• A Review of Verification and Validation for Space Autonomous Systems

      Cardoso, Rafael C.; orcid: 0000-0001-6666-6954; email: rafael.cardoso@manchester.ac.uk; Kourtis, Georgios; Dennis, Louise A.; Dixon, Clare; Farrell, Marie; Fisher, Michael; Webster, Matt (Springer International Publishing, 2021-06-18)
      Abstract: Purpose of Review: The deployment of hardware (e.g., robots, satellites, etc.) to space is a costly and complex endeavor. It is of extreme importance that on-board systems are verified and validated through a variety of verification and validation techniques, especially in the case of autonomous systems. In this paper, we discuss a number of approaches from the literature that are relevant or directly applied to the verification and validation of systems in space, with an emphasis on autonomy. Recent Findings: Despite advances in individual verification and validation techniques, there is still a lack of approaches that aim to combine different forms of verification in order to obtain system-wide verification of modular autonomous systems. Summary: This systematic review of the literature includes the current advances in the latest approaches using formal methods for static verification (model checking and theorem proving) and runtime verification, the progress achieved so far in the verification of machine learning, an overview of the landscape in software testing, and the importance of performing compositional verification in modular systems. In particular, we focus on reporting the use of these techniques for the verification and validation of systems in space with an emphasis on autonomy, as well as more general techniques (such as in the aeronautical domain) that have been shown to have potential value in the verification and validation of autonomous systems in space.
    • Biological perspectives and current biofabrication strategies in osteochondral tissue engineering

      Vyas, Cian; orcid: 0000-0001-6030-1962; email: cian.vyas@manchester.ac.uk; Mishbak, Hussein; Cooper, Glen; Peach, Chris; Pereira, Ruben F.; Bartolo, Paulo (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-09)
      Abstract: Articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone are crucial in human movement and when damaged through disease or trauma impacts severely on quality of life. Cartilage has a limited regenerative capacity due to its avascular composition and current therapeutic interventions have limited efficacy. With a rapidly ageing population globally, the numbers of patients requiring therapy for osteochondral disorders is rising, leading to increasing pressures on healthcare systems. Research into novel therapies using tissue engineering has become a priority. However, rational design of biomimetic and clinically effective tissue constructs requires basic understanding of osteochondral biological composition, structure, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, consideration of material design, scaffold architecture, and biofabrication strategies, is needed to assist in the development of tissue engineering therapies enabling successful translation into the clinical arena. This review provides a starting point for any researcher investigating tissue engineering for osteochondral applications. An overview of biological properties of osteochondral tissue, current clinical practices, the role of tissue engineering and biofabrication, and key challenges associated with new treatments is provided. Developing precisely engineered tissue constructs with mechanical and phenotypic stability is the goal. Future work should focus on multi-stimulatory environments, long-term studies to determine phenotypic alterations and tissue formation, and the development of novel bioreactor systems that can more accurately resemble the in vivo environment.
    • Bringing the doctoral thesis by published papers to the Social Sciences and the Humanities: A quantitative easing? A small study of doctoral thesis submission rules and practice in two disciplines in the UK

      Rigby, John; orcid: 0000-0001-9833-5965; email: John.Rigby@manchester.ac.uk; Jones, Barbara; orcid: 0000-0003-2717-6076 (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-15)
      Abstract: This paper examines how an alternative to the traditional monograph form of the doctoral thesis is emerging that reflects a new approach to the valuation and designation of scientific outputs. This new approach, based on co-citation as underpinning principle for the measurement of knowledge structures, values knowledge and knowledge producers in increasingly quantitative terms. Such a change aligns with wider institutional market-based approaches that have been transforming higher education sectors world-wide. Under these influences, which prioritize quantification and tangibility of output, with quality equated with citation, the thesis, a key institution of the university, is now subject to pressures to transform and be constituted by a series of publishable papers, referred to by a variety of terms, the most common being ‘Thesis by Published Papers’, although ‘Journal Format Thesis’, ‘Alternative Format Thesis’, and ‘Integrated Thesis’ are also used. While the scientific disciplines have traditionally been closer to this paper-based model, albeit with significant national variations, Social Sciences and Humanities subjects are now being affected. We present evidence from a small study of the UK higher education sector of organisational regulations in 54 departments concerning doctoral degree submission formats in two disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences (History and Sociology). We investigate the prevalence of this new practice, investigate some of its key aspects, and identify a number of questions for future research on this emerging and important topic.
    • Comparing the post-WWII publication histories of oceanography and marine geoscience

