• <i>CrystalGrower</i>: a generic computer program for Monte Carlo modelling of crystal growth.

      Hill, Adam R; orcid: 0000-0002-1877-2231; Cubillas, Pablo; Gebbie-Rayet, James T; Trueman, Mollie; de Bruyn, Nathan; Harthi, Zulaikha Al; orcid: 0000-0002-1962-7490; Pooley, Rachel J S; Attfield, Martin P; orcid: 0000-0001-6508-1751; Blatov, Vladislav A; orcid: 0000-0002-4048-7218; Proserpio, Davide M; orcid: 0000-0001-6597-9406; et al. (2020-11-18)
      A Monte Carlo crystal growth simulation tool, <i>CrystalGrower</i>, is described which is able to simultaneously model both the crystal habit and nanoscopic surface topography of any crystal structure under conditions of variable supersaturation or at equilibrium. This tool has been developed in order to permit the rapid simulation of crystal surface maps generated by scanning probe microscopies in combination with overall crystal habit. As the simulation is based upon a coarse graining at the nanoscopic level features such as crystal rounding at low supersaturation or undersaturation conditions are also faithfully reproduced. <i>CrystalGrower</i> permits the incorporation of screw dislocations with arbitrary Burgers vectors and also the investigation of internal point defects in crystals. The effect of growth modifiers can be addressed by selective poisoning of specific growth sites. The tool is designed for those interested in understanding and controlling the outcome of crystal growth through a deeper comprehension of the key controlling experimental parameters.
    • <i>meta</i>-Selective olefination of fluoroarenes with alkynes using CO<sub>2</sub> as a traceless directing group.

      Spencer, Andrew R A; Korde, Rishi; Font, Marc; Larrosa, Igor; orcid: 0000-0002-5391-7424 (2020-03-31)
      Over the last few decades C-H olefination has received significant interest, due to the importance and usefulness of aryl olefins both as synthetic targets and intermediates. While a wide range of <i>ortho</i>-olefination protocols have been developed, only a small number of <i>meta</i>-olefinations are currently available. Importantly, the most common approach to <i>meta</i>-olefination, using a large <i>meta</i>-directing template, is not suitable for substrates such as fluorobenzenes, which cannot be derivatised. We report that the <i>meta</i>-selective olefination of fluoroarenes can be achieved <i>via</i> the use of CO<sub>2</sub> as a traceless directing group, which can be easily installed and removed in a one-pot process. Furthermore, this approach avoids the use of stoichiometric Ag(i)-salts, commonly used in C-H olefinations, and affords complete <i>meta</i>- over <i>ortho</i>/<i>para</i>-regioselectivity.
    • <i>Ortho</i> C-H arylation of arenes at room temperature using visible light ruthenium C-H activation.

      Sagadevan, Arunachalam; orcid: 0000-0001-9486-1706; Charitou, Anastasios; orcid: 0000-0002-9100-8950; Wang, Fen; Ivanova, Maria; Vuagnat, Martin; Greaney, Michael F; orcid: 0000-0001-9633-1135 (2020-04-07)
      A ruthenium-catalyzed <i>ortho</i> C-H arylation process is described using visible light. Using the readily available catalyst [RuCl<sub>2</sub>(<i>p</i>-cymene)]<sub>2</sub>, visible light irradiation was found to enable arylation of 2-aryl-pyridines at room temperature for a range of aryl bromides and iodides.
    • Ice-templated hybrid graphene oxide—graphene nanoplatelet lamellar architectures: tuning mechanical and electrical properties

