• Reduced physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of dabigatran etexilate-dabigatran and its application for prediction of intestinal P-gp-mediated drug-drug interactions.

      Lang, Jennifer; Vincent, Ludwig; Chenel, Marylore; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Galetin, Aleksandra; email: aleksandra.galetin@manchester.ac.uk (2021-07-11)
      Dabigatran etexilate (DABE) has been suggested as a clinical probe for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies and, as an alternative to digoxin. Clinical DDI data with various P-gp inhibitors demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of P-gp with DABE. The aims of this study were to develop a joint DABE (prodrug)-dabigatran reduced physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and to evaluate its ability to predict differences in P-gp DDI magnitude between a microdose and a therapeutic dose of DABE. A joint DABE-dabigatran PBPK model was developed with a mechanistic intestinal model accounting for the regional P-gp distribution in the gastrointestinal tract. Model input parameters were estimated using DABE and dabigatran pharmacokinetic (PK) clinical data obtained after administration of DABE alone or with a strong P-gp inhibitor, itraconazole, and over a wide range of DABE doses (from 375 µg to 400 mg). Subsequently, the model was used to predict extent of DDI with additional P-gp inhibitors and with different DABE doses. The reduced DABE-dabigatran PBPK model successfully described plasma concentrations of both prodrug and metabolite following administration of DABE at different dose levels and when co-administered with itraconazole. The model was able to capture the dose dependency in P-gp mediated DDI. Predicted magnitude of itraconazole P-gp DDI was higher at the microdose (predicted vs. observed median fold-increase in AUC /AUC (min-max) = 5.88 (4.29-7.93) vs. 6.92 (4.96-9.66) ng.h/mL) compared to the therapeutic dose (predicted median fold-increase in AUC /AUC  = 3.48 (2.37-4.84) ng.h/mL). In addition, the reduced DABE-dabigatran PBPK model predicted successfully the extent of DDI with verapamil and clarithromycin as P-gp inhibitors. Model-based simulations of dose staggering predicted the maximum inhibition of P-gp when DABE microdose was concomitantly administered with itraconazole solution; simulations also highlighted dosing intervals required to minimise the DDI risk depending on the DABE dose administered (microdose vs. therapeutic). This study provides a modelling framework for the evaluation of P-gp inhibitory potential of new molecular entities using DABE as a clinical probe. Simulations of dose staggering and regional differences in the extent of intestinal P-gp inhibition for DABE microdose and therapeutic dose provide model-based guidance for design of prospective clinical P-gp DDI studies. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]