• Gas decomposition and electrode degradation characteristics of a 20% C 3 F 7 CN and 80% CO 2 gas mixture for high voltage accelerators

      Iddrissu, Ibrahim; orcid: 0000-0002-7612-3838; Han, Qinghua; orcid: 0000-0001-8879-0091; Chen, Lujia; orcid: 0000-0001-6983-3156; email: lujia.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Maksoud, Louis; Kieffel, Yannick (2021-06-02)
      Abstract: Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas used in high voltage accelerators. As a promising alternative to SF6, the C3F7CN/CO2 gas mixture and its by‐products are of great interest to ensure the safe operation of accelerators that will adopt any SF6‐free solution. This work experimentally examines the electrical ageing characteristics of a 20% C3F7CN/80% CO2 gas mixture tested using spark gaps under a pressure of 7.2 bar (abs.). Gas samples were collected after 1000 DC breakdowns and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) with an estimated toxicity value of 54,459 ppmv, which indicates the aged mixture to be non‐toxic. Subsequent investigation was conducted on the gas‐solid interface after 500 breakdowns for both SF6 and the 20% C3F7CN/80% CO2 gas mixture. Aged electrodes were analysed using X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X‐ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Electrode surface analysis revealed the formation of metal fluorides on the electrode surface tested using the 20% C3F7CN/80% CO2 mixture, whereas metal fluorides and sulphides were detected for electrodes tested with SF6. The findings provide a reference on the toxicity and gas‐solid interaction of the electrically aged 20% C3F7CN/80% CO2 gas mixture for potential retro‐fill application in high voltage accelerators.
    • Genetic and process engineering strategies for enhanced recombinant N -glycoprotein production in bacteria

      Pratama, Fenryco; Linton, Dennis; Dixon, Neil; orcid: 0000-0001-9065-6764; email: neil.dixon@manchester.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2021-10-14)
      Abstract: Background: The production of N-linked glycoproteins in genetically amenable bacterial hosts offers great potential for reduced cost, faster/simpler bioprocesses, greater customisation, and utility for distributed manufacturing of glycoconjugate vaccines and glycoprotein therapeutics. Efforts to optimize production hosts have included heterologous expression of glycosylation enzymes, metabolic engineering, use of alternative secretion pathways, and attenuation of gene expression. However, a major bottleneck to enhance glycosylation efficiency, which limits the utility of the other improvements, is the impact of target protein sequon accessibility during glycosylation. Results: Here, we explore a series of genetic and process engineering strategies to increase recombinant N-linked glycosylation, mediated by the Campylobacter-derived PglB oligosaccharyltransferase in Escherichia coli. Strategies include increasing membrane residency time of the target protein by modifying the cleavage site of its secretion signal, and modulating protein folding in the periplasm by use of oxygen limitation or strains with compromised oxidoreductase or disulphide-bond isomerase activity. These approaches achieve up to twofold improvement in glycosylation efficiency. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that supplementation with the chemical oxidant cystine enhances the titre of glycoprotein in an oxidoreductase knockout strain by improving total protein production and cell fitness, while at the same time maintaining higher levels of glycosylation efficiency. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that improved protein glycosylation in the heterologous host could be achieved by mimicking the coordination between protein translocation, folding and glycosylation observed in native host such as Campylobacter jejuni and mammalian cells. Furthermore, it provides insight into strain engineering and bioprocess strategies, to improve glycoprotein yield and titre, and to avoid physiological burden of unfolded protein stress upon cell growth. The process and genetic strategies identified herein will inform further optimisation and scale-up of heterologous recombinant N-glycoprotein production.
    • Genetic and process engineering strategies for enhanced recombinant N-glycoprotein production in bacteria.