      Yang, Pei; orcid: 0000-0002-4639-2076; Tontini, Gustavo; orcid: 0000-0002-2453-6358; email: gustavotontini@gmail.com; Wang, Jiacheng; orcid: 0000-0001-7301-3310; Kinloch, Ian A; orcid: 0000-0003-3314-6869; Barg, Suelen; orcid: 0000-0002-0723-7081; email: Suelen.Barg@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-02-23)
      Abstract: The traditional freeze-casting route for processing graphene-based aerogels is generally restricted to aqueously dispersed flakes of graphene oxide (GO) and post-processing reduction treatments, which brings restrictions to the aerogels electrical properties. In this work, we report a versatile aqueous processing route that uses the ability of GO todisperse graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to produce rGO-GNP lamellar aerogels via unidirectional freeze-casting. In order to optimise the properties of the aerogel, GO-GNP dispersions were partially reduced by L-ascorbic acid prior to freeze-casting to tune the carbon and oxygen (C/O) ratio. The aerogels were then heat treated after casting to fully reduce the GO. The chemical reduction time was found to control the microstructure of the resulting aeorgels and thus to tune their electrical and mechanical properties. An rGO-GNP lamellar aerogel with density of 20.8 ± 0.8 mg cm−3 reducing using a reduction of 60 min achieved an electrical conductivity of 42.3 S m−1. On the other hand, an optimal reduction time of 35 min led to an aerogel with compressive modulus of 0.51 ±0.06 MPa at a density of 23.2 ± 0.7 mg cm−3, revealing a compromise between the tuning of electrical and mechanical properties. We show the present processing route can also be easily applied to produce lamellar aerogels on other graphene-based materials such as electrochemically exfoliated graphene.
    • Ice-templated hybrid graphene oxide—graphene nanoplatelet lamellar architectures: tuning mechanical and electrical properties

      Yang, Pei; orcid: 0000-0002-4639-2076; Tontini, Gustavo; orcid: 0000-0002-2453-6358; email: gustavotontini@gmail.com; Wang, Jiacheng; orcid: 0000-0001-7301-3310; Kinloch, Ian A; orcid: 0000-0003-3314-6869; Barg, Suelen; orcid: 0000-0002-0723-7081; email: Suelen.Barg@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2021-02-23)
      Abstract: The traditional freeze-casting route for processing graphene-based aerogels is generally restricted to aqueously dispersed flakes of graphene oxide (GO) and post-processing reduction treatments, which brings restrictions to the aerogels electrical properties. In this work, we report a versatile aqueous processing route that uses the ability of GO todisperse graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to produce rGO-GNP lamellar aerogels via unidirectional freeze-casting. In order to optimise the properties of the aerogel, GO-GNP dispersions were partially reduced by L-ascorbic acid prior to freeze-casting to tune the carbon and oxygen (C/O) ratio. The aerogels were then heat treated after casting to fully reduce the GO. The chemical reduction time was found to control the microstructure of the resulting aeorgels and thus to tune their electrical and mechanical properties. An rGO-GNP lamellar aerogel with density of 20.8 ± 0.8 mg cm−3 reducing using a reduction of 60 min achieved an electrical conductivity of 42.3 S m−1. On the other hand, an optimal reduction time of 35 min led to an aerogel with compressive modulus of 0.51 ±0.06 MPa at a density of 23.2 ± 0.7 mg cm−3, revealing a compromise between the tuning of electrical and mechanical properties. We show the present processing route can also be easily applied to produce lamellar aerogels on other graphene-based materials such as electrochemically exfoliated graphene.
    • Identification and management of frail patients in English primary care: an analysis of the General Medical Services 2018/2019 contract dataset.

      Alharbi, Khulud; orcid: 0000-0001-6245-7880; email: khulud.alharbi@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Blakeman, Thomas; van Marwijk, Harm; orcid: 0000-0001-6206-485X; Reeves, David; orcid: 0000-0001-6377-6859 (2021-08-18)
      The aim of this study was to explore the extent of implementation of the General Medical Services 2018/2019 'frailty identification and management' contract in general practitioner (GP) practices in England, and link implementation outcomes to a range of practice and Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) factors. A cross-sectional study design using publicly available datasets relating to the year 2018 for all GP practices in England. English general practices. The analysis was conducted across 6632 practices in 193 CCGs with 9 995 558 patients aged 65 years or older. Frailty assessment rates, frailty coding rates and frailty prevalence rates, plus rates of medication reviews, falls assessments and enriched Summary Care Records (SCRs). Summary statistics were calculated and multilevel negative binomial regression analysis was used to investigate relationships of the six outcomes with explanatory factors. 14.3% of people aged 65 years or older were assessed for frailty, with 35.4% of these-totalling 5% of the eligible population-coded moderately or severely frail. 59.2% received a medications review, but rates of falls assessments (3.7%) and enriched SCRs (21%) were low. However, percentages varied widely across practices and CCGs. Practice differences in contract implementation were most strongly accounted for by their grouping within CCGs, with weaker but still important associations with some practice and CCG factors, particularly healthcare demand-related factors of chronic caseload and (negatively) % of patients aged 65 years or older. CCG appears the strongest determinant of practice engagement with the frailty contract, and fuller implementation may depend on greater engagement of CCGs themselves, particularly in commissioning suitable interventions. Practices understandably targeted frailty assessments at patients more likely to be found severely frail, resulting in probable underidentification of moderately frail individuals who might benefit most from early interventions. Frailty prevalence estimates based on the contract data may not reflect actual rates. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Identification of an Altered Matrix Signature in Kidney Aging and Disease.

