• Early changes in visuospatial episodic memory can help distinguish primary age‐related tauopathy from Alzheimer’s disease

      Robinson, Andrew C.; orcid: 0000-0003-2208-7728; email: andrew.c.robinson@manchester.ac.uk; Davidson, Yvonne S.; Roncaroli, Federico; orcid: 0000-0003-3650-5572; Minshull, James; Tinkler, Phillip; Horan, Michael A.; Payton, Antony; Pendleton, Neil; Mann, David M. A. (2021-05-29)
    • Early Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage

      Ziai, Wendy C.; email: weziai@jhmi.edu; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; email: adrian.parry-jones@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, Carol B.; email: cthomp45@jhu.edu; Sansing, Lauren H.; email: lauren.sansing@yale.edu; Mullen, Michael T.; email: Michael.Mullen@uphs.upenn.edu; Murthy, Santosh B.; email: sam9200@med.cornell.edu; Mould, Andrew; email: amould@jhmi.edu; Nekoovaght-Tak, Saman; email: snekoov1@gmail.com; Hanley, Daniel F.; email: dhanley@jhmi.edu (MDPI, 2021-07-30)
      We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression of inflammatory cytokines and their relationship with spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage (ICH, IVH) and perihematomal edema (PHE) volumes in patients with acute IVH. Twenty-eight adults with IVH requiring external ventricular drainage for obstructive hydrocephalus had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected for up to 10 days and had levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and C-C motif chemokine ligand CCL2 measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median [IQR] ICH and IVH volumes at baseline (T0) were 19.8 [5.8–48.8] and 14.3 [5.3–38] mL respectively. Mean levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and CCL2 peaked early compared to day 9–10 (p 0.05) and decreased across subsequent time periods. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and CCL2 had positive correlations with IVH volume at days 3–8 whereas positive correlations with ICH volume occurred earlier at day 1–2. Significant correlations were found with PHE volume for IL-6, IL-10 and CCL2 at day 1–2 and with relative PHE at days 7–8 or 9–10 for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. Time trends of CSF cytokines support experimental data suggesting association of cerebral inflammatory responses with ICH/IVH severity. Pro-inflammatory markers are potential targets for injury reduction.
    • Early prediction of tumour-response to radiotherapy in NSCLC patients

      Amugongo, Lameck Mbangula; orcid: 0000-0001-6468-2643; email: lameckmbangula.amugongo@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Osorio, Eliana Vasquez; orcid: 0000-0003-0741-994X; Green, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-8297-0953; Cobben, David; van Herk, Marcel; McWilliam, Alan (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-05)
      Abstract: Objective. In this study we developed an automatic method to predict tumour volume and shape in weeks 3 and 4 of radiotherapy (RT), using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired up to week 2, allowing identification of large tumour changes. Approach. 240 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, treated with 55 Gy in 20 fractions, were collected. CBCTs were rigidly registered to the planning CT. Intensity values were extracted in each voxel of the planning target volume across all CBCT images from days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14. For each patient and in each voxel, four regression models were fitted to voxel intensity; applying linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic methods. These models predicted the intensity value for each voxel in weeks 3 and 4, and the tumour volume found by thresholding. Each model was evaluated by computing the root mean square error in pixel value and structural similarity index metric (SSIM) for all patients. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity to predict a 30% change in volume were calculated for each model. Main results. The linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models achieved a comparable similarity score, the average SSIM for all patients was 0.94, 0.94, 0.90, 0.83 in week 3, respectively. At week 3, a sensitivity of 84%, 53%, 90% and 88%, and specificity of 99%, 100%, 91% and 42% were observed for the linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models respectively. Overall, the linear model performed best at predicting those patients that will benefit from RT adaptation. The linear model identified 21% and 23% of patients in our cohort with more than 30% tumour volume reduction to benefit from treatment adaptation in weeks 3 and 4 respectively. Significance. We have shown that it is feasible to predict the shape and volume of NSCLC tumours from routine CBCTs and effectively identify patients who will respond to treatment early.
    • Early prediction of tumour-response to radiotherapy in NSCLC patients

