• Off the couch: a psychiatrist’s candid stories of hope and healing

      Loewenthal, Kate Miriam; orcid: 0000-0001-7667-7809 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-09)
    • Off the couch: a psychiatrist’s candid stories of hope and healing

      Loewenthal, Kate Miriam; orcid: 0000-0001-7667-7809 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-09)
    • Older adults’ construal of sedentary behaviour: Implications for reducing sedentary behaviour in older adult populations

      McGowan, Laura J; orcid: 0000-0002-4054-9300; email: laura.mcgowan@manchester.ac.uk; Powell, Rachael; French, David P; orcid: 0000-0002-7663-7804 (SAGE Publications, 2020-03-01)
      Older adults are the most sedentary age group, with sedentary behaviour having negative health-related consequences. There is currently limited understanding of how older adults view sedentary behaviour. This study investigated older adults’ understanding of the concept of sedentary behaviour. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 community-dwelling older adults in urban North-West England, selected to be diverse in socio-economic background and activity levels. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Participants often construed sedentary behaviour as synonymous with a lack of physical activity, and many perceived reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to be the same thing. Participants perceived the term ‘sedentary’ to have negative connotations and were often judgemental of people who engaged in high levels of sedentary behaviour. Most participants considered reducing sedentary behaviour to be of value, though more active individuals were unconvinced that reducing sedentary behaviour has value beyond the benefits of being physically active. Interventions may wish to provide education to address the misconception that increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is necessary in order to reduce sedentary behaviour. Educating older adults on the independent health consequences of sedentary behaviour may also prove beneficial.
    • Online screencasting tutorials: A way forward for legal resources training?

      Peters, Lisa; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2011)
      This journal articles discusses the using screencasting (video tutorials) in legal resources training.
    • Open questions in organic crystal polymorphism

      Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J.; orcid: 0000-0002-0957-4823; email: aurora.cruzcabeza@manchester.ac.uk; Feeder, Neil; Davey, Roger J. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020-10-19)
      Polymorphs, crystals with different structure and properties but the same molecular composition, arise from the subtle interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics during crystallisation. In this opinion piece, the authors review the latest developments in the field of polymorphism and discuss standing open questions.
    • Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer safety (SCCS) – Final Opinion on propylparaben (CAS No 94-13-3, EC No 202-307-7)

      Bodin, Laurent; Rogiers, Vera; Bernauer, Ulrike; Chaudhry, Qasim; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; orcid: 0000-0001-9458-7129; Dusinska, Maria; Ezendam, Janine; Gaffet, Eric; Galli, Corrado Ludovico; Granum, Berit; et al.
      In cosmetic products, the ingredient propylparaben (CAS No 94-13-3, EC No 202-307-7) with the chemical names Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester is currently regulated as a preservative in a concentration up to 0.14 % (as acid) (Annex V/12a). In addition, a safe concentration was established for mixtures of parabens, where the sum of the individual concentrations should not exceed 0.8 % (as acid). However, in such mixtures the sum of the individual concentrations of butyl- and propylparaben and their salts should not exceed 0.14 %. Propylparaben was subject to different safety evaluations in 2005 (SCCP/0874/05), 2006 (SCCP/1017/06), 2008 (SCCP/1183/08), 2010 (SCCS/1348/10), 2011 (SCCS/1446/11), 2013 (SCCS/1514/13). On the basis of the safety assessment of propylparaben, and considering the concerns related to potential endocrine disrupting properties, the SCCS has concluded that propylparaben is safe when used as a preservative in cosmetic products up to a maximum concentration of 0.14 %. The available data on propylparaben provide some indications for potential endocrine effects. However, the current level of evidence is not sufficient to regard it as an endocrine disrupting substance, or to derive a toxicological point of departure based on endocrine disrupting properties for use in human health risk assessment. The SCCS mandates do not address environmental aspects. Therefore, this assessment did not cover the safety of propylparaben for the environment.
    • Opportunity Costs Pacifism