      Randles, Michael; Lausecker, Franziska; Kong, Qing; Suleiman, Hani; Reid, Graeme; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Tian, Pinyuan; Falcone, Sara; Davenport, Bernard; Potter, Paul; et al. (2021-05-28)
      Accumulation of extracellular matrix in organs and tissues is a feature of both aging and disease. In the kidney, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis accompany the decline in function, which current therapies cannot address, leading to organ failure. Whilst histological and ultrastructural patterns of excess matrix form the basis of human disease classifications, comprehensive molecular resolution of abnormal matrix is lacking. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics we resolved matrix composition over age in mouse models of kidney disease. We compared the changes in mice with a global characterization of human kidney matrix during aging and to existing kidney disease datasets to identify common molecular features. Ultrastructural changes in basement membranes are associated with altered cell adhesion and metabolic processes and with distinct matrix proteomes during aging and kidney disease progression in mice. Within the altered matrix, basement membrane components (laminins, type IV collagen, type XVIII collagen) were reduced and interstitial matrix proteins (collagens I, III, VI, XV, fibrinogens and nephronectin) were increased, a pattern also seen in human kidney aging. Indeed, this signature of matrix proteins was consistently modulated across all age and disease comparisons and the increase in interstitial matrix was also observed in human kidney disease datasets. This study provides deep molecular resolution of matrix accumulation in kidney aging and disease and identifies a common signature of proteins that provides insight into mechanisms of response to kidney injury and repair.
    • Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in Zimbabwe – a cross sectional study

      Dube, Kushupika; email: kushupika.dube@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Lavender, Tina; Blaikie, Kieran; Sutton, Christopher J.; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Smyth, Rebecca M. D. (BioMed Central, 2021-09-29)
      Abstract: Introduction: 98% of the 2.6 million stillbirths per annum occur in low and middle income countries. However, understanding of risk factors for stillbirth in these settings is incomplete, hampering efforts to develop effective strategies to prevent deaths. Methods: A cross-sectional study of eligible women on the postnatal ward at Mpilo Hospital, Zimbabwe was undertaken between 01/08/2018 and 31/03/2019 (n = 1779). Data were collected from birth records for maternal characteristics, obstetric and past medical history, antenatal care and pregnancy outcome. A directed acyclic graph was constructed with multivariable logistic regression performed to fit the corresponding model specification to data comprising singleton pregnancies, excluding neonatal deaths (n = 1734), using multiple imputation for missing data. Where possible, findings were validated against all women with births recorded in the hospital birth register (n = 1847). Results: Risk factors for stillbirth included: previous stillbirth (29/1691 (2%) of livebirths and 39/43 (91%) of stillbirths, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 2628.9, 95% CI 342.8 to 20,163.0), antenatal care (aOR 44.49 no antenatal care vs. > 4 antenatal care visits, 95% CI 6.80 to 291.19), maternal medical complications (aOR 7.33, 95% CI 1.99 to 26.92) and season of birth (Cold season vs. Mild aOR 14.29, 95% CI 3.09 to 66.08; Hot season vs. Mild aOR 3.39, 95% CI 0.86 to 13.27). Women who had recurrent stillbirth had a lower educational and health status (18.2% had no education vs. 10.0%) and were less likely to receive antenatal care (20.5% had no antenatal care vs. 6.6%) than women without recurrent stillbirth. Conclusion: The increased risk in women who have a history of stillbirth is a novel finding in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) and is in agreement with findings from High Income Countries (HICs), although the estimated effect size is much greater (OR in HICs ~ 5). Developing antenatal care for this group of women offers an important opportunity for stillbirth prevention.
    • Identification of Health and Safety Prequalification Criteria for Contractor Selection in Construction Projects: A Systematic Review

