• Bifurcations of drops and bubbles propagating in variable-depth Hele-Shaw channels

      Thompson, Alice B.; orcid: 0000-0001-9558-1554; email: alice.thompson@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-07-18)
      Abstract: The steady propagation of air bubbles through a Hele-Shaw channel with either a rectangular or partially occluded cross section is known to exhibit solution multiplicity for steadily propagating bubbles, along with complicated transient behaviour where the bubble may visit several edge states or even change topology several times, before typically reaching its final propagation mode. Many of these phenomena can be observed both in experimental realisations and in numerical simulations based on simple Darcy models of flow and bubble propagation in a Hele-Shaw cell. In this paper, we investigate the corresponding problem for the propagation of a viscous drop (with viscosity ν relative to the surrounding fluid) using a Darcy model. We explore the effect of drop viscosity on the steady solution structure for drops in rectangular channels or with imposed height variations. Under the Darcy model in a uniform channel, steady solutions for bubbles map directly on to those for drops with any internal viscosity ν≠1. Hence, the solution multiplicity predicted for bubbles also occurs for drops, although for ν>1, the interface shape is reversed with inflection points appearing at the rear rather than the front of the drop. The equivalence between bubbles and drops breaks down for transient behaviour, at the introduction of any height variation, for multiple bodies of different viscosity ratios and for more detailed models which produce a more complicated flow in the interior of the drop. We show that the introduction of topography variations affects bubbles and drops differently, with very viscous drops preferentially moving towards more constricted regions of the channel. Both bubbles and drops can undergo transient behaviour which involves breakup into two almost equal bodies, which then symmetry break before either recombining or separating indefinitely.
    • Bifurcations of drops and bubbles propagating in variable-depth Hele-Shaw channels

      Thompson, Alice B.; orcid: 0000-0001-9558-1554; email: alice.thompson@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-07-18)
      Abstract: The steady propagation of air bubbles through a Hele-Shaw channel with either a rectangular or partially occluded cross section is known to exhibit solution multiplicity for steadily propagating bubbles, along with complicated transient behaviour where the bubble may visit several edge states or even change topology several times, before typically reaching its final propagation mode. Many of these phenomena can be observed both in experimental realisations and in numerical simulations based on simple Darcy models of flow and bubble propagation in a Hele-Shaw cell. In this paper, we investigate the corresponding problem for the propagation of a viscous drop (with viscosity ν relative to the surrounding fluid) using a Darcy model. We explore the effect of drop viscosity on the steady solution structure for drops in rectangular channels or with imposed height variations. Under the Darcy model in a uniform channel, steady solutions for bubbles map directly on to those for drops with any internal viscosity ν≠1. Hence, the solution multiplicity predicted for bubbles also occurs for drops, although for ν>1, the interface shape is reversed with inflection points appearing at the rear rather than the front of the drop. The equivalence between bubbles and drops breaks down for transient behaviour, at the introduction of any height variation, for multiple bodies of different viscosity ratios and for more detailed models which produce a more complicated flow in the interior of the drop. We show that the introduction of topography variations affects bubbles and drops differently, with very viscous drops preferentially moving towards more constricted regions of the channel. Both bubbles and drops can undergo transient behaviour which involves breakup into two almost equal bodies, which then symmetry break before either recombining or separating indefinitely.
    • Climate and monetary policy: do temperature shocks lead to inflationary pressures?

      Mukherjee, K.; Ouattara, B.; orcid: 0000-0002-6336-1941; email: osman.ouattara@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-08-10)
      Abstract: In the race towards economic growth, increased pollutant emissions have spurred the rise in global surface temperatures, intensifying the process of climate change. While the existing literature on the economic impact of climate-related variables has looked at outcomes such as growth, income, fiscal response, and poverty, the effect of temperature shocks on inflation has largely been neglected. This paper is an attempt to fill this lacuna. Indeed, we analyze the dynamic impact of temperature shocks on inflation, a key policy variable of most central banks. We use a panel-VAR method with fixed-effects and a sample of developed and developing countries over the period 1961–2014. Our results suggest that temperature shocks lead to inflationary pressures. Worryingly, and for developing countries in particular, we find that these effects persist several years after the initial shock. Our finding remained unaltered by various robustness checks. We show that these effects pose a threat to monetary policy making. We argue that central banks should pay more attention to temperature shocks.
    • Climate and monetary policy: do temperature shocks lead to inflationary pressures?