      Amugongo, Lameck Mbangula; orcid: 0000-0001-6468-2643; email: lameckmbangula.amugongo@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Osorio, Eliana Vasquez; orcid: 0000-0003-0741-994X; Green, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-8297-0953; Cobben, David; van Herk, Marcel; McWilliam, Alan (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-05)
      Abstract: Objective. In this study we developed an automatic method to predict tumour volume and shape in weeks 3 and 4 of radiotherapy (RT), using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired up to week 2, allowing identification of large tumour changes. Approach. 240 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, treated with 55 Gy in 20 fractions, were collected. CBCTs were rigidly registered to the planning CT. Intensity values were extracted in each voxel of the planning target volume across all CBCT images from days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14. For each patient and in each voxel, four regression models were fitted to voxel intensity; applying linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic methods. These models predicted the intensity value for each voxel in weeks 3 and 4, and the tumour volume found by thresholding. Each model was evaluated by computing the root mean square error in pixel value and structural similarity index metric (SSIM) for all patients. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity to predict a 30% change in volume were calculated for each model. Main results. The linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models achieved a comparable similarity score, the average SSIM for all patients was 0.94, 0.94, 0.90, 0.83 in week 3, respectively. At week 3, a sensitivity of 84%, 53%, 90% and 88%, and specificity of 99%, 100%, 91% and 42% were observed for the linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models respectively. Overall, the linear model performed best at predicting those patients that will benefit from RT adaptation. The linear model identified 21% and 23% of patients in our cohort with more than 30% tumour volume reduction to benefit from treatment adaptation in weeks 3 and 4 respectively. Significance. We have shown that it is feasible to predict the shape and volume of NSCLC tumours from routine CBCTs and effectively identify patients who will respond to treatment early.
    • Early prediction of tumour-response to radiotherapy in NSCLC patients

      Amugongo, Lameck Mbangula; orcid: 0000-0001-6468-2643; email: lameckmbangula.amugongo@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Osorio, Eliana Vasquez; orcid: 0000-0003-0741-994X; Green, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-8297-0953; Cobben, David; van Herk, Marcel; McWilliam, Alan (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-05)
      Abstract: Objective. In this study we developed an automatic method to predict tumour volume and shape in weeks 3 and 4 of radiotherapy (RT), using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired up to week 2, allowing identification of large tumour changes. Approach. 240 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, treated with 55 Gy in 20 fractions, were collected. CBCTs were rigidly registered to the planning CT. Intensity values were extracted in each voxel of the planning target volume across all CBCT images from days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14. For each patient and in each voxel, four regression models were fitted to voxel intensity; applying linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic methods. These models predicted the intensity value for each voxel in weeks 3 and 4, and the tumour volume found by thresholding. Each model was evaluated by computing the root mean square error in pixel value and structural similarity index metric (SSIM) for all patients. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity to predict a 30% change in volume were calculated for each model. Main results. The linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models achieved a comparable similarity score, the average SSIM for all patients was 0.94, 0.94, 0.90, 0.83 in week 3, respectively. At week 3, a sensitivity of 84%, 53%, 90% and 88%, and specificity of 99%, 100%, 91% and 42% were observed for the linear, Gaussian, quadratic and cubic models respectively. Overall, the linear model performed best at predicting those patients that will benefit from RT adaptation. The linear model identified 21% and 23% of patients in our cohort with more than 30% tumour volume reduction to benefit from treatment adaptation in weeks 3 and 4 respectively. Significance. We have shown that it is feasible to predict the shape and volume of NSCLC tumours from routine CBCTs and effectively identify patients who will respond to treatment early.
    • Early results using N-terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (pro-BNP) as a biomarker for the efficacy of secondary extension technique (SET) in improving myocardial function in dialysis patients with high flow fistulas.

      Haque, Mr Adam; email: adam.haque@manchester.ac.uk; Al-Khaffaf, Mr Haytham (2021-11-04)
      The association of dialysis fistulas and heart failure is believed to be due to high cardiac output. N-terminal pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (pro-BNP) which is secreted by the cardiac ventricles in response to excessive stretching of the myocytes has been used as a marker of heart failure with 90% sensitivity. We report our early experience using pro-BNP levels to test the efficacy of the novel 'secondary extension technique' (SET) in improving myocardial function by reducing fistula flow. 11 patients with high fistula flows (>3000ml/m, all brachio-cephalic) and raised pro-BNP underwent SET between 2011 and 2015. SET involves extending the anastomosis from brachial to either proximal radial or ulnar arteries. We measured pro-BNP levels, fistula flow and clinical improvements both pre and post operatively. SET resulted in a median (IQR) flow rate decrease of 57.9 (11.9) % which correlated with a fall in pro-BNP of 69.6 (39) %. 7 of the 11 patients in the series pro-BNP level returned to a normal value at average follow-up of 3 months post SET. All patients had HOF-related symptom resolution post-procedure and remained asymptomatic at last follow-up CONCLUSION: Our pilot data suggests that SET is an effective way of reducing fistula flow. It also shows that BNP may be a reliable biomarker in assessing the impact of the technique on cardiac function. These results warrant further investigation in the form of a definitive, multicentre study. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.]
    • Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy

      Basu, Andrea J.; Kennedy, Lynne; Tocque, Karen; Jones, Sharn; University of Chester; Wrexham Maelor Hospital (BioMed Central, 2014-07-04)
      Background: Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery practice. Conclusions This study provides early indications that a compact nutrition, physical activity and weight management training package improves midwives self-reported knowledge and confidence. Cascading training across the midwifery service in the Health Board and conducting further studies to elicit longer term impact on midwifery practice and patient outcomes are recommended.
    • Editorial for the Special Issue on “Emerging Trends in Phononic Crystals”

      Nouh, Mostafa; orcid: 0000-0002-2135-5391; email: mnouh@buffalo.edu; Parnell, William J.; email: william.parnell@manchester.ac.uk; Hussein, Mahmoud I.; email: mih@colorado.edu (MDPI, 2021-08-03)
      Over the past three decades, the study of phononic crystals (PCs) has rapidly evolved into a prominent research field offering a versatile platform for the creation of structured materials with salient properties [...]
    • Editorial: Cooperation and Coordination in the Family

      Savage, James L.; email: james.savage@cantab.net; Hinde, Camilla A.; Johnstone, Rufus A. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-12-07)
    • Editorial: New Drug Targets for Proteotoxicity in Cardiometabolic Diseases

      Ren, Jun; email: jren@uw.edu; Wang, Xin; email: xin.wang@manchester.ac.uk; Zhang, Yingmei; email: zhangym197951@126.com (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-09-16)
    • Educational experiences of pupils with Down syndrome in the UK.

      Hargreaves, Stephanie; Holton, Sarah; Baxter, Rebecca; Burgoyne, Kelly; email: kelly.burgoyne@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-29)
      Though research has identified that increasing numbers of pupils with Down syndrome (DS) in the UK are educated in mainstream schools, little detailed information about the educational experiences of pupils with DS is available. This study explored parent views of the educational experiences of pupils with DS attending UK schools (Reception-Year 11) using an online survey. Responses from 569 parents were collected. Overall, 65 % of pupils were in mainstream schools but this was more common at primary (80 %) than secondary school (37 %). Pupils participated in most academic and social activities alongside their peers but were commonly not accessing all opportunities. Many pupils received additional support in school including external professional services. Frequent meetings between parents and teachers/teaching assistants indicated high levels of collaboration. Teachers and teaching assistants were largely viewed as responsible for children's learning. Overall, respondents reported satisfaction with provision. Many pupils with DS in the UK are able to access a broad and balanced curriculum but this is not the case for all. Ways in which provision can be enhanced are discussed. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.]
    • Educational support needs of injured children and their families after a child's traumatic injury: A qualitative study.

      Jones, Samantha; email: samantha.jones-3@manchester.ac.uk; Tyson, Sarah; Davis, Naomi; Yorke, Janelle (2021-11-03)
      To explore the educational support needs of injured children and families. Thirteen injured children and/or their parents (n = 19) discharged from a major trauma centre within 12 months. Semi-structured interviews analysed with thematic analysis. Theme 1: communication and information needs. Schools need help to understand the effects of children's injuries and the adjustments required for their return to school, such as how to involve the children in the more active elements of the curriculum. Thus, effective communication between the injured child, their family, health and education professionals and outside agencies is needed. A specialist key-worker could co-ordinate communication and school return. Theme 2: Educational support needs. Injured children experience changes to their appearance, new symptoms, and altered physical and cognitive abilities. Their absence from school often adversely affects their friendships. Consequently, injured children need continued access to education throughout recovery, support with learning, a flexible timetable, opportunities for social integration, involvement in all aspects of the curriculum, and environmental adaptations to maintain their health and safety. Children with different types of injuries have similar needs for flexible learning and environmental accommodations. Social integration and participation in physical activity should be specific goals for school return.
    • Effect of breakfast cereal type on portion size and nutritional implications.