      Mitchell, Neil C.; orcid: 0000-0002-6483-2450; email: neil.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-05-26)
      Abstract: Oceanography and marine geosciences are closely related subjects, though they have had differing influences. The UK, which has experienced the financial benefits of North Sea oil and gas, while also having an extensive fishing industry and a science base linked to other English-speaking countries and European countries, potentially illustrates some changing influences and collaborative tendencies well. In this article, differences in article publication rates and collaborative tendencies, both globally and for the UK, are examined using the Web of Science™, Scopus™ and Georef™ for the period 1946–2018. The results show that publication rates of global oceanography articles rose exponentially faster than all global scientific publishing from the mid-1960s to 1980. Subsequently, the exponential rate of increase slowed though has remained faster than global science publishing. Global Marine Geoscience publication rates increased into the late 1980s, but have since declined. UK oceanography has roughly followed global trends, though its share of global oceanographic publishing declined from 28% in the 1950s to 8% in 2018. UK Marine Geoscience publishing has also generally followed global trends for that field. However, its share of global publications abruptly increased from 4.9% (average 1960–1980) to 13.2% by 1990, largely due to articles arising from UK participation in the Deep-Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program. Oceanography and marine geoscience have also experienced strongly differing histories of collaborative articles over the last four decades. While oceanographic articles co-authored with researchers in other countries have been steadily increasing as a share of total UK Oceanography articles, those of marine geoscience peaked in 1990 and have since declined, though remained at high levels similar to those experienced by 2018 in Oceanography. Comparing global publication rates in both fields with measures of data and sample collection at sea suggests fundamental changes occurred in the way research was carried out. For example, Marine Geoscience publication rates were strongly correlated with geophysical track-line distances for the decade until ~1970, but were inversely correlated for the decade after then. This reflects, for example, the development of plate tectonics, which partly involved analysis of existing marine geophysical data, improved equipment capabilities and the increased role of scientific drilling.
    • Effects of Ageing on Aortic Circulation During Atrial Fibrillation; a Numerical Study on Different Aortic Morphologies

      Deyranlou, Amin; Miller, Christopher A.; Revell, Alistair; Keshmiri, Amir; orcid: 0000-0003-4747-277X; email: a.keshmiri@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-03-02)
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can alter intra-cardiac flow and cardiac output that subsequently affects aortic flow circulation. These changes may become more significant where they occur concomitantly with ageing. Aortic ageing is accompanied with morphological changes such as dilation, lengthening, and arch unfolding. While the recognition of AF mechanism has been the subject of numerous studies, less focus has been devoted to the aortic circulation during the AF and there is a lack of such investigation at different ages. The current work aims to address the present gap. First, we analyse aortic flow distribution in three configurations, which attribute to young, middle and old people, using geometries constructed via clinical data. We then introduce two transient inlet flow conditions representative of key AF-associated defects. Results demonstrate that both AF and ageing negatively affect flow circulation. The main consequence of concomitant occurrence is enhancement of endothelial cell activation potential (ECAP) throughout the vascular domain, mainly at aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta, which is consistent with some clinical observations. The outcome of the current study suggests that AF exacerbates the vascular defects occurred due to the ageing, which increases the possibility of cardiovascular diseases per se.
    • Energy-entropy prediction of octanol–water logP of SAMPL7 N-acyl sulfonamide bioisosters

