• Mabel Elizabeth Tomlinson and Isabel Ellie Knaggs: two overlooked early female Fellows of the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractThe first female Fellows of the Geological Society of London were elected in May 1919. Brief biographies were documented by Burek in 2009 as part of the celebrations for the bicentenary of the Geological Society. While some of those women were well known (e.g. Gertrude Elles and Ethel Wood), others had seemingly been forgotten. In the decade since that publication, information has come to light about those we knew so little about. There are, however, still some details evading research. From 1919 until 1925, 33 women were elected FGS, including Isobel Ellie Knaggs (1922) and Mabel Tomlinson (1924). Mabel Tomlinson had two careers, and is remembered both as an extraordinary teacher and a Pleistocene geologist. She was awarded the Lyell Fund in 1937 and R.H. Worth Prize in 1961, one of only 13 women to have received two awards from the Geological Society. She inspired the educational Tomlinson–Brown Trust. Isabel Knaggs was born in South Africa and died in Australia but spent all her school, university and working years in England. She made significant contributions to crystallography, working with eminent crystallography scientists while remaining a lifelong FGS. The achievements of Tomlinson and Knaggs are considerable, which makes their relative present-day obscurity rather puzzling.
    • Macclesfield Baths and Washhouses and its patrons in the nineteenth century

      Griffiths, Sarah; University of Chester (Cheshire Local History Association, 2021-12-31)
      The East Cheshire market town of Macclesfield had grown to become the leading centre of the English silk industry by the mid nineteenth century and this resulted in severe pressure on the town’s inadequate services. One element of the national campaign to improve sanitary conditions in urban areas was the public baths and washhouses movement from the 1840s, which resulted in the Public Baths and Wash-houses Acts in 1846 and 1847. Macclesfield’s Baths and Washhouses opened in January 1850 and it was one of the first provincial towns after Liverpool to provide such facilities. This article will therefore explore the national baths and washhouses movement, the impact of industrialisation on living conditions in Macclesfield, the history of the town’s Baths and Washhouses in the nineteenth century, the people active in its development and the range of motives which may have encouraged their support for this early addition to the public services for inhabitants.
    • Magic under the microscope.

      Haigh, S J; orcid: 0000-0001-5509-6706; email: sarah.haigh@manchester.ac.uk; Gorbachev, R; orcid: 0000-0003-3604-5617 (2021-07)
    • Magneto-hydrodynamics of multi-phase flows in heterogeneous systems with large property gradients

      Flint, T. F.; email: thomas.flint@manchester.ac.uk; Smith, M. C.; Shanthraj, P. (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021-09-23)
      Abstract: The complex interplay between thermal, hydrodynamic, and electromagnetic, forces governs the evolution of multi-phase systems in high technology applications, such as advanced manufacturing and fusion power plant operation. In this work, a new formulation of the time dependent magnetic induction equation is fully coupled to a set of conservation laws for multi-phase fluid flow, energy transport and chemical species transport that describes melting and solidification state transitions. A finite-volume discretisation of the resulting system of equations is performed, where a novel projection method is formulated to ensure that the magnetic field remains divergence free. The proposed framework is validated by accurately replicating a Hartmann flow profile. Further validation is performed through correctly predicting the experimentally observed trajectory of Argon bubbles rising in a liquid metal under varying applied magnetic fields. Finally, the applicability of the framework to technologically relevant processes is illustrated through the simulation of an electrical arc welding process between dissimilar metals. The proposed framework addresses an urgent need for numerical methods to understand the evolution of multi-phase systems with large electromagnetic property contrast.
    • Making every drop count: reducing wastage of a novel blood component for transfusion of trauma patients.

      McCullagh, Josephine; email: josephine.mccullagh@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Proudlove, Nathan; orcid: 0000-0002-1176-8088; Tucker, Harriet; Davies, Jane; Edmondson, Dave; Lancut, Julia; Maddison, Angela; Weaver, Anne; Davenport, Ross; Green, Laura (2021-07)
      Recent research demonstrates that transfusing whole blood (WB=red blood cells (RBC)+plasma+platelets) rather than just RBC (which is current National Health Service (NHS) practice) may improve outcomes for major trauma patients. As part of a programme to investigate provision of WB, NHS Blood and Transplant undertook a 2-year feasibility study to supply the Royal London Hospital (RLH) with (group O negative, 'O neg') leucodepleted red cell and plasma (LD-RCP) for transfusion of trauma patients with major haemorrhage in prehospital settings.Incidents requiring such prehospital transfusion occur randomly, with very high variation. Availability is critical, but O neg LD-RCP is a scarce resource and has a limited shelf life (14 days) after which it must be disposed of. The consequences of wastage are the opportunity cost of loss of overall treatment capacity across the NHS and reputational damage.The context was this feasibility study, set up to assess deliverability to RLH and subsequent wastage levels. Within this, we conducted a quality improvement project, which aimed to reduce the wastage of LD-RCP to no more than 8% (ie, 1 of the 12 units delivered per week).Over this 2-year period, we reduced wastage from a weekly average of 70%-27%. This was achieved over four improvement cycles. The largest improvement came from moving near-expiry LD-RCP to the emergency department (ED) for use with their trauma patients, with subsequent improvements from embedding use in ED as routine practice, introducing a dedicated LD-RCP delivery schedule (which increased the units ≤2 days old at delivery from 42% to 83%) and aligning this delivery schedule to cover two cycles of peak demand (Fridays and Saturdays). [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Making every drop count: reducing wastage of a novel blood component for transfusion of trauma patients.