      Abdul Razak, Nadeera; email: nadeera.abdulrazak@manchester.ac.uk; Ejohwomu, Obuks; orcid: 0000-0001-7098-8999; email: obuks.ejohwomu@manchester.ac.uk; Fenn, Peter; email: peter.fenn@manchester.ac.uk; Okedara, Kamil; email: kamil.okedara@manchester.ac.uk; Dosumu, Babatunde; orcid: 0000-0001-7285-3297; email: babatunde.dosumu@manchester.ac.uk; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; orcid: 0000-0002-5415-2259; email: F.MuhammadSukki@napier.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-11-03)
      Selecting an appropriate contractor is a crucial phase that clients normally conduct to execute projects. Extensive research has been conducted on the main contractor selection criteria such as financial stability and technical and management capability. However, few studies focusing on health and safety criteria are being used to assess contractors’ safety performance in the existing selection process. Hence, this paper aims to analyse the existing literature on health and safety criteria for contractor selection in construction. The articles were retrieved using developed search string from renowned databases such as Scopus, Ebscohost, Web of Science, Science Direct and Dimensions. This search resulted in a total of 38 papers which can be systematically reviewed. Six main themes were discovered to represent safety prequalification criteria for construction projects, namely, experience and work history, safety control system, safety policy and management, accident rates and records, safety promotion and environmental concerns. Under these six main themes, there are 25 safety prequalification criteria that have been substantially published in previous literature, and the most-cited criteria are examined. This study brings a significant contribution to construction industry professionals, especially clients, when selecting a capable contractor in construction projects. By identifying the safety prequalification criteria, clients can assess a contractor’s efforts in ensuring safe execution of a project before awarding the contract to them. Additionally, the findings of the present study could contribute towards developing a comprehensive framework on contractor selection criteria that incorporates safety leading and lagging indicators.
    • Identifying Chemical Composition, Safety and Bioactivity of Thai Rice Grass Extract Drink in Cells and Animals

      Phimphilai, Suthaya; email: sphimphi@gmail.com; Koonyosying, Pimpisid; orcid: 0000-0002-6119-7009; email: pimpisid_m@hotmail.com; Hutachok, Nuntouchaporn; orcid: 0000-0003-3856-5309; email: thenuntouch@gmail.com; Kampoun, Tanyaluk; email: tanyalukkk@hotmail.com; Daw, Rufus; orcid: 0000-0003-1258-937X; email: rufus.daw@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; email: chaiyavat@gmail.com; Prasartthong-osoth, Vanli; email: sukho.organicrice@gmail.com; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; orcid: 0000-0002-5706-8781; email: somdet.s@cmu.ac.th (MDPI, 2021-11-15)
      Rice grass has been reported to contain bioactive compounds that possess antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities. We aimed to assess rice grass extract (RGE) drink by determining catechin content, free-radical scavenging and iron-binding properties, as well as toxicity in cells and animals. Young rice grass (Sukhothai-1 strain) was dried, extracted with hot water and lyophilized in a vacuum chamber. The resulting extract was reconstituted with deionized water (260 mg/40 mL) and served as Sukhothai-1 rice grass extract drink (ST1-RGE). HPLC results revealed at least eight phenolic compounds, for which the major catechins were catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2.71–3.57, 0.98–1.85 and 25.47–27.55 mg/40 mL serving, respectively). Elements (As, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn) and aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1 and G2) contents did not exceed the relevant limits when compared with WHO guideline values. Importantly, ST1-RGE drink exerted radical-scavenging, iron-chelating and anti-lipid peroxidation properties in aqueous and biological environments in a concentration-dependent manner. The drink was not toxic to cells and animals. Thus, Sukhothai-1 rice grass product is an edible drink that is rich in catechins, particularly EGCG, and exhibited antioxidant, free radical scavenging and iron-binding/chelating properties. The product represents a functional drink that is capable of alleviating conditions of oxidative stress and iron overload.
    • Identifying older adults with frailty approaching end-of-life: A systematic review

