• Epidemiology is ecosystem science

      Lee, Keekok; orcid: 0000-0001-8400-9990; email: keekok.lee@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2019-02-26)
      Abstract: This paper primarily argues that Epidemiology is Ecosystem Science. It will not only explore this notion in detail but will also relate it to the argument that Classical Chinese Medicine was/is Ecosystem Science. Ecosystem Science (as instantiated by Epidemiology) and Ecosystem Science (as instantiated by Classical Chinese Medicine) share these characteristics: (a) they do not subscribe to the monogenic conception of disease; (b) they involve multi variables; (c) the model of causality presupposed is multi-factorial as well as non-linear.