      Pratama, Fenryco; Linton, Dennis; Dixon, Neil; orcid: 0000-0001-9065-6764; email: neil.dixon@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-14)
      <h4>Background</h4>The production of N-linked glycoproteins in genetically amenable bacterial hosts offers great potential for reduced cost, faster/simpler bioprocesses, greater customisation, and utility for distributed manufacturing of glycoconjugate vaccines and glycoprotein therapeutics. Efforts to optimize production hosts have included heterologous expression of glycosylation enzymes, metabolic engineering, use of alternative secretion pathways, and attenuation of gene expression. However, a major bottleneck to enhance glycosylation efficiency, which limits the utility of the other improvements, is the impact of target protein sequon accessibility during glycosylation.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we explore a series of genetic and process engineering strategies to increase recombinant N-linked glycosylation, mediated by the Campylobacter-derived PglB oligosaccharyltransferase in Escherichia coli. Strategies include increasing membrane residency time of the target protein by modifying the cleavage site of its secretion signal, and modulating protein folding in the periplasm by use of oxygen limitation or strains with compromised oxidoreductase or disulphide-bond isomerase activity. These approaches achieve up to twofold improvement in glycosylation efficiency. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that supplementation with the chemical oxidant cystine enhances the titre of glycoprotein in an oxidoreductase knockout strain by improving total protein production and cell fitness, while at the same time maintaining higher levels of glycosylation efficiency.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this study, we demonstrate that improved protein glycosylation in the heterologous host could be achieved by mimicking the coordination between protein translocation, folding and glycosylation observed in native host such as Campylobacter jejuni and mammalian cells. Furthermore, it provides insight into strain engineering and bioprocess strategies, to improve glycoprotein yield and titre, and to avoid physiological burden of unfolded protein stress upon cell growth. The process and genetic strategies identified herein will inform further optimisation and scale-up of heterologous recombinant N-glycoprotein production.
    • Genetic information, discrimination, philosophical pluralism and politics.

      Holm, Søren; orcid: 0000-0002-7200-5607; email: soren.holm@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-07)
    • GeogEd: A new research group founded on the reciprocal relationship between geography education and the geographies of education

      West, Harry; orcid: 0000-0002-2704-5474; email: harry.west@uwe.ac.uk; Hill, Jennifer; orcid: 0000-0002-0682-783X; Finn, Matt; orcid: 0000-0003-3082-8186; Healey, Ruth L.; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900; Marvell, Alan; orcid: 0000-0001-8363-0793; Tebbett, Natalie (2020-09-22)
      Abstract: In 2019, the Higher Education Research Group (HERG) formally became the Geography and Education Research Group (GeogEd). What may appear as a simple change in name masks a renewed understanding of the synergies between geography education (at all levels) and the geographies of education. In this paper we contextualise that change through the relationships between the two inter‐related fields. We suggest that these fields are integrally linked, iteratively and reciprocally, and that research across both is vital for a truly holistic understanding of each. We reflect on the discussions and process of forming the new Geography and Education Research Group, which we trust is sensitive to the historic remit of HERG while being inclusive to those working in geography and education beyond higher education. We conclude by looking ahead to a renewed, inclusive, and progressive Research Group, aspiring to be more diverse and enabling fruitful discussions across the geography and education nexus.
    • Gertrude Elles: the pioneering graptolite geologist in a woolly hat. Her career, achievements and personal reflections from her family and colleagues

      Tubb, J.; Burek, C. V. (Geological Society of London, 2020-10-26)
      AbstractGertrude Elles gained worldwide renown for her seminal work with Ethel Wood on A Monograph of British Graptolites, which is still used today. She gained the MBE, pioneered female geological education, became the first female reader in Cambridge University and one of the first tranche of female Fellows of the Geological Society in 1919. An eccentric with a vast array of hats, PhD students and lodgers, she was a stalwart member of the Sedgwick Club and life member of the British Federation of University Women. She wrote obituaries for colleagues describing their achievements with humour and good nature. Her family describe her as ‘a fabulous woman’ with a huge range of interests including archaeology, botany and music. She related her geological and botanical knowledge in showing a nephew that plants growing along the Moine Thrust reflected change in the underlying rocks. Cambridge colleagues recall her as a ‘marvellous and well-respected figure’ who caused some amusement by her big old cluttered table from which she swept away material making room for new samples (and work for technicians). She died in 1960 in her beloved Scotland. However, her legacy survives in the classification of a group of fossils extinct for nearly 400 myr.
    • Giant magneto-birefringence effect and tuneable colouration of 2D crystal suspensions