      Falcioni, Fabio; email: fabio.falcioni@manchester.ac.uk; Kalayan, Jas; Henchman, Richard H.; orcid: 0000-0002-0461-6625; email: rhen7213@uni.sydney.edu.au (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-10)
      Abstract: Partition coefficients quantify a molecule’s distribution between two immiscible liquid phases. While there are many methods to compute them, there is not yet a method based on the free energy of each system in terms of energy and entropy, where entropy depends on the probability distribution of all quantum states of the system. Here we test a method in this class called Energy Entropy Multiscale Cell Correlation (EE-MCC) for the calculation of octanol–water logP values for 22 N-acyl sulfonamides in the SAMPL7 Physical Properties Challenge (Statistical Assessment of the Modelling of Proteins and Ligands). EE-MCC logP values have a mean error of 1.8 logP units versus experiment and a standard error of the mean of 1.0 logP units for three separate calculations. These errors are primarily due to getting sufficiently converged energies to give accurate differences of large numbers, particularly for the large-molecule solvent octanol. However, this is also an issue for entropy, and approximations in the force field and MCC theory also contribute to the error. Unique to MCC is that it explains the entropy contributions over all the degrees of freedom of all molecules in the system. A gain in orientational entropy of water is the main favourable entropic contribution, supported by small gains in solute vibrational and orientational entropy but offset by unfavourable changes in the orientational entropy of octanol, the vibrational entropy of both solvents, and the positional and conformational entropy of the solute.
    • Generation of Alkalinity by Stimulation of Microbial Iron Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Systems: Impact of Natural Organic Matter Types

      Jimenez-Castaneda, Martha E.; orcid: 0000-0001-8039-1002; Scarinci, Carolina; Burke, Adam; Boothman, Christopher; Vaughan, David J.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; orcid: 0000-0002-0719-0498; van Dongen, Bart E.; orcid: 0000-0003-1189-142X; email: bart.vandongen@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-31)
      Abstract: To determine the role of organic matter in the attenuation of acid rock drainage (ARD), microcosm-based experiments were performed using ARD stimulated with plants and manures. Initial mineralogical, organic geochemical and microbial analyses indicated a predominance of goethite, a substantial amount of organic carbon originating from local sources, and a bacterial community comparable with those detected in a range of ARD sites worldwide. After 100 days of incubation, changes in the mineralogical, organic and microbiological composition of the ARD demonstrated that the plant additions stimulate microbes with the potential to degrade this organic matter but do not necessarily cause substantial Fe(III) reduction. Conversely, the greatest observed stimulation of Fe(III) reduction, associated with an increase in pH to near-neutral values, was observed using manure additions. These results demonstrate that the use of the optimal natural carbon source is important and can promote the metabolism of microorganisms potentially fuelling a range of geomicrobial processes, including iron and sulfate reduction.
    • Global Constitutionalism and Democracy: the Case of Colombia

      Thornhill, Chris; orcid: 0000-0002-2286-5967; email: chris.thornhill@manchester.ac.uk; de Araújo Calabria, Carina Rodrigues (Springer International Publishing, 2020-07-29)
      Abstract: Focusing on the case of Colombia, this article sets out a sociological examination of constitutions marked by strong, activist judiciaries, by entrenched systems of human rights protection, and by emphatic implementation of global human rights law. Contra standard critiques of this constitutional model, it argues that such constitutions need to be seen as creating a new pattern of democracy, which is often distinctively adapted to structures in societies in which the typical patterns of legitimation and subject formation required for democratic government were obstructed. In polities with such constitutions, legal institutions and norm setters have at times assumed the status of functional equivalents for more typical democratically mandated actors and institutions. In such polities, further, global law assumes essential importance as it creates new sources of normative authorization for legislation and stimulates new lines of articulation between government and society. The article concludes that analysis of such polities, exemplified by Colombia, shows that the common categories of democratic-constitutional analysis are no longer always adequate for understanding current tendencies in democratic formation, and they can easily undermine democracy itself.
    • Impact of heart failure severity on ventricular assist device haemodynamics: a computational study

