• Interaction standards for biophysics: anti-lysozyme nanobodies

      Birchenough, Holly L.; Nivia, Hilda D. Ruiz; Jowitt, Thomas A.; orcid: 0000-0002-4045-0933; email: t.jowitt@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-11)
      Abstract: There is a significant demand in the molecular biophysics community for robust standard samples. They are required by researchers, instrument developers and pharmaceutical companies for instrumental quality control, methodological development and in the design and validation of devices, diagnostics and instrumentation. To-date there has been no clear consensus on the need and type of standards that should be available and different research groups and instrument manufacturers use different standard systems which significantly hinders comparative analysis. One of the major objectives of the Association of Resources for Biophysical Research in Europe (ARBRE) is to establish a common set of standard samples that can be used throughout the biophysics community and instrument developers. A survey was circulated among ARBRE members to ascertain the requirements of laboratories when using standard systems and the results are documented in this article. In summary, the major requirements are protein samples which are cheap, relatively small, stable and have different binding strengths. We have developed a panel of sdAb’s or ‘nanobodies’ against hen-egg white lysozyme with different binding strengths and suitable stability characteristics. Here we show the results of the survey, the selection procedure, validation and final selection of a panel of nanobody interaction standards.