      Hall, Alex; orcid: 0000-0002-8849-744X; email: alex.hall@manchester.ac.uk; Boulton, Elisabeth; Kunonga, Patience; orcid: 0000-0002-6193-1365; Spiers, Gemma; Beyer, Fiona; Bower, Peter; Craig, Dawn; Todd, Chris; Hanratty, Barbara (SAGE Publications, 2021-09-14)
      Background:: People with frailty may have specific needs for end-of-life care, but there is no consensus on how to identify these people in a timely way, or whether they will benefit from intervention. Aim:: To synthesise evidence on identification of older people with frailty approaching end-of-life, and whether associated intervention improves outcomes. Design:: Systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42020462624). Data sources:: Six databases were searched, with no date restrictions, for articles reporting prognostic or intervention studies. Key inclusion criteria were adults aged 65 and over, identified as frail via an established measure. End-of-life was defined as the final 12 months. Key exclusion criteria were proxy definitions of frailty, or studies involving people with cancer, even if also frail. Results:: Three articles met the inclusion criteria. Strongest evidence came from one study in English primary care, which showed distinct trajectories in electronic Frailty Index scores in the last 12 months of life, associated with increased risk of death. We found no studies evaluating established clinical tools (e.g. Gold Standards Framework) with existing frail populations. We found no intervention studies; the literature on advance care planning with people with frailty has relied on proxy definitions of frailty. Conclusion:: Clear implications for policy and practice are hindered by the lack of studies using an established approach to assessing frailty. Future end-of-life research needs to use explicit approaches to the measurement and reporting of frailty, and address the evidence gap on interventions. A focus on models of care that incorporate a palliative approach is essential.
    • Identifying Targets for Interventions to Increase Uptake and Use of Hearing Protection in Noisy Recreational Settings

      Loughran, Michael T.; email: michael.loughran@manchester.ac.uk; Plack, Christopher J.; orcid: 0000-0002-2987-5332; email: chris.plack@manchester.ac.uk; Armitage, Christopher J.; orcid: 0000-0003-2365-1765; email: chris.armitage@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-07-29)
      Interventions to increase hearing protection behaviours within noisy recreational settings are limited by the lack of an underpinning evidence base. The aim of the present study was to identify targets for interventions in a population exposed to recreational noise, including those who had used hearing protection (ever-performers) versus those who had not (never-performers). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 185 UK adults who had been involved in noisy recreational activities. Participants had an average age of 36.79 years; the majority were women (68.1%), from a white ethnic background (87.6%), and with non-manual occupations (75.7%). Using Chi-square, MANOVA and ANOVA, we looked for differences in sociodemographic variables and variables from the capabilities, opportunities and motivations model of behaviour change (COM-B) between ever- and never-performers. Ever-performers were more likely to be younger (p 0.050), men (p 0.050), and in a manual occupation (p 0.050) compared to never-performers. Although the two groups felt capable and reported similar opportunities to use hearing protection, never-performers lacked automatic motivation (p 0.001) and reflective motivation (p 0.001) compared to ever-performers. For the first time, the present study identifies potential groups at whom hearing protection interventions might be targeted and what those interventions may contain. Further work is required to develop interventions targeted at older people, women and those in non-manual occupations. Lack of motivation is a key concern, and further work that uses specific theoretical frameworks, such as the PRIME (Plans, Responses, Impulses, Motives, and Evaluations) theory of motivation, may shed light on the kinds of interventions that are needed to boost hearing protection use effectively.
    • Identifying the content and context of pain within paediatric rheumatology healthcare professional curricula in the UK: a summative content analysis