      Pattison, James; orcid: 0000-0002-4649-358X; email: james.pattison@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: If the resources used to wage wars could be spent elsewhere and save more lives, does this mean that wars are unjustified? This article considers this question, which has been largely overlooked by Just War Theorists and pacifists. It focuses on whether the opportunity costs of war lead to a form of pacifism, which it calls ‘Opportunity Costs Pacifism’. The article argues that Opportunity Costs Pacifism is, at the more ideal level, compelling. It suggests that the only plausible response to Opportunity Costs Pacifism applies in highly nonideal circumstances. This has major implications for Just War Theory and pacifism since it is only at the highly nonideal level that war can be justified.
    • Optimising Large Animal Models of Sustained Atrial Fibrillation: Relevance of the Critical Mass Hypothesis

      Denham, Nathan C.; email: Nathan.denham@manchester.ac.uk; Pearman, Charles M.; Madders, George W. P.; Smith, Charlotte E. R.; Trafford, Andrew W.; Dibb, Katharine M. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-06-15)
      Background: Large animal models play an important role in our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Our aim was to determine whether prospectively collected baseline variables could predict the development of sustained AF in sheep, thereby reducing the number of animals required in future studies. Our hypothesis was that the relationship between atrial dimensions, refractory periods and conduction velocity (otherwise known as the critical mass hypothesis) could be used for the first time to predict the development of sustained AF. Methods: Healthy adult Welsh mountain sheep underwent a baseline electrophysiology study followed by implantation of a neurostimulator connected via an endocardial pacing lead to the right atrial appendage. The device was programmed to deliver intermittent 50 Hz bursts of 30 s duration over an 8-week period whilst sheep were monitored for AF. Results: Eighteen sheep completed the protocol, of which 28% developed sustained AF. Logistic regression analysis showed only fibrillation number (calculated using the critical mass hypothesis as the left atrial diameter divided by the product of atrial conduction velocity and effective refractory period) was associated with an increased likelihood of developing sustained AF (Ln Odds Ratio 26.1 [95% confidence intervals 0.2–52.0] p = 0.048). A receiver-operator characteristic curve showed this could be used to predict which sheep developed sustained AF (C-statistic 0.82 [95% confidence intervals 0.59–1.04] p = 0.04). Conclusion: The critical mass hypothesis can be used to predict sustained AF in a tachypaced ovine model. These findings can be used to optimise the design of future studies involving large animals.
    • Optimization of competitive supply chains with retailers' horizontal cooperation and consumers' green preference.

      Shang, Wenfang; Teng, Liangliang; Yang, Jian-Bo; email: jian-bo.yang@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-16)
      With the wider recognition of the concept of environmental protection and sustainable development, more and more manufacturers have begun to implement green manufacturing strategies. However, green development is a gradual process, and the coexistence of ordinary and green products is common. This paper examines the competition between ordinary products and green ones based on supply chains, and discusses the impact of retailers' horizontal cooperation on pricing, greenness, market demand, profit, and other related decisions and results. Model solutions and numerical experiments have shown that consumers' green preference (CGP) has a positive impact on the results of green products and negative effects on those of ordinary ones; however, the impact of competition intensity (CI) is more complex, and the trend tends to change if it exceeds a certain critical value. In general, cooperation encourages retailers to raise prices and make manufacturers lower wholesale prices, but the retail and wholesale prices of green products are always higher than the corresponding prices of ordinary ones. Market demand can be reduced due to cooperation, but it is conducive to strengthening green products' greenness. However, if CI exceeds a certain threshold, the greenness will be weakened by cooperation. Both retailers can benefit from cooperation easily and they always reach a win-win situation, but manufacturers suffer badly as a result. Nevertheless, when CI is weak, cooperation will bring a greater profit improvement to the whole chain of ordinary products; in this case, if a retailer is willing to compensate for a manufacturer's profit loss and help it benefit from cooperation, the manufacturer will encourage the retailer to cooperate horizontally with the green retailer, but the green chain will be seriously damaged. When CI is strong, the greenness of green products is not obvious enough, and cooperation can bring some chances to achieve a win-win situation for two chains; if the green retailer can obtain a larger share from cooperation under this scenario, it can also enable its manufacturer to obtain compensation and change the profit increment from negative to positive. From an overall perspective, when CI is very weak or very strong, horizontal cooperation is conducive to improving the profit of the entire supply chain competition system, but when CI is relatively flat, independent operation for each chain is more advantageous; if the competition status is stable and unchanged, independent competition will be superior to horizontal cooperation. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
    • Optimization of Glass Transition Temperature and Pot Life of Epoxy Blends Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

