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Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs) and Noncanonical Partners in Cancer SignalingIncreasing evidence indicates that success of targeted therapies in the treatment of cancer is context-dependent and is influenced by a complex crosstalk between signaling pathways and between cell types in the tumor. The Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling axis highlights the importance of such context-dependent signaling in cancer. Aberrant FGFR signaling has been characterized in almost all cancer types, most commonly non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, glioblastoma, prostate cancer and gastrointestinal cancer. This occurs primarily through amplification and over-expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 resulting in ligand-independent activation. Mutations and translocations of FGFR1-4 are also identified in cancer. Canonical FGF-FGFR signaling is tightly regulated by ligand-receptor combinations as well as direct interactions with the FGFR coreceptors heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and Klotho. Noncanonical FGFR signaling partners have been implicated in differential regulation of FGFR signaling. FGFR directly interacts with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, contributing to invasive and migratory properties of cancer cells, whereas interactions with other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate angiogenic, resistance to therapy, and metastatic potential of cancer cells. The diversity in FGFR signaling partners supports a role for FGFR signaling in cancer, independent of genetic aberration.
Mitogen Kinase Kinase (MKK7) Controls Cytokine Production In Vitro and In Vivo in MiceMitogen kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and mitogen kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) are members of the MAP2K family that can activate downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MKK4 has been implicated in the activation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, while MKK7 has been reported to activate only JNK in response to different stimuli. The stimuli, as well as the cell type determine which MAP2K member will mediate a given response. In various cell types, MKK7 contributes to the activation of downstream MAPKs, JNK, which is known to regulate essential cellular processes, such as cell death, differentiation, stress response, and cytokine secretion. Previous studies have also implicated the role of MKK7 in stress signaling pathways and cytokine production. However, little is known about the degree to which MKK4 and MKK7 contribute to innate immune responses in macrophages or during inflammation in vivo. To address this question and to elucidate the role of MKK4 and MKK7 in macrophage and in vivo, we developed MKK4- and MKK7-deficient mouse models with tamoxifen-inducible Rosa26 CreERT. This study reports that MKK7 is required for JNK activation both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we demonstrated that MKK7 in macrophages is necessary for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production, M1 polarization, and migration, which appear to be a major contributor to the inflammatory response in vivo. Conversely, MKK4 plays a significant, but minor role in cytokine production in vivo.