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Insulin protects acinar cells during pancreatitis by preserving glycolytic ATP supply to calcium pumpsAbstract: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is serious inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Accumulating evidence links diabetes with severity of AP, suggesting that endogenous insulin may be protective. We investigated this putative protective effect of insulin during cellular and in vivo models of AP in diabetic mice (Ins2Akita) and Pancreatic Acinar cell-specific Conditional Insulin Receptor Knock Out mice (PACIRKO). Caerulein and palmitoleic acid (POA)/ethanol-induced pancreatitis was more severe in both Ins2Akita and PACIRKO vs control mice, suggesting that endogenous insulin directly protects acinar cells in vivo. In isolated pancreatic acinar cells, insulin induced Akt-mediated phosphorylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2) which upregulated glycolysis thereby preventing POA-induced ATP depletion, inhibition of the ATP-dependent plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) and cytotoxic Ca2+ overload. These data provide the first mechanistic link between diabetes and severity of AP and suggest that phosphorylation of PFKFB2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of AP.
Targeting STAT3 signaling using stabilised sulforaphane (SFX-01) inhibits endocrine resistant stem-like cells in ER-positive breast cancerAbstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer is frequently sensitive to endocrine therapy. Multiple mechanisms of endocrine therapy resistance have been identified, including cancer stem-like cell (CSC) activity. Here we investigate SFX-01, a stabilised formulation of sulforaphane (SFN), for its effects on breast CSC activity in ER+ preclinical models. SFX‐01 reduced mammosphere formation efficiency (MFE) of ER+ primary and metastatic patient samples. Both tamoxifen and fulvestrant increased MFE and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors, which was reversed by combination with SFX‐01. SFX-01 significantly reduced tumor-initiating cell frequency in secondary transplants and reduced the formation of spontaneous lung micrometastases by PDX tumors in mice. Mechanistically, we establish that both tamoxifen and fulvestrant induce STAT3 phosphorylation. SFX-01 suppressed phospho‐STAT3 and SFN directly bound STAT3 in patient and PDX samples. Analysis of ALDH+ cells from endocrine-resistant patient samples revealed activation of STAT3 target genes MUC1 and OSMR, which were inhibited by SFX-01 in patient samples. Increased expression of these genes after 3 months’ endocrine treatment of ER+ patients (n = 68) predicted poor prognosis. Our data establish the importance of STAT3 signaling in CSC-mediated resistance to endocrine therapy and the potential of SFX-01 for improving clinical outcomes in ER+ breast cancer.
Ultraviolet light-induced collagen degradation inhibits melanoma invasionAbstract: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damages the dermis and fibroblasts; and increases melanoma incidence. Fibroblasts and their matrix contribute to cancer, so we studied how UVR modifies dermal fibroblast function, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and melanoma invasion. We confirmed UVR-damaged fibroblasts persistently upregulate collagen-cleaving matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP1) expression, reducing local collagen (COL1A1), and COL1A1 degradation by MMP1 decreased melanoma invasion. Conversely, inhibiting ECM degradation and MMP1 expression restored melanoma invasion. Primary cutaneous melanomas of aged humans show more cancer cells invade as single cells at the invasive front of melanomas expressing and depositing more collagen, and collagen and single melanoma cell invasion are robust predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Thus, primary melanomas arising over collagen-degraded skin are less invasive, and reduced invasion improves survival. However, melanoma-associated fibroblasts can restore invasion by increasing collagen synthesis. Finally, high COL1A1 gene expression is a biomarker of poor outcome across a range of primary cancers.