      Lewis, Isabelle M; Boote, Lucy; Butler, Tom; orcid: 0000-0003-0818-1566 (2021-02-17)
      The present study aimed to assess the effect of different types of breakfast cereal on portion size and the nutritional implications of potential under or overserving. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using one BC from the 7 established BC manufacturing methods (flaking [F], gun puffed [GP], oven puffed [OP], extruded gun puffed [EGP], shredded wholegrain [SW], biscuit formed [BF], and granola). Participants were asked to pour cereal as if they were serving themselves (freepour). Difference between the freepour and recommended serving size (RSS) were calculated (DFR). The Friedman test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was used to test for a significant differences between cereal categories. City of Chester, North West of the UK. Adults (n=169; n=110 female, 32±18 years). Freepour values were greater than RSS for all categories of BC. Median values for denser cereals such as SW, granola and oats were significantly (P<0.001) greater than all other categories with granola having the highest median freepour value of 95 g. Median (and range of) DFR weight values for granola were significantly higher than other BCs (50.0 g [-24.0-267.0g], P<0.001). BCs with the lowest median DFRs were F1 (7.0 g [-20-63.0g]), GP (6.0 g [-26.0-69.0g]), EGP (6.0 g [-26.0-56.0g]), OP (5.0 g [-27.0-53.0g]), and BF (0.0 g [-28.2-56.4g]). The degree of overserving may be related to the type of BC with denser cereals more readily overserved. Encouraging manufacturers to reformulate cereals and improving their nutritional properties may have benefit in reducing excess energy intake.
    • Effect of centrally and peripherally acting GABA

      Badri, Huda; email: huda.badri@manchester.ac.uk; LGibbard, Carmen; Denton, Dimitra; Satia, Imran; Dockry, Rachel J; Holt, Kimberley; Escott, Jane; Wilkinson, Greame; Holt, Alison; Canning, Brendan J; et al. (2021-09-24)
      Currently there are no effective licensed anti-tussive therapies. Understanding how the neuronal mechanisms mediating the cough reflex in animal models translate to humans is important for the development of effective therapies. Pre-clinical studies suggest that the activation of GABA receptors in both the peripheral and central nervous systems inhibit cough. To compare the effect of central and peripherally acting GABA agonists (lesogaberan and baclofen) on the cough reflex in healthy volunteers. We performed a single center, double-blind, double-dummy, three-way crossover trial in healthy controls comparing single doses of lesogaberan (120mg MR), with baclofen (40mg) and placebos. Cough responses to inhaled capsaicin were assessed at screening and 2h post-dose on each study day. The primary endpoint was the maximum number of coughs evoked at any concentration of capsaicin (Emax) and the secondary endpoint was the concentration evoking 50% of the maximal response (ED50). Fifteen participants enrolled onto the study (median age 29 (IQR 25-44) years; 7 females, mean BMI 24.6(±3.0). Lesogaberan treatment produced a small, statistically significant increase in Emax compared with placebo [mean 13.4coughs (95%CI 10.1-17.9) vs. 11.8coughs (8.8-15.9), p=0.04], but had no effect on ED50 [geometric mean 47.4μM (95%CI 24.4-91.7) vs 37.6 μM (95%CI 19.2-73.5), p=0.37]. In contrast, baclofen had no significant effect on Emax (11.1, 95%CI 8.1-15.4) (p=0.23), but significantly increased ED50 compared with placebo (geometric mean 75.2μM (95%CI 37.2-151.8), p=0.002). This data suggests the anti-tussive actions of GABA agonists, in healthy volunteers, occur in the central rather than the peripheral nervous system. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.]
    • Effect of Chases with Renovation Techniques on the Load Carrying Capacity of Masonry Walls