      Ding, Baofu; orcid: 0000-0001-6646-7285; Kuang, Wenjun; orcid: 0000-0003-4309-365X; Pan, Yikun; Grigorieva, I. V.; orcid: 0000-0001-5991-7778; Geim, A. K.; orcid: 0000-0003-2861-8331; email: geim@manchester.ac.uk; Liu, Bilu; orcid: 0000-0002-7274-5752; email: bilu.liu@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn; Cheng, Hui-Ming; orcid: 0000-0002-5387-4241; email: hmcheng@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020-07-24)
      Abstract: One of the long-sought-after goals in light manipulation is tuning of transmitted interference colours. Previous approaches toward this goal include material chirality, strain and electric-field controls. Alternatively, colour control by magnetic field offers contactless, non-invasive and energy-free advantages but has remained elusive due to feeble magneto-birefringence in conventional transparent media. Here we demonstrate an anomalously large magneto-birefringence effect in transparent suspensions of magnetic two-dimensional crystals, which arises from a combination of a large Cotton-Mouton coefficient and relatively high magnetic saturation birefringence. The effect is orders of magnitude stronger than those previously demonstrated for transparent materials. The transmitted colours of the suspension can be continuously tuned over two-wavelength cycles by moderate magnetic fields below 0.8 T. The work opens a new avenue to tune transmitted colours, and can be further extended to other systems with artificially engineered magnetic birefringence.
    • Girls being Rey: ethical cultural consumption, families and popular feminism

      Wood, Rachel; orcid: 0000-0002-0053-2969; Litherland, Benjamin; orcid: 0000-0003-3735-354X; Reed, Elizabeth; orcid: 0000-0002-0885-2908 (Informa UK Limited, 2019-08-29)
    • Global Constitutionalism and Democracy: the Case of Colombia

      Thornhill, Chris; orcid: 0000-0002-2286-5967; email: chris.thornhill@manchester.ac.uk; de Araújo Calabria, Carina Rodrigues (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-29)
      Abstract: Focusing on the case of Colombia, this article sets out a sociological examination of constitutions marked by strong, activist judiciaries, by entrenched systems of human rights protection, and by emphatic implementation of global human rights law. Contra standard critiques of this constitutional model, it argues that such constitutions need to be seen as creating a new pattern of democracy, which is often distinctively adapted to structures in societies in which the typical patterns of legitimation and subject formation required for democratic government were obstructed. In polities with such constitutions, legal institutions and norm setters have at times assumed the status of functional equivalents for more typical democratically mandated actors and institutions. In such polities, further, global law assumes essential importance as it creates new sources of normative authorization for legislation and stimulates new lines of articulation between government and society. The article concludes that analysis of such polities, exemplified by Colombia, shows that the common categories of democratic-constitutional analysis are no longer always adequate for understanding current tendencies in democratic formation, and they can easily undermine democracy itself.
    • Global Prevalence of Adaptive and Prolonged Infections' Mutations in the Receptor-Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

      Lennerstrand, Johan; Palanisamy, Navaneethan; orcid: 0000-0003-0369-2316 (2021-09-30)
      Several vaccines with varying efficacies have been developed and are currently administered globally to minimize the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite having an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with a proofreading activity, new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are on the rise periodically. Some of the mutations in these variants, especially mutations on the spike protein, aid the virus in transmission, infectivity and host immune evasion. Further, these mutations also reduce the effectiveness of some of the current vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In the present study, using the available 984,769 SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide sequences on the NCBI database from the end of 2019 till 28 July 2021, we have estimated the global prevalence of so-called 'adaptive mutations' and 'mutations identified in the prolonged infections', in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Irrespective of the geographical region, in the case of the adaptive mutations, N501Y (48.38%) was found to be the dominant mutation followed by L452R (17.52%), T478K (14.31%), E484K (4.69%), S477N (3.29%), K417T (1.64%), N439K (0.7%) and S494P (0.7%). Other mutations were found to be less prevalent (less than 0.7%). Since the last two months, there has been a massive increase of L452R and T478K mutations (delta variant) in certain areas. In the case of prolonged infections' mutations (long-term SARS-CoV-2 infections), V483A (0.009%) was found to be dominant followed by Q493R (0.009%), while other mutations were found in less than 0.007% of the studied sequences. The data obtained in this study will aid in the development of better infection control policies, thereby curbing the spread of this virus.
    • Global Prevalence of Adaptive and Prolonged Infections’ Mutations in the Receptor-Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

