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P2X Receptor-Dependent Modulation of Mast Cell and Glial Cell Activities in NeuroinflammationLocalisation of mast cells (MCs) at the abluminal side of blood vessels in the brain favours their interaction with glial cells, neurons, and endothelial cells, resulting in the activation of these cells and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. In turn, stimulation of glial cells, such as microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes may result in the modulation of MC activities. MCs, microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes all express P2X receptors (P2XRs) family members that are selectively engaged by ATP. As increased concentrations of extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) are present in the brain in neuropathological conditions, P2XR activation in MCs and glial cells contributes to the control of their communication and amplification of the inflammatory response. In this review we discuss P2XR-mediated MC activation, its bi-directional effect on microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and role in neuroinflammation.