      McElroy, Michael; Xenakis, Antonios; Keshmiri, Amir; orcid: 0000-0003-4747-277X; email: a.keshmiri@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-29)
      Abstract: Purpose: This computational fluid dynamics study investigates the necessity of incorporating heart failure severity in the preoperative planning of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) configurations, as it is often omitted from studies on LVAD performance. Methods: A parametric study was conducted examining a common range of LVAD to aortic root flow ratios (LVAD/AR-FR). A normal aortic root waveform was scaled by 5–30% in increments of 5% to represent the common range of flow pumped by the left ventricle for different levels of heart failure. A constant flow rate from the cannula compensated for the severity of heart failure in order to maintain normal total aortic flow rate. Results: The results show that LVAD/AR-FR can have a significant but irregular impact on the perfusion and shear stress-related haemodynamic parameters of the subclavian and carotid arteries. Furthermore, it is found that a larger portion of the flow is directed towards the thoracic aorta at the expense of the carotid and subclavian arteries, regardless of LVAD/AR-FR. Conclusion: The irregular behaviour found in the subclavian and carotid arteries highlights the necessity of including the LVAD/AR-FR in the preoperative planning of an LVAD configuration, in order to accurately improve the effects on the cardiovascular system post implantation.
    • Interaction standards for biophysics: anti-lysozyme nanobodies

      Birchenough, Holly L.; Nivia, Hilda D. Ruiz; Jowitt, Thomas A.; orcid: 0000-0002-4045-0933; email: t.jowitt@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-11)
      Abstract: There is a significant demand in the molecular biophysics community for robust standard samples. They are required by researchers, instrument developers and pharmaceutical companies for instrumental quality control, methodological development and in the design and validation of devices, diagnostics and instrumentation. To-date there has been no clear consensus on the need and type of standards that should be available and different research groups and instrument manufacturers use different standard systems which significantly hinders comparative analysis. One of the major objectives of the Association of Resources for Biophysical Research in Europe (ARBRE) is to establish a common set of standard samples that can be used throughout the biophysics community and instrument developers. A survey was circulated among ARBRE members to ascertain the requirements of laboratories when using standard systems and the results are documented in this article. In summary, the major requirements are protein samples which are cheap, relatively small, stable and have different binding strengths. We have developed a panel of sdAb’s or ‘nanobodies’ against hen-egg white lysozyme with different binding strengths and suitable stability characteristics. Here we show the results of the survey, the selection procedure, validation and final selection of a panel of nanobody interaction standards.
    • Not only laboratory to clinic: the translational work of William S. C. Copeman in rheumatology

      Worboys, Michael; orcid: 0000-0001-8583-7931; email: michael.worboys@manchester.ac.uk; Toon, Elizabeth (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-06)
      Abstract: Since the arrival of Translational Medicine (TM), as both a term and movement in the late 1990s, it has been associated almost exclusively with attempts to accelerate the “translation” of research-laboratory findings to improve efficacy and outcomes in clinical practice (Krueger et al. in Hist Philos Life Sci 41:57, 2019). This framing privileges one source of change in medicine, that from bench-to-bedside. In this article we dig into the history of translation research to identify and discuss three other types of translational work in medicine that can also reshape ideas, practices, institutions, behaviours, or all of these, to produce transformations in clinical effectiveness. These are: (1) making accessible state-of-the-art knowledge and best practice across the medical profession; (2) remodelling and creating institutions to better develop and make available specialist knowledge and practice; and (3) improving public and patient understandings of disease prevention, symptoms and treatments. We do so by examining the work of William S. C. Copeman, a dominant figure in British rheumatology from the 1930 through the late 1960s. Throughout his long career, Copeman blended approaches to “translation” in order to produce transformative change in clinical medicine, making his work an exemplar of our expanded notion of TM.
    • On Thresholds for Dynamic Strength in Solids