      Junid, Ramli; email: ramli@ump.edu.my; Siregar, Januar Parlaungan; orcid: 0000-0002-8130-1168; email: januar@ump.edu.my; Endot, Nor Azam; orcid: 0000-0002-8424-4971; email: e_norazam@upm.edu.my; Razak, Jeefferie Abd; orcid: 0000-0002-0318-4541; email: jeefferie@utem.edu.my; Wilkinson, Arthur N.; orcid: 0000-0001-8856-3219; email: arthur.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-09-27)
      The aim of this work was to improve the processability of triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP) epoxy resin. To achieve this improvement, a diluent, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF or BPF), was added to TGPAP, and the blended epoxy was then cured with 4, 4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfones (DDS). A response surface methodology (RSM) was used, with the target response being to achieve a blended resin with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) and maximum pot life (or processing window, PW). Characterization through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and using a rheometer indicated that the optimum formulation was obtained at 55.6 wt.% of BPF and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.60. Both values were predicted to give Tg at 180 °C and a processing window of up to 136.1 min. The predicted values were verified, with the obtained Tg and processing window (PW) being 181.2 ± 0.8 °C and 140 min, respectively, which is close to the values predicted using the RSM.
    • Optimization of quantitative susceptibility mapping for regional estimation of oxygen extraction fraction in the brain

      McFadden, John J.; orcid: 0000-0002-3034-6622; email: john.mcfadden@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Matthews, Julian C.; Scott, Lauren A.; orcid: 0000-0002-5423-0042; Parker, Geoff J. M.; orcid: 0000-0003-2934-2234; Lohézic, Maélène; Parkes, Laura M.; orcid: 0000-0001-6488-507X (2021-03-29)
      Purpose: We sought to determine the degree to which oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) estimated using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) depends on two critical acquisition parameters that have a significant impact on acquisition time: voxel size and final echo time. Methods: Four healthy volunteers were imaged using a range of isotropic voxel sizes and final echo times. The 0.7 mm data were downsampled at different stages of QSM processing by a factor of 2 (to 1.4 mm), 3 (2.1 mm), or 4 (2.8 mm) to determine the impact of voxel size on each analysis step. OEF was estimated from 11 veins of varying diameter. Inter‐ and intra‐session repeatability were estimated for the optimal protocol by repeat scanning in 10 participants. Results: Final echo time was found to have no significant effect on OEF. The effect of voxel size was significant, with larger voxel sizes underestimating OEF, depending on the proximity of the vein to the superficial surface of the brain and on vein diameter. The last analysis step of estimating vein OEF values from susceptibility images had the largest dependency on voxel size. Inter‐session coefficients of variation on OEF estimates of between 5.2% and 8.7% are reported, depending on the vein. Conclusion: QSM acquisition times can be minimized by reducing the final echo time but an isotropic voxel size no larger than 1 mm is needed to accurately estimate OEF in most medium/large veins in the brain. Such acquisitions can be achieved in under 4 min.
    • Oral Ferric Maltol Does Not Adversely Affect the Intestinal Microbiome of Patients or Mice, but Ferrous Sulphate Does

