• An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • Applications of simple and accessible methods for meta-analysis involving rare events: A simulation study

      Hodkinson, Alexander; orcid: 0000-0003-2063-0977; email: alexander.hodkinson@manchester.ac.uk; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; orcid: 0000-0001-6450-5815 (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-17)
      Meta-analysis of clinical trials targeting rare events face particular challenges when the data lack adequate number of events and are susceptible to high levels of heterogeneity. The standard meta-analysis methods (DerSimonian Laird (DL) and Mantel–Haenszel (MH)) often lead to serious distortions because of such data sparsity. Applications of the methods suited to specific incidence and heterogeneity characteristics are lacking, thus we compared nine available methods in a simulation study. We generated 360 meta-analysis scenarios where each considered different incidences, sample sizes, between-study variance (heterogeneity) and treatment allocation. We include globally recommended methods such as inverse-variance fixed/random-effect (IV-FE/RE), classical-MH, MH-FE, MH-DL, Peto, Peto-DL and the two extensions for MH bootstrapped-DL (bDL) and Peto-bDL. Performance was assessed on mean bias, mean error, coverage and power. In the absence of heterogeneity, the coverage and power when combined revealed small differences in meta-analysis involving rare and very rare events. The Peto-bDL method performed best, but only in smaller sample sizes involving rare events. For medium-to-larger sample sizes, MH-bDL was preferred. For meta-analysis involving very rare events, Peto-bDL was the best performing method which was sustained across all sample sizes. However, in meta-analysis with 20% or more heterogeneity, the coverage and power were insufficient. Performance based on mean bias and mean error was almost identical across methods. To conclude, in meta-analysis of rare binary outcomes, our results suggest that Peto-bDL is better in both rare and very rare event settings in meta-analysis with limited sample sizes. However, when heterogeneity is large, the coverage and power to detect rare events are insufficient. Whilst this study shows that some of the less studied methods appear to have good properties under sparse data scenarios, further work is needed to assess them against the more complex distributional-based methods to understand their overall performances.
    • Are you lookin’ at me? A mixed-methods case study to investigate the influence of coaches’ presence on performance testing outcomes in male academy rugby league players

      Richardson, Ben; Dobbin, Nick; orcid: 0000-0001-7508-1683; White, Christopher; Bloyce, Daniel; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378 (SAGE Publications, 2022-09-21)
      The study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how the presence of coaches influenced male academy rugby league players’ performance during physical performance testing. Fifteen male rugby players completed two trials of 20 m sprint, countermovement jump and prone Yo-Yo test; one with only the sport scientist present and a second where the sport scientist conducted the battery with both the club's lead strength and conditioning coach, academy manager, and the first team assistant and head coach present. Players and coaches then completed one-to-one semi-structured interviews to explore their beliefs, attitudes and opinions towards physical performance testing. In all tests, the players’ performance was better when the coaches were present compared to when tests were conducted by the sport scientist alone. Interviews revealed performance testing was used by coaches to exercise their power over players to socialise them into the desired culture. Players’ own power was evident through additional effort during testing when coaches were present. Practitioners should ensure consistency in the presence of significant observers during performance testing of male rugby players to minimise their influence on test outcome.
    • Automating security infrastructures: Practices, imaginaries, politics