      Lennerstrand, Johan; email: johan.lennerstrand@medsci.uu.se; Palanisamy, Navaneethan; orcid: 0000-0003-0369-2316; email: n.palanisamy@chester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-09-30)
      Several vaccines with varying efficacies have been developed and are currently administered globally to minimize the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite having an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with a proofreading activity, new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are on the rise periodically. Some of the mutations in these variants, especially mutations on the spike protein, aid the virus in transmission, infectivity and host immune evasion. Further, these mutations also reduce the effectiveness of some of the current vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In the present study, using the available 984,769 SARS-CoV-2 nucleotide sequences on the NCBI database from the end of 2019 till 28 July 2021, we have estimated the global prevalence of so-called ‘adaptive mutations’ and ‘mutations identified in the prolonged infections’, in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Irrespective of the geographical region, in the case of the adaptive mutations, N501Y (48.38%) was found to be the dominant mutation followed by L452R (17.52%), T478K (14.31%), E484K (4.69%), S477N (3.29%), K417T (1.64%), N439K (0.7%) and S494P (0.7%). Other mutations were found to be less prevalent (less than 0.7%). Since the last two months, there has been a massive increase of L452R and T478K mutations (delta variant) in certain areas. In the case of prolonged infections’ mutations (long-term SARS-CoV-2 infections), V483A (0.009%) was found to be dominant followed by Q493R (0.009%), while other mutations were found in less than 0.007% of the studied sequences. The data obtained in this study will aid in the development of better infection control policies, thereby curbing the spread of this virus.
    • Global technology companies and the politics of urban socio-technical imaginaries in the digital age: Processual proxies, Trojan horses and global beachheads

      Hodson, Mike; email: michael.hodson@manchester.ac.uk; McMeekin, Andrew (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-16)
      In this paper, we take the concept of ‘new urban spaces’ as our jumping off point to engage with the efforts of Alphabet/Google affiliate Sidewalk Labs to cultivate a new integrated digital and infrastructural urban space on the Toronto waterfront. We interrogate the process and politics of imagining this new, digital urban space as an urban socio-technical imaginary. The paper critically examines the central role of ‘big tech’ in producing the urban socio-technical imaginary not as a snapshot but, rather, as a ‘process of becoming’. This processual focus on the role of big tech allows us to develop three interrelated analytical contributions. First, we generate in-depth understanding of the proxy politics of urban socio-technical imaginaries in constituting new digital urban spaces. Second, we argue that an urban socio-technical imaginary was used as a Trojan horse to promote private experimentation with urban governance. Third, we demonstrate attempts to imagine a global beachhead via ‘the global model’ of a new digital urban space predicated on the digital control of integrated urban infrastructure systems.
    • Glories, hidden rainbows and nearside-farside interference effects in the angular scattering of the state-to-state H + HD → H

      Xiahou, Chengkui; orcid: 0000-0003-2293-6945; Connor, J N L; orcid: 0000-0001-7247-8132; email: j.n.l.connor@manchester.ac.uk (2021-06-16)
      Yuan et al. [Nat. Chem., 2018, 10, 653] have reported state-of-the-art measurements of differential cross sections (DCSs) for the H + HD → H2 + D reaction, measuring for the first time fast oscillations in the small-angle forward region of the DCSs. We theoretically analyse the angular scattering dynamics in order to quantitatively understand the physical content of structure in the DCSs. We study the H + HD(vi = 0, ji = 0, mi = 0) → H2(vf = 0, jf = 0,1,2,3, mf = 0) + D reaction for the whole range of scattering angles from θR = 0° to θR = 180°, where v, j, m are the vibrational, rotational and helicity quantum numbers respectively for the initial and final states. The restriction to mf = 0 arises because states with mf ≠ 0 have DCSs that are identically zero in the forward (θR = 0°) and backward (θR = 180°) directions. We use accurate quantum scattering matrix elements computed by Yuan et al. at a translational energy of 1.35 eV for the BKMP2 potential energy surface. The following theoretical techniques are employed to analyse the DCSs: (a) full and nearside-farside (NF) partial wave series (PWS) and local angular momentum theory, including resummations of the full PWS up to third order. We also use window representations of the scattering matrix, which give rise to truncated PWS, (b) six asymptotic (semiclassical) small-angle glory theories and four N rainbow theories, (c) we introduce "CoroGlo" tests, which let us distinguish between glory and corona scattering at small angles for Legendre PWS, (d) the semiclassical optical model (SOM) of Herschbach is employed to understand structure in the DCSs at intermediate and large angles. Our conclusions are: (a) the small-angle peaks in the DCSs arise mainly from glory scattering. For the 000 → 020 transition, there is also a contribution from a broad, or hidden, N rainbow, (b) at larger angles, the fast oscillations in the DCSs arise from NF interference, (c) the N scattering in the fast oscillation region contains a hidden rainbow for the 000, 020, 030 cases. For the 000 → 020 transition, the rainbow extends up to θR ≈ 60°; for the 000 and 030 cases, the angular ranges containing a N rainbow are smaller, (d) at intermediate and backward angles, the slowly varying DCSs, which merge into slow oscillations, are explained by the SOM. Physically it shows this structure in a DCS arises from direct scattering and is a distorted mirror image of the corresponding probability versus total angular momentum quantum number plot.
    • 'Going off the Map': Dependent Arising in the Nettippakaraṇa