      Mukherjee, K.; Ouattara, B.; orcid: 0000-0002-6336-1941; email: osman.ouattara@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2021-08-10)
      Abstract: In the race towards economic growth, increased pollutant emissions have spurred the rise in global surface temperatures, intensifying the process of climate change. While the existing literature on the economic impact of climate-related variables has looked at outcomes such as growth, income, fiscal response, and poverty, the effect of temperature shocks on inflation has largely been neglected. This paper is an attempt to fill this lacuna. Indeed, we analyze the dynamic impact of temperature shocks on inflation, a key policy variable of most central banks. We use a panel-VAR method with fixed-effects and a sample of developed and developing countries over the period 1961–2014. Our results suggest that temperature shocks lead to inflationary pressures. Worryingly, and for developing countries in particular, we find that these effects persist several years after the initial shock. Our finding remained unaltered by various robustness checks. We show that these effects pose a threat to monetary policy making. We argue that central banks should pay more attention to temperature shocks.
    • Coalitions and Public Action in the Reshaping of Corporate Responsibility: The Case of the Retail Banking Industry

      de la Cuesta-González, Marta; Froud, Julie; orcid: 0000-0002-8330-2615; email: julie.froud@manchester.ac.uk; Tischer, Daniel (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-25)
      Abstract: This paper addresses the question of whether and how public action via civil society and/or government can meaningfully shape industry-wide corporate responsibility (ICR) behaviour. We explore how, in principle, ICR can come about and what conditions might be effective in promoting more ethical behaviour. We propose a framework to understand attempts to develop more responsible behaviour at an industry level through processes of negotiation and coalition building. We suggest that any attempt to meaningfully influence ICR would require stakeholders to possess both power and legitimacy; moreover, magnitude and urgency of the issue at stake may affect the ability to influence ICR. The framework is applied to the retail banking industry, focusing on post-crisis experiences in two countries—Spain and the UK—where there has been considerable pressure on the retail banking industry by civil society and/or government to change behaviours, especially to abandon unethical practices. We illustrate in this paper how corporate responsibility at the sector level in retail banking is the product of context-specific processes of negotiation between civil society and public authorities, on behalf of customers and other stakeholders, drawing on legal and other institutions to influence industry behaviour.
    • Corporate Law Versus Social Autonomy: Law as Social Hazard

      Galanis, Michael; email: michael.galanis@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: This article argues that corporate law has become the legal platform upon which is erected a social process impeding society’s capacity to lucidly reflect on its primary ends; in this sense, corporate law is in conflict with social autonomy. This process is described here as a social feedback loop, in the structural centre of which lies the corporation which imposes its own purpose as an irrational social end, i.e. irrespective of its potentially catastrophic social consequences. The article argues that resolving the conflict between corporate law and social autonomy is impossible, because it presupposes a change of social paradigm towards one where corporate law as business organisation law has no obvious fit. This questions the social legitimacy of corporate law, signifies its non-permanence and thus opens up the field for seeking radical alternatives in the future.
    • Damage Detection in Composites By Artificial Neural Networks Trained By Using in Situ Distributed Strains

      Califano, America; orcid: 0000-0002-6344-8051; email: america.califano@gmail.com; email: america.califano@unicampania.it; Chandarana, Neha; Grassia, Luigi; D’Amore, Alberto; Soutis, Constantinos; email: constantinos.soutis@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-08-07)
      Abstract: In this paper, a passive structural health monitoring (SHM) method capable of detecting the presence of damage in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates is developed. The method requires the measurement of strains from the considered structure, which are used to set up, train, and test artificial neural networks (ANNs). At the end of the training phase, the networks find correlations between the given strains, which represent the ‘fingerprint’ of the structure under investigation. Changes in the distribution of these strains is captured by assessing differences in the previously identified strain correlations. If any cause generates damage that alters the strain distribution, this is considered as a reason for further detailed structural inspection. The novelty of the strain algorithm comes from its independence from both the choice of material and the loading condition. It does not require the prior knowledge of material properties based on stress-strain relationships and, as the strain correlations represent the structure and its mechanical behaviour, they are valid for the full range of operating loads. An implementation of such approach is herein presented based on the usage of a distributed optical fibre sensor that allows to obtain strain measurement with an incredibly high resolution.
    • DP structure and internally headed relatives in Washo