      O’Grady, Nathaniel; orcid: 0000-0003-4400-7290; email: nathaniel.ogrady@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-08-28)
      This article contributes to emergent debates in critical security studies that consider the processes and effects that arise where new forms of automated technology begin to guide security practices. It does so through research into public Wi-Fi infrastructure that has started to appear across the globe and its mobilization as a device for warning the public about emergencies. I focus specifically on an iteration of this infrastructure developing in New York called LinkNYC. According to the infrastructure’s operators, the processes that underpin emergency communication have gradually become ‘automated’ to accelerate LinkNYC’s deployment during crises. The article pursues three lines of inquiry to explore the automation of security infrastructure, in turn making three correspondent original contributions to wider debates. First, it unpacks the real-time analytics and platform-based data-sharing techniques cultivated to automate emergency communication. Here, I expand understanding of the new forms of automation now integrated into technologies harnessed for security and their practical effects. These forms of automation, I demonstrate secondly, are situated by those governing into wider imaginaries concerning the transformative promise automation bears. I argue that the proliferation of these imaginaries play a crucial role in justifying and dictating the enrolment of new devices into security. Third, it explores how automation affords private companies the opportunity to exercise discretionary decisionmaking that changes how and when infrastructure should operate during emergencies. Developing this argument, I add new dimensions to debates regarding the political ramifications associated with automation by claiming that automation redistributes authority across the public and private organizations that increasingly coordinate in bringing new technologies to bear in the security domain.
    • ‘Banks 1 – Portugal 0’? Financial player entanglements in the Eurozone crisis

      Stadheim, Victoria B-G; orcid: 0000-0001-5801-0146; email: victoria.stadheim@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-01)
      The euro has been at the heart of the debate about the crisis in the Eurozone. For some, it represents a fixed exchange rate regime, which hampered peripheral countries’ competitiveness, and for others, the European Monetary Union has a ‘flawed institutional design’ and an insufficient degree of integration that engendered the crisis. The present article analyses monetary integration from a materialist perspective. It draws attention to political agency, power and crisis management. The article focuses on the case of Portugal and poses the question of how the country's authorities were compelled to request a rescue package from the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Commission in 2011. It shows that this decision was triggered by the political agency of a series of players within the world of finance, most notably Portugal’s domestic banks, the independent Bank of Portugal and the European Central Bank. Reflecting their material interconnection through the European monetary system, their agency was highly coordinated. The strategies for crisis management that came to deepen the recession were not the result of insufficient European integration – they rather reflected Portugal’s form of integration within the European Monetary Union at the specific moment of crisis.
    • Bearing Bad News: The Impact of Delivering and Receiving News of Sudden Bereavement

      Sweeney, Susan; orcid: 0000-0003-0165-3065 (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-06)
      First responders and care professionals are often required to convey the deeply distressing news to relatives of the sudden death of a loved one. Witnessing the extreme anguish and grief of those receiving such news can have a detrimental effect on the bearers, leading to peritraumatic distress and feelings of inadequacy and burnout. For the recipients of such news, how it is delivered will impact on their understanding, acceptance, and processing of the sudden loss and may be a precursor for complicated grief or mental health issues such as anxiety or depression. Through writing about her own experience, the author aims to illustrate how interaction with professionals supported or impacted adversely on her grief and is intended to maintain professionals’ awareness of the impact of their delivery on recipients. Ancillary professionals also have an important role in how they interact with the bereaved and in ameliorating their deep distress.
    • Beyond the Visible, the Material and the Performative: Shifting Perspectives on the Visual in Organization Studies

      Quattrone, Paolo; orcid: 0000-0003-1914-8243; email: paolo.quattrone@manchester.ac.uk; Ronzani, Matteo; orcid: 0000-0002-4908-6218; Jancsary, Dennis; orcid: 0000-0002-7836-4133; Höllerer, Markus A.; orcid: 0000-0003-2509-2696 (SAGE Publications, 2021-07-28)
      Visual organizational research has burgeoned over the past decade. Despite an initially hesitant engagement with visuality in organization and management studies, it is now only proper to speak of a ‘visual turn’ in this domain of scholarly inquiry. We wish to take the opportunity provided by the Perspectives format to engage with prominent work published in Organization Studies, in appreciation of the diversity of approaches to the visual in organizational research, and highlight some generative tensions across this body of work. In particular, we have scrutinized six articles based on their treatment of signification (how the visual mode enables meaning-making and meaning-sharing in and around organizations), manifestation (how visual organizational artefacts and their properties relate to affordances) and implication (how visualization practices produce organizational outcomes). Inspired by the frictions and gaps across these articles, we developed three distinct perspective shifts that highlight the importance of the invisible, the immaterial and the performance within visualization. We conclude with a comparative matrix that maps different conceptualizations of visualization, and suggest opportunities for future research based on how we see the field of visual organizational studies evolving.
    • Binge Watching and the Role of Social Media Virality towards promoting Netflix’s Squid Game