      Jones, Dhivan Thomas (Equinox Publishing, 2019-12-30)
    • Good Minzu and bad Muslims: Islamophobia in China's state media

      Stroup, David R.; email: david.stroup@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-20)
      Abstract: Since 2014, observers of Chinese society have noted an upsurge in Islamophobic sentiment among China's ethnic majority Han. China's Muslims, in particular those who identify as Hui and Uyghur, report an increase in harassment, both online and in person. This Islamophobic backlash occurs in conjunction with retrenchments by the Chinese state on the right to practice religion. What gives rise to this increase in bigotry? This pilot study examines official discourse about Islam through an inductive analysis of the presentation of Muslims in China's state media. Using a process of constant comparative analysis, I examine the state media's portrayal of Muslims in the flagship newspaper, The People's Daily. Drawing from a sample of 70 articles published between 2014 and 2018, I argue that the party's depiction of Muslim minorities in China emphasizes ethnic rather than religious identities, while coverage of global Islam emphasizes Islam as dangerous and associated with extremism. I contend that such depictions carry the unintended consequence of arousing suspicions about China's Muslims among Han.
    • Graphene and water-based elastomer nanocomposites - a review.

      Nwosu, Christian N; email: aravind@manchester.ac.uk; Iliut, Maria; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind (2021-06-03)
      Water-based elastomers (WBEs) are polymeric elastomers in aqueous systems. WBEs have recently continued to gain wide acceptability by both academia and industry due to their remarkable environmental and occupational safety friendly nature, as a non-toxic elastomeric dispersion with low-to-zero volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. However, their inherent poor mechanical and thermal properties remain a drawback to these sets of elastomers. Hence, nano-fillers such as graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are being employed for the reinforcement and enhancement of this set of elastomers. This work is geared towards a critical review and summation of the state-of-the-art developments of graphene enhanced water-based elastomer composites (G-WBEC), including graphene and composite production processes, properties, characterisation techniques and potential commercial applications. The dominant production techniques, such as emulsion mixing and in situ polymerisation processes, which include Pickering emulsion, mini-emulsion and micro-emulsion, as well as ball-milling approach, are systematically evaluated. Details of the account of mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and thermal conductivity enhancements, as well as multifunctional properties of G-WBEC are discussed, with further elaboration on the structure-property relationship effects (such as dispersion and filler-matrix interface) through effective and non-destructive characterisation tools like Raman and XRD, among others. The paper also evaluates details of the current application attempts and potential commercial opportunities for G-WBEC utilisation in aerospace, automotive, oil and gas, biomedicals, textiles, sensors, electronics, solar energy, and thermal management.
    • Graphene nanocoating provides superb long-lasting corrosion protection to titanium alloy.

      Malhotra, Ritika; email: ritika.m@nus.edu.sg; Han, Yingmei; email: e0005491@u.nus.edu; Nijhuis, Christian A; email: c.a.nijhuis@utwente.nl; Silikas, Nikolaos; email: nikolaos.silikas@manchester.ac.uk; Castro Neto, A H; email: c2dhead@nus.edu.sg; Rosa, Vinicius; email: denvr@nus.edus.sg (2021-08-19)
      The presence of metallic species around failed implants raises concerns about the stability of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Graphene nanocoating on titanium alloy (GN) has promising anti-corrosion properties, but its long-term protective potential and structural stability remains unknown. The objective was to determine GN's anti-corrosion potential and stability over time. GN and uncoated titanium alloy (Control) were challenged with a highly acidic fluorinated corrosive medium (pH 2.0) for up to 240 days. The samples were periodically tested using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (elemental release). The integrity of samples was determined using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analyses were performed with one-sample t-test, paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test with a pre-set significance level of 5%. There was negligible corrosion and elemental loss on GN. After 240 days of corrosion challenge, the corrosion rate and roughness increased by two and twelve times for the Control whereas remained unchanged for GN. The nanocoating presented remarkably high structural integrity and coverage area (>98%) at all time points tested. Graphene nanocoating protects titanium alloy from corrosion and dissolution over a long period while maintaining high structural integrity. This coating has promising potential for persistent protection of titanium and potentially other metallic alloys against corrosion. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
    • Groundwater Arsenic-Attributable Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Mortality Risks in India

