• A tribute to Ron Johnston (30 March 1941–29 May 2020)

      Castree, Noel; email: Noel.Castree@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-07)
    • An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; email: o.flannery@mmu.ac.uk; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • Automating security infrastructures: Practices, imaginaries, politics

      O’Grady, Nathaniel; orcid: 0000-0003-4400-7290; email: nathaniel.ogrady@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-08-28)
      This article contributes to emergent debates in critical security studies that consider the processes and effects that arise where new forms of automated technology begin to guide security practices. It does so through research into public Wi-Fi infrastructure that has started to appear across the globe and its mobilization as a device for warning the public about emergencies. I focus specifically on an iteration of this infrastructure developing in New York called LinkNYC. According to the infrastructure’s operators, the processes that underpin emergency communication have gradually become ‘automated’ to accelerate LinkNYC’s deployment during crises. The article pursues three lines of inquiry to explore the automation of security infrastructure, in turn making three correspondent original contributions to wider debates. First, it unpacks the real-time analytics and platform-based data-sharing techniques cultivated to automate emergency communication. Here, I expand understanding of the new forms of automation now integrated into technologies harnessed for security and their practical effects. These forms of automation, I demonstrate secondly, are situated by those governing into wider imaginaries concerning the transformative promise automation bears. I argue that the proliferation of these imaginaries play a crucial role in justifying and dictating the enrolment of new devices into security. Third, it explores how automation affords private companies the opportunity to exercise discretionary decisionmaking that changes how and when infrastructure should operate during emergencies. Developing this argument, I add new dimensions to debates regarding the political ramifications associated with automation by claiming that automation redistributes authority across the public and private organizations that increasingly coordinate in bringing new technologies to bear in the security domain.
    • ‘Banks 1 – Portugal 0’? Financial player entanglements in the Eurozone crisis

      Stadheim, Victoria B-G; orcid: 0000-0001-5801-0146; email: victoria.stadheim@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-11-01)
      The euro has been at the heart of the debate about the crisis in the Eurozone. For some, it represents a fixed exchange rate regime, which hampered peripheral countries’ competitiveness, and for others, the European Monetary Union has a ‘flawed institutional design’ and an insufficient degree of integration that engendered the crisis. The present article analyses monetary integration from a materialist perspective. It draws attention to political agency, power and crisis management. The article focuses on the case of Portugal and poses the question of how the country's authorities were compelled to request a rescue package from the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Commission in 2011. It shows that this decision was triggered by the political agency of a series of players within the world of finance, most notably Portugal’s domestic banks, the independent Bank of Portugal and the European Central Bank. Reflecting their material interconnection through the European monetary system, their agency was highly coordinated. The strategies for crisis management that came to deepen the recession were not the result of insufficient European integration – they rather reflected Portugal’s form of integration within the European Monetary Union at the specific moment of crisis.
    • Bio-inspired artificial pheromone system for swarm robotics applications

      Na, Seongin; Qiu, Yiping; Turgut, Ali E; Ulrich, Jiří; Krajník, Tomáš; Yue, Shigang; Lennox, Barry; Arvin, Farshad; orcid: 0000-0001-7950-3193; email: farshad.arvin@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2020-06-03)
      Pheromones are chemical substances released into the environment by an individual animal, which elicit stereotyped behaviours widely found across the animal kingdom. Inspired by the effective use of pheromones in social insects, pheromonal communication has been adopted to swarm robotics domain using diverse approaches such as alcohol, RFID tags and light. COSΦ is one of the light-based artificial pheromone systems which can emulate realistic pheromones and environment properties through the system. This article provides a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art by proposing a novel artificial pheromone system that simulates pheromones with environmental effects by adopting a model of spatio-temporal development of pheromone derived from a flow of fluid in nature. Using the proposed system, we investigated the collective behaviour of a robot swarm in a bio-inspired aggregation scenario, where robots aggregated on a circular pheromone cue with different environmental factors, that is, diffusion and pheromone shift. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed pheromone system for use in swarm robotic applications.
    • Book Review: Joe Bray, The Language of Jane Austen

      Neary, Clara (SAGE Publications, 2019-05-15)
    • Characterisation of microvessel blood velocity and segment length in the brain using multi-diffusion-time diffusion-weighted MRI

      Scott, Lauren A; orcid: 0000-0002-5423-0042; email: lauren.scott-3@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Dickie, Ben R; Rawson, Shelley D; Coutts, Graham; Burnett, Timothy L; Allan, Stuart M; orcid: 0000-0001-9646-4456; Parker, Geoff JM; Parkes, Laura M; orcid: 0000-0001-6488-507X (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-16)
      Multi-diffusion-time diffusion-weighted MRI can probe tissue microstructure, but the method has not been widely applied to the microvasculature. At long diffusion-times, blood flow in capillaries is in the diffusive regime, and signal attenuation is dependent on blood velocity (v) and capillary segment length (l). It is described by the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*=vl/6) of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). At shorter diffusion-times, blood flow is in the ballistic regime, and signal attenuation depends on v, and not l. In theory, l could be estimated using D* and v. In this study, we compare the accuracy and repeatability of three approaches to estimating v, and therefore l: the IVIM ballistic model, the velocity autocorrelation model, and the ballistic approximation to the velocity autocorrelation model. Twenty-nine rat datasets from two strains were acquired at 7 T, with b-values between 0 and 1000 smm−2 and diffusion times between 11.6 and 50 ms. Five rats were scanned twice to assess scan-rescan repeatability. Measurements of l were validated using corrosion casting and micro-CT imaging. The ballistic approximation of the velocity autocorrelation model had lowest bias relative to corrosion cast estimates of l, and had highest repeatability.
    • Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)