      Al-Sibahy, Adnan; email: Adnan.Alsibahy@qu.edu.iq; Edwards, Rodger; email: Rodger.Edwards@manchester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-11-09)
      Infrastructure through the masonry walls (for example, wiring and piping works) are usually installed using chases in different directions. Introducing these chases in a newly built wall will affect its overall load carrying capacity. However, there has thus far been very limited research into the effects of chases on the response and load carrying capacity of walls. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the structural behaviour of new masonry walls having chases in both horizontal and vertical directions and subjected to compression load throughout an extensive experimental programme. In addition, two renovation techniques have been proposed to infill the chases created in small scale walls (wallettes). The first technique involved the use of plastic wire mesh and cement mortar, while the second incorporated using galvanized steel channel together with the plastic wire mesh and cement mortar. Furthermore, a reference case of wallette without chases has been considered to enable reasonable comparisons to check the effect of the chases and the efficiency of the proposed renovation techniques. The outcomes of this study were used to modify the design equations proposed in the relevant codes of practice. The obtained results showed a notable reduction in the load carrying capacity of the masonry wall due to the introduction of the chases with a reduction percentage of 29% compared to the masonry wall without chase. The percentage decrease depends on the depth of the chase and the inclination angle of the load flow. The walls with horizontal chases exhibited more reduction in the load carrying capacity compared to those with vertical chases. The adopted renovation techniques using galvanized steel channel and/or plastic wire mesh with cement mortar recovered 55% and 93% of the lost load carrying capacity due to the presence of the chase and the failure was due to the de-bonded phenomena of the infill materials. Suitable factors of safety have been proposed to be incorporated in the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity formulas of the masonry walls of the BS EN codes.
    • Effect of combined home-based, overground robotic-assisted gait training and usual physiotherapy on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial

      Wright, Amy; orcid: 0000-0002-7006-6465; Stone, Keeron; Martinelli, Louis; Fryer, Simon; Smith, Grace; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; orcid: 0000-0002-0682-2270; Jobson, Simon; Faulkner, James; orcid: 0000-0002-3704-6737 (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-27)
      Objectives: To assess the effect of a home-based over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program using the AlterG Bionic Leg orthosis on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Home. Participants: Thirty-four ambulatory chronic stroke patients who recieve usual physiotherapy. Intervention: Usual physiotherapy plus either (1)10-week over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program ( n = 16), using the device for ⩾30 minutes per day, or (2) control group ( n = 18), 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Measurements: The primary outcome was the Six-Minute Walk Test. Secondary outcomes included: Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometry. All measurements were completed at baseline, 10 and 22 weeks after baseline. Results: Significant increases in walking distance were observed for the Six-Minute Walk Test between baseline and 10 weeks for over-ground robotic-assisted gait training (135 ± 81 m vs 158 ± 93 m, respectively; P ⩽ 0.001) but not for control (122 ± 92 m vs 119 ± 84 m, respectively). Findings were similar for Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale (all P ⩽ 0.01). For over-ground robotic-assisted gait training, there were increases in time spent stepping, number of steps taken, number of sit-to-stand transitions, and reductions in time spent sitting/supine between baseline and 10 weeks (all P &lt; 0.05). The differences observed in all of the aforementioned outcome measures were maintained at 22 weeks, 12 weeks after completing the intervention (all P &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: Over-ground robotic-assisted gait training combined with physiotherapy in chronic stroke patients led to significant improvements in clinical functional outcomes and physical activity compared to the control group. Improvements were maintained at 22 weeks.
    • Effect of Different Root Canal Irrigant Solutions on the Release of Dentin-Growth Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Tavares, Sandro; orcid: 0000-0003-4890-4220; email: sandro.tavares04@gmail.com; Pintor, Andrea; email: andrea_pintor@hotmail.com; Mourão, Carlos Fernando de Almeida Barros; orcid: 0000-0001-5775-0222; email: mouraocf@gmail.com; Magno, Marcela; email: marcela.magno@hotmail.com; Montemezzi, Pietro; email: m.montemezzi@libero.it; Sacco, Roberto; email: roberto.sacco@manchester.ac.uk; Alves, Gutemberg; orcid: 0000-0003-0016-4809; email: gutopepe@yahoo.com.br; Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro; orcid: 0000-0002-2132-4755; email: scelza@terra.com.br (MDPI, 2021-10-05)
      Irrigant solutions are used to promote dentin-growth factors (GF) release for regenerative endodontics. This review aimed to evaluate the reports comparing the release of GFs using different root canal irrigant solutions. Eligible studies compared the in vitro GF release in human teeth after the use of at least two distinct solutions. A search was conducted on Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Lilacs on 11 August 2021. Risk of bias was assessed using SciRAP. Study characteristics and quantitative data were extracted, and meta-analyses were performed for the mean difference (95% confidence interval) of the release of transforming growth factors Beta 1 (TGF-β1) by EDTA compared to other irrigants. Of sixteen eligible studies, eight were included in quantitative analysis. ELISA assays showed higher TGF-β1 release from 10% EDTA compared to 10% citric acid (p 0.00001). Immunogold assays showed higher levels of TGF-β1 for 17% EDTA (p 0.00001) compared to 10% citric acid. GRADE identified a low to very low certainty of evidence. These results point to an increased release of TGF-β1 in dentin treated with EDTA. The high heterogeneity and very low certainty of the evidence demand further studies before EDTA indication as a better irrigant for regenerative endodontics. Registration: CRD42020160871 (PROSPERO).
    • Effect of graphene nanoplatelets on the mechanical and gas barrier properties of woven carbon fibre/epoxy composites