      Ahmed, Wasim; orcid: 0000-0001-8923-1865; email: Wasim.Ahmed@Stir.ac.uk; Fenton, Alex; Hardey, Mariann; Das, Ronnie (SAGE Publications, 2022-03-23)
      The management literature has extensively studied viral marketing in the last decade; however, there is a lack of research in understanding network structures and the role of influencers within popular cultural consumption, such as on-demand digital media and binge-watching. In this article, we investigate the role of social media in popularising the East Asian dystopian cultural drama Squid Game. We studied this phenomenon by analysing social network structures, dynamics and influencer characteristics that transformed Squid Game into a popular global digital cultural consumption sensation. Stemming from the foundational theories of popular culture binge-watching, network theory and the social media echo chamber effect, we demonstrate how careful ‘seeding’ and ‘broadcasting’ behaviour adopted by Netflix and key influencers helped the ‘reciprocal merging’ of creative media content within the broader social media space. Our study found that 13,727 Twitter users were tweeting or mentioned on the day show was released. Our research findings further present the characteristic of individual group-based echo chambers and their role in value co-creation towards expanding the network boundary through e-WOM. This phenomenon led to the show’s unprecedented popularity amongst a global audience within a short period. Contributions of our work expand viral marketing and echo-chamber concepts into the binge-watching and popular digital culture realm, where the interplay between dramatized Asian and Western dystopian social norms provided the very fabric of user-led promotion and value co-creation.
    • Book Review: <i>Cycling and the British: A Modern History</i> by Neil Carter

      Cox, Peter; orcid: 0000-0003-2374-3125 (SAGE Publications, 2022-01-27)
    • Book Review: Cycling and the British: A Modern History by Neil Carter

      Cox, Peter; orcid: 0000-0003-2374-3125 (SAGE Publications, 2022-01-27)
    • Book Review: Joe Bray, The Language of Jane Austen

      Neary, Clara (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-15)
    • Clinical trial protocol: PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (PRedSS)

      Herrick, Ariane L; orcid: 0000-0003-4941-7926; email: ariane.herrick@manchester.ac.uk; Griffiths-Jones, Deborah J; Ryder, W David; Mason, Justin C; Denton, Christopher P; orcid: 0000-0003-3975-8938 (SAGE Publications, 2020-09-17)
      Background:: Many of the painful, disabling features of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis have an inflammatory component and are potentially treatable with corticosteroid therapy. These features include painful and itchy skin, fatigue and musculoskeletal involvement. Yet many clinicians are understandably reluctant to prescribe corticosteroids because of the concern that these are a risk factor for scleroderma renal crisis. The aim of PRedSS (PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moderate dose prednisolone in patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, specifically whether moderate dose prednisolone is (a) effective in terms of reducing pain and disability, and improving skin score and (b) safe, with particular reference to renal function. Methods:: PRedSS is a Phase II, multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial which aims to recruit 72 patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Patients are randomised to receive either prednisolone (dosage approximately 0.3 mg/kg) or placebo therapy for 6 months. The two co-primary outcome measures are the difference in mean Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index at 3 months and the difference in modified Rodnan skin score at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures include patient reported outcome measures of itch, hand function, anxiety and depression, and helplessness. Results:: Recruitment commenced in December 2017 and after a slow start (due to delays in opening centres) 25 patients have now been recruited. Conclusion:: PRedSS should help to answer the question as to whether clinicians should or should not prescribe prednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
    • Co-producing smart cities: A Quadruple Helix approach to assessment