      Bourne, N. K.; orcid: 0000-0002-8883-1196; email: neil.bourne@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-20)
      Abstract: The limits of elastic behaviour change with the nature of the impulse applied to a target and the size of volume interrogated by a measurement, since it is the pre-existing defects sampled within its rise that determine the response observed. This review considers a range of solids of different material classes and tracks the development of the strength of the material during shock loading, from yield at the Hugoniot elastic limit, across the weak shock regime, to its transition to strong shock behaviour. It is shown that at this stress, the weak shock limit (WSL), the shear component of the applied stress exceeds the theoretical strength of the material. Beyond this threshold, there are a number of new responses that confirm a transition from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous state. Further, whilst strength rises across the weak shock regime, it saturates at the WSL. For instance, failure in shocked glasses transitions from localised fracture initiated at target boundaries to a global failure at this threshold at the theoretical strength. Sapphire′s strength asymptotes to the theoretical strength of the strongest direction in its lattice. Finally, the fourth-power dependence of strain rate upon stress appears to be a consequence of the homogeneous flow in the strong shock regime. This review suggests that µ/2π is a good approximation for the unrelaxed theoretical strength of solids at increasing stresses beyond the WSL. The methodology unfolded here represents a new means to experimentally determine the ultimate shear strength of solids.
    • On Thresholds for Dynamic Strength in Solids

      Bourne, N. K.; orcid: 0000-0002-8883-1196; email: neil.bourne@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-20)
      Abstract: The limits of elastic behaviour change with the nature of the impulse applied to a target and the size of volume interrogated by a measurement, since it is the pre-existing defects sampled within its rise that determine the response observed. This review considers a range of solids of different material classes and tracks the development of the strength of the material during shock loading, from yield at the Hugoniot elastic limit, across the weak shock regime, to its transition to strong shock behaviour. It is shown that at this stress, the weak shock limit (WSL), the shear component of the applied stress exceeds the theoretical strength of the material. Beyond this threshold, there are a number of new responses that confirm a transition from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous state. Further, whilst strength rises across the weak shock regime, it saturates at the WSL. For instance, failure in shocked glasses transitions from localised fracture initiated at target boundaries to a global failure at this threshold at the theoretical strength. Sapphire′s strength asymptotes to the theoretical strength of the strongest direction in its lattice. Finally, the fourth-power dependence of strain rate upon stress appears to be a consequence of the homogeneous flow in the strong shock regime. This review suggests that µ/2π is a good approximation for the unrelaxed theoretical strength of solids at increasing stresses beyond the WSL. The methodology unfolded here represents a new means to experimentally determine the ultimate shear strength of solids.
    • Physiological Characteristics of Female Soccer Players and Health and Performance Considerations: A Narrative Review

      Randell, Rebecca K.; orcid: 0000-0003-1141-9766; email: rebecca.randell@pepsico.com; Clifford, Thomas; Drust, Barry; Moss, Samantha L.; Unnithan, Viswanath B.; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.; Datson, Naomi; Martin, Daniel; Mayho, Hannah; Carter, James M.; et al. (Springer International Publishing, 2021-04-12)
      Abstract: Female soccer has seen a substantial rise in participation, as well as increased financial support from governing bodies over the last decade. Thus, there is an onus on researchers and medical departments to develop a better understanding of the physical characteristics and demands, and the health and performance needs of female soccer players. In this review, we discuss the current research, as well as the knowledge gaps, of six major topics: physical demands, talent identification, body composition, injury risk and prevention, health and nutrition. Data on female talent identification are scarce, and future studies need to elucidate the influence of relative age and maturation selection across age groups. Regarding the physical demands, more research is needed on the pattern of high-intensity sprinting during matches and the contribution of soccer-specific movements. Injuries are not uncommon in female soccer players, but targeting intrinsically modifiable factors with injury prevention programmes can reduce injury rates. The anthropometric and physical characteristics of female players are heterogeneous and setting specific targets should be discouraged in youth and sub-elite players. Menstrual cycle phase may influence performance and injury risk; however, there are few studies in soccer players. Nutrition plays a critical role in health and performance and ensuring adequate energy intake remains a priority. Despite recent progress, there is considerably less research in female than male soccer players. Many gaps in our understanding of how best to develop and manage the health and performance of female soccer players remain.
    • Reduction of wave-induced pitch motion of a semi-sub wind platform by balancing heave excitation with pumping between floats

