• Torque Curve Optimization of Ankle Push-Off in Walking Bipedal Robots Using Genetic Algorithm

      Ji, Qiaoli; email: jiql17@mails.jlu.edu.cn; Qian, Zhihui; email: zhqian@jlu.edu.cn; Ren, Lei; email: lei.ren@manchester.ac.uk; Ren, Luquan; email: lqren@jlu.edu.cn (MDPI, 2021-05-14)
      Ankle push-off occurs when muscle–tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power at the end of stance phase in human walking. Ankle push-off mainly contributes to both leg swing and center of mass (CoM) acceleration. Humans use the amount of ankle push-off to induce speed changes. Thus, this study focuses on determining the faster walking speed and the lowest energy efficiency of biped robots by using ankle push-off. The real-time-space trajectory method is used to provide reference positions for the hip and knee joints. The torque curve during ankle push-off, composed of three quintic polynomial curves, is applied to the ankle joint. With the walking distance and the mechanical cost of transport (MCOT) as the optimization goals, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to obtain the optimal torque curve during ankle push-off. The results show that the biped robot achieved a maximum speed of 1.3 m/s, and the ankle push-off occurs at 41.27−48.34% of the gait cycle. The MCOT of the bipedal robot corresponding to the high economy gait is 0.70, and the walking speed is 0.54 m/s. This study may further prompt the design of the ankle joint and identify the important implications of ankle push-off for biped robots.