      Wu, Ruohan; email: ruohan.wu@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Xu, Lingqian; email: lingqian.xu@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Polya, David A.; orcid: 0000-0002-7484-6696; email: david.polya@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-08-17)
      Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been recognized as the most serious non-carcinogenic detrimental health outcome arising from chronic exposure to arsenic. Drinking arsenic contaminated groundwaters is a critical and common exposure pathway for arsenic, notably in India and other countries in the circum-Himalayan region. Notwithstanding this, there has hitherto been a dearth of data on the likely impacts of this exposure on CVD in India. In this study, CVD mortality risks arising from drinking groundwater with high arsenic (>10 μg/L) in India and its constituent states, territories, and districts were quantified using the population-attributable fraction (PAF) approach. Using a novel pseudo-contouring approach, we estimate that between 58 and 64 million people are exposed to arsenic exceeding 10 μg/L in groundwater-derived drinking water in India. On an all-India basis, we estimate that 0.3–0.6% of CVD mortality is attributable to exposure to high arsenic groundwaters, corresponding to annual avoidable premature CVD-related deaths attributable to chronic exposure to groundwater arsenic in India of between around 6500 and 13,000. Based on the reported reduction in life of 12 to 28 years per death due to heart disease, we calculate value of statistical life (VSL) based annual costs to India of arsenic-attributable CVD mortality of between USD 750 million and USD 3400 million.
    • Group eye movement desensitization and reprocessing interventions in adults and children: A systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials

      Kaptan, Safa Kemal; orcid: 0000-0002-4709-6543; email: safa.kaptan@manchester.ac.uk; Dursun, Busra Ozen; orcid: 0000-0003-0869-5022; Knowles, Mark; Husain, Nusrat; orcid: 0000-0002-9493-0721; Varese, Filippo; orcid: 0000-0001-7244-598X (2021-01-15)
      Abstract: This review systematically synthesized existing literature on group protocols of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating a range of mental health difficulties in adults and children. We conducted database searches on PsychINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Francine Shapiro Library up to May 2020, using PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if they used at least one standardized outcome measure, if they present a quantitative data on the effect of group EMDR protocols on mental health difficulties and if they were published in English. Twenty‐two studies with 1739 participants were included. Thirteen studies examined EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol (IGTP), four studies examined EMDR Group Traumatic Episode Protocol (G‐TEP), four studies EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol for Ongoing Traumatic Stress and one study considered EMDR Group Protocol with Children. Of the 22 studies included, 12 were one‐arm trials and 10 were two‐arm trials. We assessed risk of bias using a revised Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Randomized Trials (ROB 2) and Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS‐I). Overall, the results suggested that Group EMDR protocols might be an effective tool in improving a wide range of mental health‐related outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. However, the included studies are limited to methodological challenges. The limitations and future directions are discussed.
    • Group LCD and group reversible LCD codes

      Dougherty, Steven T.; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; orcid: 0000-0001-5206-6480; Roberts, Adam M.; orcid: 0000-0002-0654-7096 (Elsevier, 2022-06-17)
      In this paper, we give a new method for constructing LCD codes. We employ group rings and a well known map that sends group ring elements to a subring of the n × n matrices to obtain LCD codes. Our construction method guarantees that our LCD codes are also group codes, namely, the codes are ideals in a group ring. We show that with a certain condition on the group ring element v, one can construct non-trivial group LCD codes. Moreover, we also show that by adding more constraints on the group ring element v, one can construct group LCD codes that are reversible. We present many examples of binary group LCD codes of which some are optimal and group reversible LCD codes with different parameters.