      Stansby, Peter; orcid: 0000-0002-3552-0810; email: p.k.stansby@manchester.ac.uk (Springer International Publishing, 2021-05-10)
      Abstract: It is desirable to control pitch motion of semi-submersible wind platforms to reduce turbine hub acceleration and increase structural fatigue life. This is achieved by balancing the moment on the platform due to heave float excitation by generating a differential internal head of water between the floats though a pump. This is demonstrated with an experimentally validated linear diffraction-radiation-drag model of an idealised platform. Different scales of platform are considered corresponding to 5, 10 and 20 MW turbines. The pitch angles and hub accelerations generally reduce as scales increase. Pumping reduces hub accelerations by up to about 40% for larger sea states. The power required for pumping would be small with a hybrid pump also operating as a turbine to store energy for the pumping operation. Without storage the power requirement is still small relative to the turbine capacity except for very high wind speeds.
    • Special issue—before translational medicine: laboratory clinic relations lost in translation? Cortisone and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Britain, 1950–1960

      Worboys, Michael; orcid: 0000-0001-8583-7931; email: michael.worboys@manchester.ac.uk; Toon, Elizabeth (Springer International Publishing, 2019-11-07)
      Abstract: Cortisone, initially known as ‘compound E’ was the medical sensation of the late 1940s and early 1950s. As early as April 1949, only a week after Philip Hench and colleagues first described the potential of ‘compound E’ at a Mayo Clinic seminar, the New York Times reported the drug’s promise as a ‘modern miracle’ in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given its high profile, it is unsurprising that historians of medicine have been attracted to study the innovation of cortisone. It arrived at the end of a decade of ‘therapeutic revolutions’, kicked off by penicillin transforming the treatment of bacterial infections and ending with hopes of a revolution in the treatment of non-infectious, chronic inflammatory diseases. Despite these studies of cortisone’s introduction, few historians have taken the story forward and considered how cortisone was adopted and adapted into clinical practice. This article tells the longer of how the drug and its derivatives were taken from research laboratories and integrated into clinical practice; what has in recent decades become known as translational medicine (TM). In exploring cortisone’s first decade in Britain, we focus specifically on its role in the treatment of RA. Our approach is always to consider cortisone’s use in the context of other treatments available to clinicians, and at local and national institutional settings. We do not discuss the many other therapeutic uses of cortisone, which ranged for topical applications for skin diseases to the management of cancers, especially childhood leukaemia, nor do we discuss its close analogue ACTH—AdenoCorticoTropic Hormone. We think there are lessons in our study for TM policies today.
    • The current and potential role of community pharmacy in asset-based approaches to health and wellbeing: a qualitative study

      Astbury, Jayne; orcid: 0000-0001-5885-4306; email: jayne.astbury@manchester.ac.uk; Schafheutle, Ellen; Brown, Jane; Cutts, Christopher (Springer International Publishing, 2021-02-26)
      Abstract: Background Asset-based approaches seek to positively mobilise the strengths, capabilities, and resources of individuals and communities. To date, limited consideration has been given to the potential value of this approach in relation to community pharmacy practice, yet this is important and timely given community pharmacy’s expanding role and contribution to public health initiatives. Objectives This qualitative study aimed to explore the current and potential role of community pharmacy in asset-based approaches. Methods Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with community pharmacists and project leads, and public health policy and strategic leads in the UK. Transcripts were analysed using simultaneous inductive open and deductive coding using an applied Theory of Change as an illustrative lens. Results The shift towards patient-facing roles in community pharmacy was felt to offer expanded relational opportunities to engage and collaborate with individuals, communities, and other stakeholders. However, only a small number of respondents described examples of systemic asset-based working within the pharmacy sector. The adoption of asset-based approaches was challenged or enabled by several factors including the availability of protected time/resources, workplace and organisational culture/values, strategic leadership, commissioning, and funding arrangements. Conclusions The study provides valuable insights into the potential for community pharmacy, a previously unconsidered sector, to further adopt and contribute to asset-based approaches and play a more central role in the improvement of public health and reduction of health inequalities.
    • Understanding the links between hearing impairment and dementia: development and validation of the Social and Emotional Impact of Hearing Impairment (SEI-HI) questionnaire