      Mahalhal, Awad; orcid: 0000-0001-6925-5018; email: awad.mahalhal@liverpool.ac.uk; Frau, Alessandra; email: A.Frau@liverpool.ac.uk; Burkitt, Michael D.; orcid: 0000-0002-5055-6408; email: michael.burkitt@manchester.ac.uk; Ijaz, Umer Z.; orcid: 0000-0001-5780-8551; email: Umer.Ijaz@glasgow.ac.uk; Lamb, Christopher A.; email: christopher.lamb@newcastle.ac.uk; Mansfield, John C.; orcid: 0000-0003-2490-7750; email: john.mansfield8@btinternet.com; Lewis, Stephen; email: sjl@doctors.org.uk; Pritchard, D. Mark; orcid: 0000-0001-7971-3561; email: dmpritch@liverpool.ac.uk; Probert, Chris S.; email: mdcsjp@liverpool.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-30)
      Background and Aims: Altering dietary ferrous sulphate (FS) consumption exacerbates a murine model of colitis and alters the intestinal microbiome. We investigated the impact of oral ferric maltol (FM) and FS on mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis, and the microbiome of patients with iron deficiency. Methods: Mice had acute colitis induced, with 2% DSS for 5 days, followed by water. During this period, groups of mice were fed standard chow (200 ppm iron, SC, n = 8), or SC with 200ppm FS supplementation (n = 16, FSS), or SC with 200 ppm FM supplementation (n = 16, FMS). Clinical, pathological and microbiome assessments were compared at days 1 and 10. Fecal bacterial gDNA was extracted and the microbiome assessed by sequencing. Statistical inferences were made using MacQIIME. Principal Coordinates Analysis were used to visualize beta-diversity cluster analysis. Ten patients with IDA were treated with FS, and six with inactive inflammatory bowel disease received FM, supplements for four weeks: pre- and mid-treatment fecal samples were collected: the microbiome was assessed (see above). Results: In mice, after DSS treatment, there was a decrease in many genera in the SC and FSS groups: Lactobacillales increased in mice that received FMS. In humans, FS treatment led to an increase in five genera, but FM was not associated with any measurable change. The severity of DSS-induced colitis was greater with FSS than FMS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates differential and unique influences of ferric maltol and ferrous sulphate supplements on intestinal microbiota. These differences might contribute to the different side effects associated with these preparations.
    • Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treatment in the Era of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

      Stern, Peter L.; email: peter.stern@manchester.ac.uk; Dalianis, Tina; email: tina.dalianis@ki.se (MDPI, 2021-06-25)
      While head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are marginally decreasing due to the reduction in exposure to the major risk factors, tobacco and alcohol, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), especially those in the tonsil and base of tongue subsites, are increasing. Patients with the latter are younger, display a longer overall survival, and show a lower recurrence rate after standard-of-care treatment than those with HPV-negative OPSCC. This may reflect an important role for immune surveillance and control during the natural history of the virally driven tumour development. Immune deviation through acquisition of immune-suppressive factors in the tumour microenvironment (TME) is discussed in relation to treatment response. Understanding how the different immune factors are integrated in the TME battleground offers opportunities for identifying prognostic biomarkers as well as novel therapeutic strategies. OPSCC generally receive surgery or radiotherapy for early-stage tumour treatment, but many patients present with locoregionally advanced disease requiring multimodality therapies which can involve considerable complications. This review focuses on the utilization of newly emerged immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1/PD-L1 pathway) for treatment of HNSCC, in particular HPV-positive OPSCC, since they could be less toxic and more efficacious. PD-1/PD-L1 expression in the TME has been extensively investigated as a biomarker of patient response but is yet to provide a really effective means for stratification of treatment. Extensive testing of combinations of therapeutic approaches by types and sequencing will fuel the next evolution of treatment for OPSCC.
    • Outbreaks in care homes may lead to substantial disease burden if not mitigated

      Hall, Ian; orcid: 0000-0002-3033-2335; email: ian.hall@manchester.ac.uk; Lewkowicz, Hugo; orcid: 0000-0002-8944-0365; Webb, Luke; orcid: 0000-0001-6263-0575; House, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0001-5835-8062; Pellis, Lorenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-3436-6487; Sedgwick, James; orcid: 0000-0002-7200-4559; Gent, Nick; orcid: 0000-0002-2605-7369; on behalf of the University of Manchester COVID-19 Modelling Group and the Public Health England Modelling Team (The Royal Society, 2021-05-31)
      The number of COVID-19 outbreaks reported in UK care homes rose rapidly in early March of 2020. Owing to the increased co-morbidities and therefore worse COVID-19 outcomes for care home residents, it is important that we understand this increase and its future implications. We demonstrate the use of an SIS model where each nursing home is an infective unit capable of either being susceptible to an outbreak (S) or in an active outbreak (I). We use a generalized additive model to approximate the trend in growth rate of outbreaks in care homes and find the fit to be improved in a model where the growth rate is proportional to the number of current care home outbreaks compared with a model with a constant growth rate. Using parameters found from the outbreak-dependent growth rate, we predict a 73% prevalence of outbreaks in UK care homes without intervention as a reasonable worst-case planning assumption. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK’.
    • Outbreaks in care homes may lead to substantial disease burden if not mitigated