      McCullagh, Josephine; email: josephine.mccullagh@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Proudlove, Nathan; orcid: 0000-0002-1176-8088; Tucker, Harriet; Davies, Jane; Edmondson, Dave; Lancut, Julia; Maddison, Angela; Weaver, Anne; Davenport, Ross; Green, Laura (2021-07-01)
      Recent research demonstrates that transfusing whole blood (WB=red blood cells (RBC)+plasma+platelets) rather than just RBC (which is current National Health Service (NHS) practice) may improve outcomes for major trauma patients. As part of a programme to investigate provision of WB, NHS Blood and Transplant undertook a 2-year feasibility study to supply the Royal London Hospital (RLH) with (group O negative, 'O neg') leucodepleted red cell and plasma (LD-RCP) for transfusion of trauma patients with major haemorrhage in prehospital settings.Incidents requiring such prehospital transfusion occur randomly, with very high variation. Availability is critical, but O neg LD-RCP is a scarce resource and has a limited shelf life (14 days) after which it must be disposed of. The consequences of wastage are the opportunity cost of loss of overall treatment capacity across the NHS and reputational damage.The context was this feasibility study, set up to assess deliverability to RLH and subsequent wastage levels. Within this, we conducted a quality improvement project, which aimed to reduce the wastage of LD-RCP to no more than 8% (ie, 1 of the 12 units delivered per week).Over this 2-year period, we reduced wastage from a weekly average of 70%-27%. This was achieved over four improvement cycles. The largest improvement came from moving near-expiry LD-RCP to the emergency department (ED) for use with their trauma patients, with subsequent improvements from embedding use in ED as routine practice, introducing a dedicated LD-RCP delivery schedule (which increased the units ≤2 days old at delivery from 42% to 83%) and aligning this delivery schedule to cover two cycles of peak demand (Fridays and Saturdays).
    • Making the most of potential: potential games and genotypic convergence

      Edhan, Omer; orcid: 0000-0002-4441-3304; email: omeredhan.idan@manchester.ac.uk; Hellman, Ziv; orcid: 0000-0002-2624-0577; Nehama, Ilan; orcid: 0000-0002-4152-4113 (The Royal Society, 2021-08-25)
      We consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.
    • Making the most of potential: potential games and genotypic convergence

      Edhan, Omer; orcid: 0000-0002-4441-3304; email: omeredhan.idan@manchester.ac.uk; Hellman, Ziv; orcid: 0000-0002-2624-0577; Nehama, Ilan; orcid: 0000-0002-4152-4113 (The Royal Society, 2021-08-25)
      We consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.
    • Management of ‘disorders of sex development’/intersex variations in children: Results from a freedom of information exercise

      Garland, Fae; orcid: 0000-0002-6725-7682; email: fae.garland@manchester.ac.uk; Thomson, Michael; Travis, Mitchell; Warburton, Joshua (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Non-therapeutic medical interventions on the bodies of children born with disorders of sex development (DSD)/intersex variations have been subject to increasing critical scrutiny. In response to recent criticism directed at the United Kingdom, and early moves to consider reform, we report on a freedom of information exercise that sought to evaluate whether National Health Service England is meeting international standards on optimal clinical management of DSD/intersex variations. The study explored what medical protocols are being followed to help inform potential reform, particularly with regard to non-therapeutic surgery. While the exercise revealed limited examples of promising practice, current protocols in the majority of Trusts appear unlikely to meet the complex needs of these children. We identify areas where significant improvement is needed, including data management, consistency in guideline use, composition of multidisciplinary teams and addressing disciplinary hierarchies within teams. These concerns sharpen criticisms of the lack of recognition of children’s rights in this context.
    • Mao's Art of Propaganda

      Sun, Henry X. Hong (Wiley, 2020-02-18)
    • Mao's Art of Propaganda

      Sun, Henry X. Hong (Wiley, 2020-02-18)
    • Mapping differences in mammalian distributions and diversity using environmental DNA from rivers.

