• iRFP (near-infrared fluorescent protein) imaging of subcutaneous and deep tissue tumours in mice highlights differences between imaging platforms.

      Hall, C; orcid: 0000-0002-0491-4438; von Grabowiecki, Y; orcid: 0000-0003-2189-6953; Pearce, S P; orcid: 0000-0002-1680-5538; Dive, C; Bagley, S; orcid: 0000-0002-9007-7292; Muller, P A J; orcid: 0000-0002-0926-1499; email: patricia.muller@cruk.manchester.ac.uk (2021-05-03)
      In vivo imaging using fluorescence is used in cancer biology for the detection, measurement and monitoring of tumours. This can be achieved with the expression of fluorescent proteins such as iRFP, which emits light at a wavelength less attenuated in biological tissues compared to light emitted by other fluorescent proteins such as GFP or RFP. Imaging platforms capable of detecting fluorescent tumours in small animals have been developed but studies comparing the performance of these platforms are scarce. Through access to three platforms from Xenogen, Bruker and Li-Cor, we compared their ability to detect iRFP-expressing subcutaneous tumours as well as tumours localised deeper within the body of female NSG mice. Each platform was paired with proprietary software for image analyse, but the output depends on subjective decisions from the user. To more objectively compare platforms, we developed an 'in house' software-based approach which results in lower measured variability between mice. Our comparisons showed that all three platforms allowed for reliable detection and monitoring of subcutaneous iRFP tumour growth. The biggest differences between platforms became apparent when imaging deeper tumours with the Li-Cor platform detecting most tumours and showing the highest dynamic range.
    • iRFP (near-infrared fluorescent protein) imaging of subcutaneous and deep tissue tumours in mice highlights differences between imaging platforms.

      Hall, C; orcid: 0000-0002-0491-4438; von Grabowiecki, Y; orcid: 0000-0003-2189-6953; Pearce, S P; orcid: 0000-0002-1680-5538; Dive, C; Bagley, S; orcid: 0000-0002-9007-7292; Muller, P A J; orcid: 0000-0002-0926-1499; email: patricia.muller@cruk.manchester.ac.uk (2021-05-03)
      <h4>Background</h4>In vivo imaging using fluorescence is used in cancer biology for the detection, measurement and monitoring of tumours. This can be achieved with the expression of fluorescent proteins such as iRFP, which emits light at a wavelength less attenuated in biological tissues compared to light emitted by other fluorescent proteins such as GFP or RFP. Imaging platforms capable of detecting fluorescent tumours in small animals have been developed but studies comparing the performance of these platforms are scarce.<h4>Results</h4>Through access to three platforms from Xenogen, Bruker and Li-Cor, we compared their ability to detect iRFP-expressing subcutaneous tumours as well as tumours localised deeper within the body of female NSG mice. Each platform was paired with proprietary software for image analyse, but the output depends on subjective decisions from the user. To more objectively compare platforms, we developed an 'in house' software-based approach which results in lower measured variability between mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our comparisons showed that all three platforms allowed for reliable detection and monitoring of subcutaneous iRFP tumour growth. The biggest differences between platforms became apparent when imaging deeper tumours with the Li-Cor platform detecting most tumours and showing the highest dynamic range.
    • Pandemics, Protests, and Pronouns: The Changing Landscape of Biomedical Visualisation and Education.

      Finn, Gabrielle M; email: gabrielle.finn@manchester.ac.uk; Quinn, Rebecca; Sanders, Katherine; Ballard, William; Balogun-Katung, Abisola; Dueñas, Angelique N (2021)
      Events in early 2020 changed the landscape of education for the foreseeable future, perhaps permanently. Three events had a significant impact; (1) the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, (2) the death of George Floyd, which resulted in the most recent Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests, and (3) the Twitter storm, the resultant societal fallout and freedom of speech campaigns, following comments made by author JK Rowling which many deemed transphobic. These events had a differential impact on biomedical sciences, when compared to other sectors. COVID-19 resulted in a global lockdown, with higher education institutions closing campuses and moving to online-only delivery. This rapid change required radical shifts in the use of technology, with mass delivery of teaching at short notice. The BLM protests further raised awareness of the inequalities within society, particularly those experienced by Black people and other oppressed groups. As a result, there have been calls for the decolonisation of the curriculum. The implications of these three key events have led institutions to rethink their policies, teaching delivery, assessment, curricula, and physical environments. This chapter considers (1) the implications of a swift change in the primary mode of curriculum delivery within Higher Education to online formats and (2) how recent adverse events have resulted in calls for much-needed changes in visual representations within biomedical sciences. Finally, we consider (3) the role of the hidden curriculum and the potential impact of visual representations in curricula on the delivery of healthcare and the fight against health inequalities, which are often as a result of implicit biases. The year 2020 has proven timely in presenting the opportunity for change, provided through the power of imagery. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.]