      Hall, Ian; orcid: 0000-0002-3033-2335; email: ian.hall@manchester.ac.uk; Lewkowicz, Hugo; orcid: 0000-0002-8944-0365; Webb, Luke; orcid: 0000-0001-6263-0575; House, Thomas; orcid: 0000-0001-5835-8062; Pellis, Lorenzo; orcid: 0000-0002-3436-6487; Sedgwick, James; orcid: 0000-0002-7200-4559; Gent, Nick; orcid: 0000-0002-2605-7369; on behalf of the University of Manchester COVID-19 Modelling Group and the Public Health England Modelling Team (The Royal Society, 2021-05-31)
      The number of COVID-19 outbreaks reported in UK care homes rose rapidly in early March of 2020. Owing to the increased co-morbidities and therefore worse COVID-19 outcomes for care home residents, it is important that we understand this increase and its future implications. We demonstrate the use of an SIS model where each nursing home is an infective unit capable of either being susceptible to an outbreak (S) or in an active outbreak (I). We use a generalized additive model to approximate the trend in growth rate of outbreaks in care homes and find the fit to be improved in a model where the growth rate is proportional to the number of current care home outbreaks compared with a model with a constant growth rate. Using parameters found from the outbreak-dependent growth rate, we predict a 73% prevalence of outbreaks in UK care homes without intervention as a reasonable worst-case planning assumption. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK’.
    • Overexpression of transcription factor BLIMP1/prdm1 leads to growth inhibition and enhanced secretory capacity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

      Torres, Mauro; Dickson, Alan J; email: alan.dickson@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-13)
      Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells present inherent limitations for processing and secretion of large amounts of recombinant proteins, especially for those requiring complex post-translational processing. To tackle these limitations, we engineered CHO host cells (CHOK1 and CHOS) to overexpress the transcription factor BLIMP1/prdm1 (a master regulator of the highly-secreting phenotype of antibody-producing plasma cells), generating novel CHO cell lines (referred to as CHOB). The CHOB cell lines exhibited decreased cell densities, prolonged stationary phase and arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase but simultaneously had significantly greater product titre for recombinant IgG1 (> 2-fold increase) coupled with a significantly greater cell-specific productivities (> 3-fold increase). We demonstrated that the improved productive phenotype of CHOB cells resulted from a series of changes to cell physiology and metabolism. CHOB cells showed a significantly greater ER size and increased protein synthesis and secretion capacity compared to control cells. In addition, CHOB cells presented a metabolic profile that favoured energy production to support increased recombinant protein production. This study indicated that a cell engineering approach based on BLIMP1 expression offers great potential for improving the secretory capacity of CHO cell hosts utilised for manufacture of recombinant biopharmaceuticals. Our findings also provides a greater understanding of the relationship between cell growth and productivity, valuable generic information for improving productive phenotypes for CHO cell lines during industrial cell line development. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Overwhelming Evidence for a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD); Underwhelming Evidence against

      Itzhaki, Ruth F.; email: ruth.itzhaki@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-06-21)
      This review describes investigations of specific topics that lie within the general subject of HSV1’s role in AD/dementia, published in the last couple of years. They include studies on the following: relationship of HSV1 to AD using neural stem cells; the apparent protective effects of treatment of HSV1 infection or of VZV infection with antivirals prior to the onset of dementia; the putative involvement of VZV in AD/dementia; the possible role of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) in AD; the seemingly reduced risk of dementia after vaccination with diverse types of vaccine, and the association shown in some vaccine studies with reduced frequency of HSV1 reactivation; anti-HSV serum antibodies supporting the linkage of HSV1 in brain with AD in APOE-ε4 carriers, and the association between APOE and cognition, and association of APOE and infection with AD/dementia. The conclusions are that there is now overwhelming evidence for HSV1’s role—probably causal—in AD, when it is present in brain of APOE-ε4 carriers, and that further investigations should be made on possible prevention of the disease by vaccination, or by prolonged antiviral treatment of HSV1 infection in APOE-ε4 carriers, before disease onset.
    • Palladium catalysed C-H arylation of pyrenes: access to a new class of exfoliating agents for water-based graphene dispersions.