      Littlejohn, Jenna; orcid: 0000-0001-7447-3810; email: jenna.littlejohn@manchester.ac.uk; Blackburn, Daniel; Venneri, Annalena (Springer International Publishing, 2020-06-10)
      Abstract: Background: The links between hearing impairment (HI) and dementia have been well documented, but factors mediating this relationship remain unknown. Major consequences of HI are social and emotional dysfunction, and as the risk of dementia increases linearly with the severity of HI, it is plausible that socio-emotional difficulties may play a role in this association. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to analyse levels of hearing-related disability, to investigate ultimately whether subjective disability contributes to risk of cognitive impairment compared with hearing thresholds alone. Methods: Development and validation of the questionnaire, the Social and Emotional Impact of Hearing Impairment (SEI-HI), was conducted in four phases: (1) content; (2) scoring and outcomes; (3) validation; (4) feasibility in a sample of people with cognitive impairment. Results: Considerable evidence was found for the internal and external reliability of the tool with high construct validity, concurrent validity and test-retest values of the SEI-HI questionnaire. A feasibility check on 31 patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia showed the SEI-HI questionnaire was easy to administer and well-received. Conclusion: The SEI-HI questionnaire is a relevant instrument to assess hearing-related disability which can be used in people with cognitive decline to assess further impact on risk of developing dementia.
    • Utilising Patient and Public Involvement in Stated Preference Research in Health: Learning from the Existing Literature and a Case Study

      Shields, Gemma E.; orcid: 0000-0003-4869-7524; email: gemma.shields@manchester.ac.uk; Brown, Lindsey; Wells, Adrian; orcid: 0000-0001-7713-1592; Capobianco, Lora; orcid: 0000-0001-6877-8650; Vass, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0002-6385-2812 (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-04)
      Abstract: Publications reporting discrete choice experiments of healthcare interventions rarely discuss whether patient and public involvement (PPI) activities have been conducted. This paper presents examples from the existing literature and a detailed case study from the National Institute for Health Research-funded PATHWAY programme that comprehensively included PPI activities at multiple stages of preference research. Reflecting on these examples, as well as the wider PPI literature, we describe the different stages at which it is possible to effectively incorporate PPI across preference research, including the design, recruitment and dissemination of projects. Benefits of PPI activities include gaining practical insights from a wider perspective, which can positively impact experiment design as well as survey materials. Further benefits included advice around recruitment and reaching a greater audience with dissemination activities, amongst others. There are challenges associated with PPI activities; examples include time, cost and outlining expectations. Overall, although we acknowledge practical difficulties associated with PPI, this work highlights that it is possible for preference researchers to implement PPI across preference research. Further research systematically comparing methods related to PPI in preference research and their associated impact on the methods and results of studies would strengthen the literature.
    • Utilising Patient and Public Involvement in Stated Preference Research in Health: Learning from the Existing Literature and a Case Study

      Shields, Gemma E.; orcid: 0000-0003-4869-7524; email: gemma.shields@manchester.ac.uk; Brown, Lindsey; Wells, Adrian; orcid: 0000-0001-7713-1592; Capobianco, Lora; orcid: 0000-0001-6877-8650; Vass, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0002-6385-2812 (Springer International Publishing, 2020-08-04)
      Abstract: Publications reporting discrete choice experiments of healthcare interventions rarely discuss whether patient and public involvement (PPI) activities have been conducted. This paper presents examples from the existing literature and a detailed case study from the National Institute for Health Research-funded PATHWAY programme that comprehensively included PPI activities at multiple stages of preference research. Reflecting on these examples, as well as the wider PPI literature, we describe the different stages at which it is possible to effectively incorporate PPI across preference research, including the design, recruitment and dissemination of projects. Benefits of PPI activities include gaining practical insights from a wider perspective, which can positively impact experiment design as well as survey materials. Further benefits included advice around recruitment and reaching a greater audience with dissemination activities, amongst others. There are challenges associated with PPI activities; examples include time, cost and outlining expectations. Overall, although we acknowledge practical difficulties associated with PPI, this work highlights that it is possible for preference researchers to implement PPI across preference research. Further research systematically comparing methods related to PPI in preference research and their associated impact on the methods and results of studies would strengthen the literature.