-29)
      Background: It would be clinically useful to prospectively identify the risk of disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Overexpression of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (CIP2A) protein is an adverse prognostic indicator in many cancers. Methods: We examined CIP2A protein levels in diagnostic samples from the SPIRIT2 trial in 172 unselected patients, of whom 90 received imatinib and 82 dasatinib as first-line treatment. Results: High CIP2A levels correlated with inferior progression-free survival (p = 0.04) and with worse freedom from progression (p = 0.03), and these effects were confined to dasatinib recipients. High CIP2A levels were associated with a six-fold higher five-year treatment failure rate than low CIP2A levels (41% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.0002), in both imatinib (45% vs. 11%; p = 0.02) and dasatinib recipients (36% vs. 4%; p = 0.007). Imatinib recipients with low CIP2A levels had a greater risk of treatment failure (p = 0.0008). CIP2A levels were independent of Sokal, Hasford, EUTOS (EUropean Treatment and Outcome Study), or EUTOS long-term survival scores (ELTS) or the presence of major route cytogenetic abnormalities. No association was seen between CIP2A levels and time to molecular response or the levels of the CIP2A-related proteins PP2A, SET, SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1), or AKT. Conclusions: These data confirm that high diagnostic CIP2A levels correlate with subsequent disease progression and treatment failure. CIP2A is a simple diagnostic biomarker that may be useful in planning treatment strategies.
    • Veteran help-seeking behaviour for mental health issues: a systematic review.

      Randles, Rebecca; orcid: 0000-0002-7401-5817; Finnegan, A; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; email: a.finnegan@chester.ac.uk (2021-07-12)
      Serving military personnel and veterans have been identified to have a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Despite this, only a significantly small number seek mental healthcare. With the UK beginning to invest further support to the armed forces community, identification of barriers and facilitators of help-seeking behaviour is needed. Corresponding literature search was conducted in PsycINFO, PsycArticles, Medline, Web of Science and EBSCO. Articles which discussed barriers and facilitators of seeking help for mental health concerns in the veteran population were included. Those which discussed serving personnel or physical problems were not included within this review. A total of 26 papers were analysed. A number of barriers and facilitators of help-seeking for a mental health issue within the veteran population were identified. Barriers included stigma, military culture of stoicism and self-reliance, as well as deployment characteristics of combat exposure and different warzone deployments. Health service difficulties such as access and lack of understanding by civilian staff were also identified. Facilitators to help combat these barriers included a campaign to dispel the stigma, including involvement of veterans and training of military personnel, as well as more accessibility and understanding from healthcare staff. While some barriers and facilitators have been identified, much of this research has been conducted within the USA and on male veterans and lacks longitudinal evidence. Further research is needed within the context of other nations and female veterans and to further indicate the facilitators of help-seeking among veterans. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Violence, Control and Restraint: The Harms to Young Adults Particularly Upon Transition

      Price, Jayne; orcid: 0000-0003-3719-1851 (Wiley, 2021-06-15)
    • Vitamin B

      Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; orcid: 0000-0001-7349-9517; Delvin, Edgard; McCaddon, Andrew; Harrington, Dominic J; orcid: 0000-0003-4786-9240; Ahmadi, Kourosh R. (2021-04-21)
      Vitamin B (cobalamin) is an essential cofactor for two metabolic pathways. It is obtained principally from food of animal origin. Cobalamin becomes bioavailable through a series of steps pertaining to its release from dietary protein, intrinsic factor-mediated absorption, haptocorrin or transcobalamin-mediated transport, cellular uptake, and two enzymatic conversions ( methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA-mutase) into cofactor forms: methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin. Vitamin B deficiency can masquerade as a multitude of illnesses, presenting different perspectives from the point of view of the hematologist, neurologist, gastroenterologist, general physician, or dietician. Increased physician vigilance and heightened patient awareness often account for its early presentation, and testing sometimes occurs during a phase of vitamin B insufficiency before the main onset of the disease. The chosen test often depends on its availability rather than on the diagnostic performance and sensitivity to irrelevant factors interfering with vitamin B markers. Although serum B is still the most commonly used and widely available test, diagnostics by holotranscobalamin, serum methylmalonic acid, and plasma homocysteine measurements have grown in the last several years in routine practice. The lack of a robust absorption test, coupled with compromised sensitivity and specificity of other tests (intrinsic factor and gastric parietal cell antibodies), hinders determination of the cause for depleted B status. This can lead to incorrect supplementation regimes and uncertainty regarding later treatment. This review discusses currently available knowledge on vitamin B , informs the reader about the pitfalls of tests for assessing its deficiency, reviews B status in various populations at different disease stages, and provides recommendations for interpretation, treatment, and associated risks. Future directions for diagnostics of B status and health interventions are also discussed.