      Paskaleva, Krassimira; orcid: 0000-0003-2798-3302; email: k.paskaleva@manchester.ac.uk; Evans, James; Watson, Kelly (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-31)
      Cities are increasingly expected to bring urban stakeholders together to deploy smart solutions that address urban challenges and deliver long-term positive impacts. Yet, existing theory and practice struggle to explain how such impacts can be achieved, measured or evidenced. This paper makes two major contributions. Firstly, the paper shows how the Quadruple Helix (QH) innovation approach can be used as the basis for co-producing smart city projects in order to better capture their impacts. In doing so we present a synthesis of current smart city and QH literatures to argue that assessment criteria and indicators must be co-produced with the full set of smart city stakeholders to ensure relevance to context and needs. Secondly, we present an example of a co-produced monitoring and assessment framework and methodology, developed to capture and measure the impacts of smart and sustainable city solutions with the stakeholder teams involved in the European Union Triangulum smart city programme. The paper draws on experiences working with 27 smart city demonstration projects involving public, private and third-sector organisations and communities across Manchester (United Kingdom), Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and Stavanger (Norway). We show how involving QH stakeholders in co-producing impact assessment improves the ability of projects to deliver and measure impacts that matter to cities and citizens. We conclude with a series of lessons and recommendations intended to be of use to the range of organisations and communities currently involved in smart city initiatives across Europe and the world.
    • Commentary: Endovascular Sealing of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Do Current Data Justify Wider Use?

      Torella, Francesco; McWilliams, Richard G.; Fisher, Robert K. (SAGE Publications, 2018-04-12)
    • Conceptualizing Internationalization at a Distance: A “Third Category” of University Internationalization

      Mittelmeier, Jenna; orcid: 0000-0002-6037-822X; email: jenna.mittelmeier@manchester.ac.uk; Rienties, Bart; Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati (SAGE Publications, 2020-02-17)
      Internationalization efforts in higher education have often been categorized according to Jane Knight’s binary of “Internationalization at Home” (IaH) and “Internationalization Abroad” (IA). However, a rising number of technology-supported activities have created new opportunities for university internationalization. For example, students can now remain “at home” while using technology to study with an institution or program that is simultaneously located “abroad.” We have conceptualized these activities as a new third category called Internationalization at a Distance (IaD). In this article, we introduce the concept of IaD and outline an in-depth case study of an international distance education provider at scale, the University of South Africa.
    • Descriptions and the materiality of texts

      guest-editor: Vitellone, Nicole; guest-editor: Mair, Michael; guest-editor: Kierans, Ciara; Mazza, Roberta; orcid: 0000-0001-6508-8259; email: roberta.mazza@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-02)
      This article builds on the notions of thick and thin description elaborated by Geertz and looks at what descriptive methods have been used in the field of papyrology, a sub-discipline of classics that studies ancient manuscripts on papyrus fragments recovered through legal and illegal excavations in Egypt from the 19th century. Past generations of papyrologists have described papyri merely as resources to retrieve ancient ‘texts’. In the article I argue these descriptions have had negative effects in the way this ancient material has been studied, preserved, and also exchanged through the antiquities market. Through a series of case studies, I offer an alternative description of papyrus fragments as things, which have a power that can be activated under specific circumstances or entanglements. In demonstrating papyrus manuscripts’ unstable nature and shifting meanings, which are contingent on such entanglements, the article calls for a new politics and ethics concerning their preservation and exchange.
    • Effect of combined home-based, overground robotic-assisted gait training and usual physiotherapy on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial

      Wright, Amy; orcid: 0000-0002-7006-6465; Stone, Keeron; Martinelli, Louis; Fryer, Simon; Smith, Grace; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; orcid: 0000-0002-0682-2270; Jobson, Simon; Faulkner, James; orcid: 0000-0002-3704-6737 (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-27)
      Objectives: To assess the effect of a home-based over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program using the AlterG Bionic Leg orthosis on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Home. Participants: Thirty-four ambulatory chronic stroke patients who recieve usual physiotherapy. Intervention: Usual physiotherapy plus either (1)10-week over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program ( n = 16), using the device for ⩾30 minutes per day, or (2) control group ( n = 18), 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Measurements: The primary outcome was the Six-Minute Walk Test. Secondary outcomes included: Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometry. All measurements were completed at baseline, 10 and 22 weeks after baseline. Results: Significant increases in walking distance were observed for the Six-Minute Walk Test between baseline and 10 weeks for over-ground robotic-assisted gait training (135 ± 81 m vs 158 ± 93 m, respectively; P ⩽ 0.001) but not for control (122 ± 92 m vs 119 ± 84 m, respectively). Findings were similar for Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale (all P ⩽ 0.01). For over-ground robotic-assisted gait training, there were increases in time spent stepping, number of steps taken, number of sit-to-stand transitions, and reductions in time spent sitting/supine between baseline and 10 weeks (all P &lt; 0.05). The differences observed in all of the aforementioned outcome measures were maintained at 22 weeks, 12 weeks after completing the intervention (all P &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: Over-ground robotic-assisted gait training combined with physiotherapy in chronic stroke patients led to significant improvements in clinical functional outcomes and physical activity compared to the control group. Improvements were maintained at 22 weeks.
    • Experimental and numerical study of helical auxetic yarns

      Gao, Yajie; orcid: 0000-0003-2726-1502; email: xiaogang.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Chen, Xiaogang; orcid: 0000-0001-5223-2397; Studd, Rachel (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-13)
      Auxetic materials, including textiles, exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which is of interest for many applications. This research aims to optimize the structural parameters of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) and to evaluate the auxetic performance of these yarns. The research reports on the improvement of auxetic yarn quality and the yarn auxeticity through studying the effect of helical angles, diameter ratio and tensile moduli of the two plies, as well as the binder filament feeding. The maximum NPR of the optimized auxetic yarns was experimentally achieved as low as –9.6, with the helical angle of around 14.0° on average using the optimal machine setting. The optimized yarn parameters enabled the making of high-quality auxetic yarns with a wider range of machine settings than before. In parallel, theoretical and numerical studies were carried out for the engineering design of auxetic yarns, which enabled comparisons among the experimental results, calculated results and results from finite element analysis. The comparison showed that a lower initial helical angle, higher tensile modulus of the wrap ply and lower tensile modulus of the core ply led to a higher auxetic effect. A new finding is reported in that a concave relationship between the diameter ratio and the NPR was discovered. The results of this study could assist researchers in producing HAYs, and this type of HAY could be used for many potential applications, such as filtration and impact protection.
    • Exploring engagement with digital screens for collecting patient feedback in clinical waiting rooms: The role of touch and place

      Ong, Bie Nio; Sanders, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0002-0539-928X; email: caroline.sanders@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2019-12-09)
      Health service settings are increasingly installing digital devices to enable people to engage digitally with multiple processes, including automated ‘check-in’, as well as collecting feedback on experiences of care. In addition, policy is increasingly driving digital agendas to promote patient engagement with online services, management of health records and routine monitoring. While this tendency towards widespread digital diffusion has been viewed as a means of enabling greater empowerment of patients and improved responsiveness of services to ‘patient voice’, social scientists have provided critical insights on the use of digital technologies in practice. However, there remains limited understanding of the mechanisms and contexts for digital engagement. In particular, there is a need for further research on the sensory and spatial aspects of engagement that are integral to everyday use (or non-use) of technology in practice. This article reports new insights from detailed qualitative case studies utilising in-depth interviews with patients, carers and staff, in addition to ethnographic observations of different digital modalities and their usage in specific health care contexts. A sociomaterial approach and concepts of affective atmosphere and technogeography are drawn upon to analyse the role of touch and place in the collection of digital feedback in multiple waiting room settings for people with physical and mental health long-term conditions. The findings highlight how barriers to engagement varied by context such as particular concerns about privacy for those with mental health problems and physical and sensory barriers for those with physical impairments. The findings demonstrate how digital inequalities can play out in practice and have implications for the design and development of digital innovations and tackling inequalities that may be associated with implementation of new digital technologies in healthcare.