      Lee, Rebecca Rachael; orcid: 0000-0002-4559-1647; email: rebecca.lee-4@manchester.ac.uk; McDonagh, Janet E.; Connelly, Mark; Peters, Sarah; Cordingley, Lis (BioMed Central, 2021-08-21)
      Abstract: Background: The curriculum for professionals working in paediatric rheumatology should include pain but it is unclear to what extent this currently occurs. The aim of this study was to identify pain-related curriculum content and the context in which pain is presented in educational and training documentation for healthcare professionals in this clinical speciality. Methods: Core curricula documents from UK based professional organisations were identified in partnership with healthcare professionals. Documents were analysed using a summative content analysis approach. Key pain terms were quantified and weighted frequencies were used to explore narrative pain themes. Latent content was interpreted qualitatively to explore the context within which pain terms were positioned. Results: Nine curriculum documents were identified and analysed from doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists specialising in paediatric rheumatology. Pain themes represented a mean percentage of 1.51% of text across all documents. Pain was rarely presented in the context of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory condition types despite being a common feature of each. Musculoskeletal pain was portrayed simply as a ‘somatic’ symptom, rather than as a complex phenomenon involving biological and psychosocial processes. Content around the assessment and management of pain was vague and inexplicit. Conclusion: Current educational and training documentation in paediatric rheumatology do not include core pain topics. Curricula for these healthcare professionals would benefit from updates in contemporary pain theories and examples of in-context, evidence-based pain practices. This should be a priority starting point for optimising patient pain care in paediatric musculoskeletal healthcare.
    • Identifying the content and context of pain within paediatric rheumatology healthcare professional curricula in the UK: a summative content analysis.

      Lee, Rebecca Rachael; orcid: 0000-0002-4559-1647; email: rebecca.lee-4@manchester.ac.uk; McDonagh, Janet E; Connelly, Mark; Peters, Sarah; Cordingley, Lis (2021-08-21)
      <h4>Background</h4>The curriculum for professionals working in paediatric rheumatology should include pain but it is unclear to what extent this currently occurs. The aim of this study was to identify pain-related curriculum content and the context in which pain is presented in educational and training documentation for healthcare professionals in this clinical speciality.<h4>Methods</h4>Core curricula documents from UK based professional organisations were identified in partnership with healthcare professionals. Documents were analysed using a summative content analysis approach. Key pain terms were quantified and weighted frequencies were used to explore narrative pain themes. Latent content was interpreted qualitatively to explore the context within which pain terms were positioned.<h4>Results</h4>Nine curriculum documents were identified and analysed from doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists specialising in paediatric rheumatology. Pain themes represented a mean percentage of 1.51% of text across all documents. Pain was rarely presented in the context of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory condition types despite being a common feature of each. Musculoskeletal pain was portrayed simply as a 'somatic' symptom, rather than as a complex phenomenon involving biological and psychosocial processes. Content around the assessment and management of pain was vague and inexplicit.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Current educational and training documentation in paediatric rheumatology do not include core pain topics. Curricula for these healthcare professionals would benefit from updates in contemporary pain theories and examples of in-context, evidence-based pain practices. This should be a priority starting point for optimising patient pain care in paediatric musculoskeletal healthcare.
    • Identity, Culture and Belonging: Educating Young Children for a Changing World

      Power, Michael; orcid: 0000-0002-9926-094X (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-24)
    • Identity, Culture and Belonging: Educating Young Children for a Changing World

      Power, Michael; orcid: 0000-0002-9926-094X (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-24)
    • Identity, Culture and Belonging: Educating Young Children for a Changing World

      Power, Michael; orcid: 0000-0002-9926-094X (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-24)
    • IDPs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI): Intractable Return and Absence of Social Integration Policy

      Khedir, Hewa Haji; orcid: 0000-0001-5257-2439; email: hewa.khedir@winchester.ac.uk (2020-05-27)
      Abstract: This paper examines the protracted nature of displacement in the Iraqi context and places emphasis on the need for a social integration policy to bridge the deep cleavages of Iraqi society. Methodologically, the paper utilizes qualitative data by conducting focus‐group discussions with IDPs and semi‐structured individual interviews in KRI. In terms of return possibilities, while return in many ways is perceived to be not practical and to involve future risks, research findings show that a community‐based distinction needs to be made between IDPs from minority backgrounds and IDPs who belong to demographic majorities in the homeland locations. A second distinction is a geographic and political one as findings indicate that IDPs who take refuge in KRI, though remain largely dissatisfied with displacement conditions, are willing to stay in KRI longer in the hope of further security and reconstruction process in the violence‐affected areas. With respect to social integration policy, the paper outlines institutional, political and cultural explanations for a virtually absolute absence of social integration policy on national and regional levels. The paper suggests that the proposed social integration policy can capitalize practical implications of Social Contact Theory (SCT) in enhancing the integration of IDPs in the host communities.
    • IL-13 deficiency exacerbates lung damage and impairs epithelial-derived type 2 molecules during nematode infection.