      Just-Baringo, Xavier; orcid: 0000-0003-2182-5960; Shin, Yuyoung; orcid: 0000-0003-4359-5406; Panigrahi, Adyasha; Zarattini, Marco; Nagyte, Vaiva; orcid: 0000-0003-0835-6039; Zhao, Ling; Kostarelos, Kostas; orcid: 0000-0002-2224-6672; Casiraghi, Cinzia; orcid: 0000-0001-7185-0377; Larrosa, Igor; orcid: 0000-0002-5391-7424 (2020-01-28)
      A new and diverse family of pyrene derivatives was synthesised <i>via</i> palladium-catalysed C-H <i>ortho</i>-arylation of pyrene-1-carboxylic acid. The strategy affords easy access to a broad scope of 2-substituted and 1,2-disubstituted pyrenes. The C1-substituent can be easily transformed into carboxylic acid, iodide, alkynyl, aryl or alkyl functionalities. This approach gives access to arylated pyrene ammonium salts, which outperformed their non-arylated parent compound during aqueous Liquid Phase Exfoliation (LPE) of graphite and compare favourably to state-of-the-art sodium pyrene-1-sulfonate <b>PS1</b>. This allowed the production of concentrated and stable suspensions of graphene flakes in water.
    • Palladium-doped hierarchical ZSM-5 for catalytic selective oxidation of allylic and benzylic alcohols

      Ding, Shengzhe; orcid: 0000-0003-2822-3882; Ganesh, Muhammad; Jiao, Yilai; Ou, Xiaoxia; Isaacs, Mark A.; orcid: 0000-0002-0335-4272; S'ari, Mark; Torres Lopez, Antonio; orcid: 0000-0001-7378-1811; Fan, Xiaolei; orcid: 0000-0002-9039-6736; email: xiaolei.fan@manchester.ac.uk; Parlett, Christopher M. A.; orcid: 0000-0002-3651-7314; email: christopher.parlett@manchester.ac.uk (The Royal Society, 2021-10-20)
      Hierarchical zeolites have the potential to provide a breakthrough in transport limitation, which hinders pristine microporous zeolites and thus may broaden their range of applications. We have explored the use of Pd-doped hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for aerobic selective oxidation (selox) of cinnamyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to their corresponding aldehydes. Hierarchical ZSM-5 with differing acidity (H-form and Na-form) were employed and compared with two microporous ZSM-5 equivalents. Characterization of the four catalysts by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen porosimetry, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, CO chemisorption, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy allowed investigation of their porosity, acidity, as well as Pd active sites. The incorporation of complementary mesoporosity, within the hierarchical zeolites, enhances both active site dispersion and PdO active site generation. Likewise, alcohol conversion was also improved with the presence of secondary mesoporosity, while strong Brønsted acidity, present solely within the H-form systems, negatively impacted overall selectivity through undesirable self-etherification. Therefore, tuning support porosity and acidity alongside active site dispersion is paramount for optimal aldehyde production.
    • Pandemic Drones

      Hildebrand, Julia M.; email: hildebjm@eckerd.edu; Sodero, Stephanie; email: stephanie.sodero@manchester.ac.uk (Berghahn Books, 2021-03-01)
      When the novel coronavirus moved around the planet in early 2020, reconfiguring, slowing down, or halting everyday mobilities, another transport mode was mobilized: the pandemic drone. We highlight the increasing prominence of this aerial device by surveying international media coverage of pandemic drone use in the spring of 2020. To address a range of pandemic drone affordances and applications, we organize manifold cases under two broad categories: sensing and moving with the pandemic drone. Here we ask: what roles do, and could, drones play during the pandemic? Following the empirical examples and related mobilities research, we theorize the drone versus virus and the drone as virus. As such, the work identifies avenues for mobilities research into pandemic drones as a growing mobility domain. Moreover, in thinking through the pandemic drone, we demonstrate creative extensions of mobilities thinking that bridge biological and technological, as well as media and mobility frameworks when multiple public health and safety crises unfolded and intersected.