      Hanink, Emily A.; email: emily.hanink@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-07-17)
      Abstract: This paper contributes to recent lines of inquiry addressing the nature of indices in definite expressions. The primary language of investigation is Washo, a North American isolate spoken in the western United States. Building on previous claims about the structure of anaphoric definites, I propose a unified analysis of the Washo DP that lends novel evidence to the claim that indices are best thought of as syntactic objects in their own right, independent from D. The structurally encoded index—introduced by a head idx—is shown to be overtly realized by the morpheme gi/ge in both pronouns and demonstratives, as well as at the periphery of internally headed relative clauses, which are themselves complex DPs. An important aspect of this proposal is the argument that idx can play two related semantic roles: The semantic index it hosts can be interpreted either as a variable, as previously proposed for familiar definites, or itself as a variable binder. The availability of the latter explains the appearance of gi/ge in internally headed relatives. I show moreover that the exponence of idx in Washo is sensitive to the type of complement it takes, a proposal that makes sense of the observed distribution of gi/ge in a range of definite expressions.
    • Epidemiology is ecosystem science

      Lee, Keekok; orcid: 0000-0001-8400-9990; email: keekok.lee@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2019-02-26)
      Abstract: This paper primarily argues that Epidemiology is Ecosystem Science. It will not only explore this notion in detail but will also relate it to the argument that Classical Chinese Medicine was/is Ecosystem Science. Ecosystem Science (as instantiated by Epidemiology) and Ecosystem Science (as instantiated by Classical Chinese Medicine) share these characteristics: (a) they do not subscribe to the monogenic conception of disease; (b) they involve multi variables; (c) the model of causality presupposed is multi-factorial as well as non-linear.
    • EVI1 oncoprotein expression and CtBP1-association oscillate through the cell cycle

      Paredes, Roberto; Schneider, Marion; Pearson, Stella; Teng, Hsiang Yin; Kelly, James R.; Pierce, Andrew; Somervaille, Tim C. P.; Whetton, Anthony D.; Meyer, Stefan; orcid: 0000-0002-2283-3690; email: stefan.meyer@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-09-26)
      Abstract: Aberrantly high expression of EVI1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. For targeted treatment of EVI1 overexpressing AML a more detailed understanding of aspects of spatiotemporal interaction dynamics of the EVI1 protein is important. EVI1 overexpressing SB1690CB AML cells were used for quantification and protein interaction studies of EVI1 and ΔEVI1. Cells were cell cycle-synchronised by mimosine and nocodazole treatment and expression of EVI1 and related proteins assessed by western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. EVI1 protein levels oscillate through the cell cycle, and EVI1 is degraded partly by the proteasome complex. Both EVI1 and ΔEVI1 interact with the co-repressor CtBP1 but dissociate from CtBP1 complexes during mitosis. Furthermore, a large fraction of EVI1, but not ΔEVI1 or CtBP1, resides in the nuclear matrix. In conclusion, EVI1- protein levels and EVI1-CtBP1 interaction dynamics vary though the cell cycle and differ between EVI1 and ΔEVI1. These data ad to the functional characterisation of the EVI1 protein in AML and will be important for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for EVI1-driven AML.
    • Exploratory study of the association in the United Kingdom between hypertension and inorganic arsenic (iAs) intake from rice and rice products

      Xu, Lingqian; Polya, David A.; email: david.polya@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-04-28)
      Abstract: Hypertension risks arising from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) are well documented. Consumption of rice is a major iAs exposure route for over 3 billion people; however, there is a lack of epidemiological evidence demonstrating an association of hypertension risks with iAs intake from rice, especially in areas where there is little exposure from drinking water but a growing demand for rice intake. To address this, we conducted an individual-level cross-sectional analysis to quantify the extent to which daily iAs intake from rice and rice products (E-iAsing,rice) modifies the association between hypertension risks and previously well-established risk factors. The analysis was based on secondary dietary, socio-demographic and health status data of 598 participants recorded in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2014–2016. E-iAsing,rice and five blood pressure endpoints were derived with potential associations explored through generalized linear models. According to the results, a negative but not significant relationship was found between hypertension risks and E-iAsing,rice after adjusting for major risk factors, notably age, gender, diabetes and obesity, with relatively higher risks being observed for male, middle-aged, overweight, alcohol consumer or Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British and mixed ethnic groups. Though inconclusive and mainly limited by potential incomplete adjustment for major confounders and intrinsic disadvantages of a cross-sectional design, this study was the first quantifying the individual level dose–response relationship between E-iAsing,rice and hypertension risks and is consistent with previous studies on the limited associations of hypertension with low-level arsenic exposure from drinking water. Larger scale cohort studies are indicated to quantify the association but in any event it is likely to be weak.
    • Fire Safety Assessment of Epoxy Composites Reinforced by Carbon Fibre and Graphene