      Broadhurst, Holly A; Gregory, Luke M; Bleakley, Emma K; Perkins, Joseph C; Lavin, Jenna V; Bolton, Polly; Browett, Samuel S; Howe, Claire V; Singleton, Natalie; Tansley, Darren; et al. (2021-08-18)
      Finding more efficient ways to monitor and estimate the diversity of mammalian communities is a major step towards their management and conservation. Environmental DNA (eDNA) from river water has recently been shown to be a viable method for biomonitoring mammalian communities. Most of the studies to date have focused on the potential for eDNA to detect individual species, with little focus on describing patterns of community diversity and structure. Here, we first focus on the sampling effort required to reliably map the diversity and distribution of semi-aquatic and terrestrial mammals and allow inferences of community structure surrounding two rivers in southeastern England. Community diversity and composition was then assessed based on species richness and β-diversity, with differences between communities partitioned into nestedness and turnover, and the sampling effort required to rapidly detect semi-aquatic and terrestrial species was evaluated based on species accumulation curves and occupancy modelling. eDNA metabarcoding detected 25 wild mammal species from five orders, representing the vast majority (82%) of the species expected in the area. The required sampling effort varied between orders, with common species (generally rodents, deer and lagomorphs) more readily detected, with carnivores detected less frequently. Measures of species richness differed between rivers (both overall and within each mammalian order) and patterns of β-diversity revealed the importance of species replacement in sites within each river, against a pattern of species loss between the two rivers. eDNA metabarcoding demonstrated its capability to rapidly detect mammal species, allowing inferences of community composition that will better inform future sampling strategies for this Class. Importantly, this study highlights the potential use of eDNA data for investigating mammalian community dynamics over different spatial scales. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
    • Margaret Chorley Crosfield, FGS: the very first female Fellow of the Geological Society

      Burek, C. V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractIn May 1919 the first female Fellows of the Geological Society were elected and from then on attended meetings at the Society. The first person on the female fellows’ list was Margaret Chorley Crosfield. She was born in 1859 and died in 1952. She lived all her life in Reigate in Surrey. After studying and then leaving Cambridge, Margaret had sought to join the Geological Society of London for many years, in order to gain recognition of her research work, but also to attend meetings and use the library. This paper will look at her history and trace her geological achievements in both stratigraphy and palaeontology, as well as her extraordinary field notebooks that she left to the Geological Survey. She worked closely with two female geological colleagues, Mary Johnston and Ethel Skeat. Margaret Crosfield epitomizes the educated, amateur, independent woman who wanted to be recognized for her work, especially fieldwork, at a time when female contributions, especially in the field sciences, were not always acknowledged or even appreciated.
    • Marketing library services at University College Chester

      Peters, Lisa; Fiander, Wendy (SCONUL, 2004)
      This article discusses how library services at University College Chester had reviewed their marketing strategy and sought to develop more visually attractive and user-friendly guides and publications.
    • Maternal immune activation in rodent models: A systematic review of neurodevelopmental changes in gene expression and epigenetic modulation in the offspring brain.

      Woods, Rebecca M; email: rebecca.woods@manchester.ac.uk; Lorusso, Jarred M; Potter, Harry G; Neill, Joanna C; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Hager, Reinmar (2021-07-16)
      Maternal immune activation (mIA) during pregnancy is hypothesised to disrupt offspring neurodevelopment and predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. Rodent models of mIA have explored possible mechanisms underlying this paradigm and provide a vital tool for preclinical research. However, a comprehensive analysis of the molecular changes that occur in mIA-models is lacking, hindering identification of robust clinical targets. This systematic review assesses mIA-driven transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations in specific offspring brain regions. Across 118 studies, we focus on 88 candidate genes and show replicated changes in expression in critical functional areas, including elevated inflammatory markers, and reduced myelin and GABAergic signalling proteins. Further, disturbed epigenetic markers at nine of these genes support mIA-driven epigenetic modulation of transcription. Overall, our results demonstrate that current outcome measures have direct relevance for the hypothesised pathology of schizophrenia and emphasise the importance of mIA-models in contributing to the understanding of biological pathways impacted by mIA and the discovery of new drug targets. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.]
    • Mathematical Validation of Experimentally Optimised Parameters Used in a Vibration-Based Machine-Learning Model for Fault Diagnosis in Rotating Machines

      Sepulveda, Natalia Espinoza; email: natalia.espinozasepulveda@manchester.ac.uk; Sinha, Jyoti; orcid: 0000-0001-9202-1789; email: jyoti.sinha@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-08-07)
      Mathematical models have been widely used in the study of rotating machines. Their application in dynamics has eased further research since they can avoid time-consuming and exorbitant experimental processes to simulate different faults. The earlier vibration-based machine-learning (VML) model for fault diagnosis in rotating machines was developed by optimising the vibration-based parameters from experimental data on a rig. Therefore, a mathematical model based on the finite-element (FE) method is created for the experimental rig, to simulate several rotor-related faults. The generated vibration responses in the FE model are then used to validate the earlier developed fault diagnosis model and the optimised parameters. The obtained results suggest the correctness of the selected parameters to characterise the dynamics of the machine to identify faults. These promising results provide the possibility of implementing the VML model in real industrial systems.
    • Maximum on a random time interval of a random walk with infinite mean

      Denisov, Denis; orcid: 0000-0003-0025-7140; email: denis.denisov@manchester.ac.uk (Springer US, 2020-06-23)
      Abstract: Let ξ1, ξ2, … be independent, identically distributed random variables with infinite mean E[|ξ1|]=∞. Consider a random walk Sn=ξ1+⋯+ξn, a stopping time τ=min{n≥1:Sn≤0} and let Mτ=max0≤i≤τSi. We study the asymptotics for P(Mτ>x), as x→∞.