• Associations of specific-age and decade recall body mass index trajectories with obesity-related cancer.

      Watson, Charlotte; orcid: 0000-0003-2813-8223; email: charlotte.watson@manchester.ac.uk; Renehan, Andrew G; Geifman, Nophar (2021-05-05)
      Excess body fatness, commonly approximated by a one-off determination of body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of at least 13 cancers. Modelling of longitudinal BMI data may be more informative for incident cancer associations, e.g. using latent class trajectory modelling (LCTM) may offer advantages in capturing changes in patterns with time. Here, we evaluated the variation in cancer risk with LCTMs using specific age recall versus decade recall BMI. We obtained BMI profiles for participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We developed gender-specific LCTMs using recall data from specific ages 20 and 50 years (72,513 M; 74,837 W); decade data from 30s to 70s (42,113 M; 47,352 W) and a combination of both (74,106 M, 76,245 W). Using an established methodological framework, we tested 1:7 classes for linear, quadratic, cubic and natural spline shapes, and modelled associations for obesity-related cancer (ORC) incidence using LCTM class membership. Different models were selected depending on the data type used. In specific age recall trajectories, only the two heaviest classes were associated with increased risk of ORC. For the decade recall data, the shapes appeared skewed by outliers in the heavier classes but an increase in ORC risk was observed. In the combined models, at older ages the BMI values were more extreme. Specific age recall models supported the existing literature changes in BMI over time are associated with increased ORC risk. Modelling of decade recall data might yield spurious associations.
    • Associations of specific-age and decade recall body mass index trajectories with obesity-related cancer.

      Watson, Charlotte; orcid: 0000-0003-2813-8223; email: charlotte.watson@manchester.ac.uk; Renehan, Andrew G; Geifman, Nophar (2021-05-05)
      <h4>Background</h4>Excess body fatness, commonly approximated by a one-off determination of body mass index (BMI), is associated with increased risk of at least 13 cancers. Modelling of longitudinal BMI data may be more informative for incident cancer associations, e.g. using latent class trajectory modelling (LCTM) may offer advantages in capturing changes in patterns with time. Here, we evaluated the variation in cancer risk with LCTMs using specific age recall versus decade recall BMI.<h4>Methods</h4>We obtained BMI profiles for participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We developed gender-specific LCTMs using recall data from specific ages 20 and 50 years (72,513 M; 74,837 W); decade data from 30s to 70s (42,113 M; 47,352 W) and a combination of both (74,106 M, 76,245 W). Using an established methodological framework, we tested 1:7 classes for linear, quadratic, cubic and natural spline shapes, and modelled associations for obesity-related cancer (ORC) incidence using LCTM class membership.<h4>Results</h4>Different models were selected depending on the data type used. In specific age recall trajectories, only the two heaviest classes were associated with increased risk of ORC. For the decade recall data, the shapes appeared skewed by outliers in the heavier classes but an increase in ORC risk was observed. In the combined models, at older ages the BMI values were more extreme.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Specific age recall models supported the existing literature changes in BMI over time are associated with increased ORC risk. Modelling of decade recall data might yield spurious associations.
    • Development and feasibility of a Swallowing intervention Package (SiP) for patients receiving radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer—the SiP study protocol

      Wells, Mary; King, Emma; Toft, Kate; MacAulay, Fiona; Patterson, Joanne; Dougall, Nadine; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas J.; Boa, Sally; Slaven, Eleanor; Cowie, Julie; et al. (BioMed Central, 2016-08-04)
      Background Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and the functional, psychological and social consequences of HNC cancer and its treatment can be severe and chronic. Dysphagia (swallowing problems) affects up to two thirds of patients undergoing combined chemoradiotherapy. Recent reviews suggest that prophylactic swallowing exercises may improve a range of short- and long-term outcomes; however, the importance of psychological and behavioural factors on adherence to swallowing exercises has not been adequately studied. This study aims to develop and test the feasibility of a Swallowing intervention Package (SiP) designed in partnership with patients, speech and language therapists (SLTs) and other members of the head and neck multi-disciplinary team (MDT), for patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Methods/design This feasibility study uses quantitative and qualitative research methods, within a quasi-experimental design, to assess whether patients will tolerate and adhere to the SiP intervention, which aspects of the intervention can be implemented and which cannot, whether treatment fidelity can be achieved across different contexts, whether study processes and outcome measures will be feasible and acceptable and to what extent the intervention is likely to have an impact on swallowing dysfunction and quality of life. Patients are being recruited from five sites in Scotland and England (three interventions and two usual care). The SLT based in the relevant intervention centre teaches the exercise programme and provides supporting materials. A combination of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), adherence measures and clinical swallowing assessments are used prior to intervention (baseline), at the end of treatment, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Discussion This collaborative study has taken a unique approach to the development of a patient-centred and evidence-based swallowing intervention. The introduction of an e-SiP app provides an exploration of the use of technology in delivering this intervention. The study provides an opportunity to examine the feasibility of delivering and participating in a supported swallowing intervention across several different NHS sites and will provide the evidence needed to refine intervention and study processes for a future trial. Trial registration NCRI portfolio, 18192 & 20259
    • The efficacy of interactive group psychoeducation for children with leukaemia: A randomised controlled trial.

      Day, Marianne; email: marianne.day@manchester.ac.uk; Harris, Sally; email: sally.harris13@nhs.net; Hussein, Deema; email: dmhussein@kau.edu.sa; Saka, Mohamad Yassin; email: mysaka@kau.edu.sa; Stride, Chris; email: c.b.stride@sheffield.ac.uk; Jones, Myles; email: m.jones@sheffield.ac.uk; Makin, Guy; email: guy.makin@manchester.ac.uk; Rowe, Richard; email: r.rowe@sheffield.ac.uk (2021-04-28)
      To evaluate an interactive group psychoeducation programme for children treated for leukaemia. A longitudinal randomised controlled study across four UK hospitals with an immediate (N = 26) and delay control group (N = 32). The intervention covered the pathophysiology of leukaemia, its treatment, side effects and the importance of positive health behaviours. Primary outcomes were parent-reported child health related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavioural difficulties. Secondary outcomes were child-reported HRQoL, cancer-specific HRQoL, child confidence, caregiver burden, and treatment anxiety. Measures were completed pre- and immediately post-intervention, and at 13 and 26-weeks follow-up. Change over time was analysed using multilevel modelling. Acceptability questionnaires rated the intervention on benefits, recommendations, and barriers to participation. The intervention significantly improved parent-reported child HRQoL but did not have a significant effect on other outcomes. Acceptability of the intervention was high. This study provides initial evidence that interactive group psychoeducation is acceptable to families and improves HRQoL in children with leukaemia. Difficulties with recruitment removed power to detect effect sizes that are plausible for psychoeducational interventions. Further studies to explore the potential of psychoeducation to improve outcomes for children with leukaemia and an examination of barriers to participation within this population are warranted. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]