      Chenery, Alistair L; orcid: 0000-0001-8755-461X; Rosini, Silvia; orcid: 0000-0002-7853-9300; Parkinson, James E; orcid: 0000-0003-4881-5121; Ajendra, Jesuthas; orcid: 0000-0002-9256-5396; Herrera, Jeremy A; orcid: 0000-0003-4845-8494; Lawless, Craig; orcid: 0000-0002-8240-3430; Chan, Brian Hk; orcid: 0000-0002-9451-4621; Loke, P'ng; orcid: 0000-0002-6211-3292; MacDonald, Andrew S; orcid: 0000-0002-5356-1149; Kadler, Karl E; orcid: 0000-0003-4977-4683; et al. (2021-06-14)
      IL-13 is implicated in effective repair after acute lung injury and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as allergic asthma. Both these processes involve matrix remodelling, but understanding the specific contribution of IL-13 has been challenging because IL-13 shares receptors and signalling pathways with IL-4. Here, we used infection as a model of acute lung damage comparing responses between WT and IL-13-deficient mice, in which IL-4 signalling is intact. We found that IL-13 played a critical role in limiting tissue injury and haemorrhaging in the lung, and through proteomic and transcriptomic profiling, identified IL-13-dependent changes in matrix and associated regulators. We further showed a requirement for IL-13 in the induction of epithelial-derived type 2 effector molecules such as RELM-α and surfactant protein D. Pathway analyses predicted that IL-13 induced cellular stress responses and regulated lung epithelial cell differentiation by suppression of Foxa2 pathways. Thus, in the context of acute lung damage, IL-13 has tissue-protective functions and regulates epithelial cell responses during type 2 immunity. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 Chenery et al.]
    • IL-17A both initiates, via IFNγ suppression, and limits the pulmonary type-2 immune response to nematode infection

      Ajendra, Jesuthas; Chenery, Alistair L.; Parkinson, James E.; Chan, Brian H. K.; Pearson, Stella; Colombo, Stefano A. P.; Boon, Louis; Grencis, Richard K.; Sutherland, Tara E.; email: tara.sutherland@manchester.ac.uk; Allen, Judith E.; orcid: 0000-0002-3829-066X; email: judi.allen@manchester.ac.uk (Nature Publishing Group US, 2020-07-07)
      Abstract: Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is a well-defined model of type-2 immunity but the early lung-migrating phase is dominated by innate IL-17A production. In this study, we confirm previous observations that Il17a-KO mice infected with N. brasiliensis exhibit an impaired type-2 immune response. Transcriptional profiling of the lung on day 2 of N. brasiliensis infection revealed an increased Ifng signature in Il17a-KO mice confirmed by enhanced IFNγ protein production in lung lymphocyte populations. Depletion of early IFNγ rescued type-2 immune responses in the Il17a-KO mice demonstrating that IL-17A-mediated suppression of IFNγ promotes type-2 immunity. Notably, later in infection, once the type-2 response was established, IL-17A limited the magnitude of the type-2 response. IL-17A regulation of type-2 immunity was lung-specific and infection with Trichuris muris revealed that IL-17A promotes a type-2 immune response in the lung even when infection is restricted to the intestine. Together our data reveal IL-17A as a major regulator of pulmonary type-2 immunity such that IL-17A supports early development of a protective type-2 response by suppression of IFNγ but subsequently limits excessive type-2 responses. A failure of this feedback loop may contribute to conditions such as severe asthma, characterised by combined elevation of IL-17 and type-2 cytokines.