      Zhang, Qiangjun; orcid: 0000-0002-3969-7090; email: qiangjun.zhang@manchester.ac.uk; Wang, Yong C; Soutis, Constantinos; Bailey, Colin G.; Hu, Yuan (Springer Netherlands, 2020-07-14)
      Abstract: This paper presents a coupled numerical investigation to assess the reaction to fire performance and fire resistance of various types of epoxy resin (ER) based composites. It examines the fire response of carbon fibre (CF) reinforced ER (CF/ER), ER with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP/ER) and CF reinforced GNP/ER (CF/GNP/ER). Thermal, physical and pyrolysis properties are presented to assist numerical modelling that is used to assess the material ability to pass the regulatory vertical burn test for new aircraft structures and estimate in-fire and post-fire residual strength properties. Except for the CF/GNP/ER composite, all other material systems fail the vertical burn test due to continuous burning after removal of the fire source. Carbon fibres are non-combustible and therefore reduce heat release rate of the ER composite. By combining this property with the beneficial barrier effects of graphene platelets, the CF/GNP/ER composite with 1.5 wt% GNP and 50 wt% CF self-extinguishes within 15 s after removal of the burner with a relatively small burn length. Graphene drastically slows down heat conduction and migration of decomposed volatiles to the surface by creating improved char structures. Thus, graphene is allowing the CF/GNP/ER composite panel to pass the regulatory vertical burn test. Due to low heat conduction and reduced heat release rate, the maximum temperatures in the CF/GNP/ER composite are low so the composite material retains very high in-fire and post-fire mechanical properties, maintaining structural integrity. In contrast, temperatures in the CF/ER composite are much higher. At a maximum temperature of 86 °C, the residual in-fire tensile and compressive mechanical strengths of CF/GNP/ER are about 87% and 59% respectively of the ambient temperature values, compared to 70% and 21% respectively for the CF/ER composite that has a temperature of 140 °C at the same time (but the CF/ER temperature will be higher due to continuing burning). Converting mass losses of the composites into char depth, the post-fire mechanical properties of the CF/GNP/ER composite are about 75% of the ambient condition compared to about 68% for the CF/ER composite.
    • Now, Imagine an Actually Existing Unicorn: On Russellian Worries for Modal Meinongianism

      de Jong, Andreas; email: andreas.dejong@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-04-23)
      Abstract: Modal Meinongianism provides the semantics of sentences involving intentional verbs Priest (Towards Nonbeing, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016). To that end, Modal Meinongianism employs a pointed non-normal quantified modal logic model. Like earlier Meinongian views Modal Meinongianism has a characterisation principle (QCP), that claims that any condition whatsoever is satisfied by some object in some world. Recently, Everett (The nonexistent, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, 169, p. 36) has proposed an argument against QCP that, if successful, gives rise to problems identical to those Russell (Mind 14:530–538, 1905, p. 533) raised for Naïve Meinongianism, namely that it allows for true contradictions, and allows us to define anything into existence. Everett claims that the ordinary meanings of “actual” license an inference pattern, such that if an object satisfies Actual A at some world, then that object satisfies A in the actual world. Given that actual world is the designated point of evaluation for truth simpliciter, QCP would fall prey to Russell’s criticisms. As opposed to Everett, I argue that, even if we grant Everett the assumption that “actual” is a modal indexical that rigidly refers to the actual world, it does not conform to the inference pattern above. This is because when an object satisfies Actual A at some world, this alters the assertoric force of “actual”, because “actual” is interpreted in the scope of some modal or intentional operator. I also explain that Everett’s proposed example carries existential commitment because the problematic noun-phrase occurs outside the scope of a modal or intentional operator.
    • Opportunity Costs Pacifism

      Pattison, James; orcid: 0000-0002-4649-358X; email: james.pattison@manchester.ac.uk (Springer Netherlands, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: If the resources used to wage wars could be spent elsewhere and save more lives, does this mean that wars are unjustified? This article considers this question, which has been largely overlooked by Just War Theorists and pacifists. It focuses on whether the opportunity costs of war lead to a form of pacifism, which it calls ‘Opportunity Costs Pacifism’. The article argues that Opportunity Costs Pacifism is, at the more ideal level, compelling. It suggests that the only plausible response to Opportunity Costs Pacifism applies in highly nonideal circumstances. This has major implications for Just War Theory and pacifism since it is only at the highly nonideal level that war can be justified.