      Yao, Xudan; orcid: 0000-0002-6708-227X; email: xudan.yao@manchester.ac.uk; Raine, Thomas P.; Liu, Mufeng; Zakaria, Muzdalifah; Kinloch, Ian A.; Bissett, Mark A. (Springer US, 2021-09-05)
      Abstract: Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are promising materials for non-metallic pipe applications in the oil and gas industry owing to their high corrosion resistance, specific strength and stiffness. However, CFRP has poor gas barrier performance meaning that a liner has to be inserted. Graphene-based nanomaterials have been demonstrated to improve gas barrier properties in thermoplastic polymers, and thus, a CFRP–graphene hybrid composite could provide an alternative to lined pipes. In this work, a method combining spray coating with vacuum-assisted resin infusion was developed to fabricate CFRP hybrid composites with preferred in-plane aligned graphene nanoplatelets. Tensile and flexural properties, as well as CO2 gas permeability, were evaluated. It was illustrated that both tensile and flexural properties performed better under relatively low GNP loadings (< 0.2 vol%), while gas barrier property was significantly improved with the increasing GNP loadings which fits the Nielsen model with an effective GNP aspect ratio of 350. Graphical abstract:
    • Effect of layered water structures on the anomalous transport through nanoscale graphene channels

      Chen, S; orcid: 0000-0002-8118-5849; Draude, A P; Nie, A X C; Fang, H P; Walet, N R; orcid: 0000-0002-2061-5534; Gao, Shiwu; email: swgao@csrc.ac.cn; Li, J C; email: j.c.li@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2018-08-16)
      Abstract: We analyse the enhanced flow rate of water through nano-fabricated graphene channels that has been recently observed experimentally. Using molecular dynamics simulations in channels of similar lateral dimensions as the experimental ones, our results reveal for the first time a relationship between water structure and the variation of flux in the rectangular graphene channels. The substantial enhancement in the flow rate compared to Poieseuille flow is due to the formation of layered 2D structures in the confined space, which persists up to a channel height of 2.38 nm, corresponding to six graphene layers. The structure of the water shows an intricate crystal of pentagonal and square tiles, which has not been observed before. Beyond six layers we find a sudden drop in flux due to the disordering of the water, which can be understood by classical flow dynamics.
    • Effect of layered water structures on the anomalous transport through nanoscale graphene channels

      Chen, S; orcid: 0000-0002-8118-5849; Draude, A P; Nie, A X C; Fang, H P; Walet, N R; orcid: 0000-0002-2061-5534; Gao, Shiwu; email: swgao@csrc.ac.cn; Li, J C; email: j.c.li@manchester.ac.uk (IOP Publishing, 2018-08-16)
      Abstract: We analyse the enhanced flow rate of water through nano-fabricated graphene channels that has been recently observed experimentally. Using molecular dynamics simulations in channels of similar lateral dimensions as the experimental ones, our results reveal for the first time a relationship between water structure and the variation of flux in the rectangular graphene channels. The substantial enhancement in the flow rate compared to Poieseuille flow is due to the formation of layered 2D structures in the confined space, which persists up to a channel height of 2.38 nm, corresponding to six graphene layers. The structure of the water shows an intricate crystal of pentagonal and square tiles, which has not been observed before. Beyond six layers we find a sudden drop in flux due to the disordering of the water, which can be understood by classical flow dynamics.