      Huang, Hongyun; Young, Wise; Chen, Lin; Feng, Shiqing; Zoubi, Ziad M. Al; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Saberi, Hooshang; Moviglia, Gustavo A.; He, Xijing; Muresanu, Dafin F.; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2018-04-11)
      Cell therapy has been shown to be a key clinical therapeutic option for central nervous system diseases or damage. Standardization of clinical cell therapy procedures is an important task for professional associations devoted to cell therapy. The Chinese Branch of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) completed the first set of guidelines governing the clinical application of neurorestoration in 2011. The IANR and the Chinese Association of Neurorestoratology (CANR) collaborated to propose the current version “Clinical Cell Therapy Guidelines for Neurorestoration (IANR/CANR 2017)”. The IANR council board members and CANR committee members approved this proposal on September 1, 2016, and recommend it to clinical practitioners of cellular therapy. These guidelines include items of cell type nomenclature, cell quality control, minimal suggested cell doses, patient-informed consent, indications for undergoing cell therapy, contraindications for undergoing cell therapy, documentation of procedure and therapy, safety evaluation, efficacy evaluation, policy of repeated treatments, do not charge patients for unproven therapies, basic principles of cell therapy, and publishing responsibility.
    • Clinical trial protocol: PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis (PRedSS)

      Herrick, Ariane L; orcid: 0000-0003-4941-7926; email: ariane.herrick@manchester.ac.uk; Griffiths-Jones, Deborah J; Ryder, W David; Mason, Justin C; Denton, Christopher P; orcid: 0000-0003-3975-8938 (SAGE Publications, 2020-09-17)
      Background:: Many of the painful, disabling features of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis have an inflammatory component and are potentially treatable with corticosteroid therapy. These features include painful and itchy skin, fatigue and musculoskeletal involvement. Yet many clinicians are understandably reluctant to prescribe corticosteroids because of the concern that these are a risk factor for scleroderma renal crisis. The aim of PRedSS (PRednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moderate dose prednisolone in patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, specifically whether moderate dose prednisolone is (a) effective in terms of reducing pain and disability, and improving skin score and (b) safe, with particular reference to renal function. Methods:: PRedSS is a Phase II, multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial which aims to recruit 72 patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Patients are randomised to receive either prednisolone (dosage approximately 0.3 mg/kg) or placebo therapy for 6 months. The two co-primary outcome measures are the difference in mean Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index at 3 months and the difference in modified Rodnan skin score at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures include patient reported outcome measures of itch, hand function, anxiety and depression, and helplessness. Results:: Recruitment commenced in December 2017 and after a slow start (due to delays in opening centres) 25 patients have now been recruited. Conclusion:: PRedSS should help to answer the question as to whether clinicians should or should not prescribe prednisolone in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.
    • Commentary: Endovascular Sealing of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Do Current Data Justify Wider Use?

      Torella, Francesco; McWilliams, Richard G.; Fisher, Robert K. (SAGE Publications, 2018-04-12)
    • Conceptual Model of Hearing Health Inequalities (HHI Model): A Critical Interpretive Synthesis

      Tsimpida, Dialechti; orcid: 0000-0002-3709-5651; email: dialechti.tsimpida@manchester.ac.uk; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Panagioti, Maria (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-28)
      Hearing loss is a major health challenge that can have severe physical, social, cognitive, economic, and emotional consequences on people’s quality of life. Currently, the modifiable factors linked to socioeconomic inequalities in hearing health are poorly understood. Therefore, an online database search (PubMed, Scopus, and Psych) was conducted to identify literature that relates hearing loss to health inequalities as a determinant or health outcome. A total of 53 studies were selected to thematically summarize the existing literature, using a critical interpretive synthesis method, where the subjectivity of the researcher is intimately involved in providing new insights with explanatory power. The evidence provided by the literature can be summarized under four key themes: (a) There might be a vicious cycle between hearing loss and socioeconomic inequalities and lifestyle factors, (b) socioeconomic position may interact with less healthy lifestyles, which are harmful to hearing ability, (c) increasing health literacy could improve the diagnosis and prognosis of hearing loss and prevent the adverse consequences of hearing loss on people’s health, and (d) people with hearing loss might be vulnerable to receiving low-quality and less safe health care. This study uses elements from theoretical models of health inequalities to formulate a highly interpretive conceptual model for examining hearing health inequalities. This model depicts the specific mechanisms of hearing health and their evolution over time. There are many modifiable determinants of hearing loss, in several stages across an individual’s life span; tackling socioeconomic inequalities throughout the life-course could improve the population’s health, maximizing the opportunity for healthy aging.
    • Conceptualizing Internationalization at a Distance: A “Third Category” of University Internationalization

      Mittelmeier, Jenna; orcid: 0000-0002-6037-822X; email: jenna.mittelmeier@manchester.ac.uk; Rienties, Bart; Gunter, Ashley; Raghuram, Parvati (SAGE Publications, 2020-02-17)
      Internationalization efforts in higher education have often been categorized according to Jane Knight’s binary of “Internationalization at Home” (IaH) and “Internationalization Abroad” (IA). However, a rising number of technology-supported activities have created new opportunities for university internationalization. For example, students can now remain “at home” while using technology to study with an institution or program that is simultaneously located “abroad.” We have conceptualized these activities as a new third category called Internationalization at a Distance (IaD). In this article, we introduce the concept of IaD and outline an in-depth case study of an international distance education provider at scale, the University of South Africa.
    • Descriptions and the materiality of texts

      guest-editor: Vitellone, Nicole; guest-editor: Mair, Michael; guest-editor: Kierans, Ciara; Mazza, Roberta; orcid: 0000-0001-6508-8259; email: roberta.mazza@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-03-02)
      This article builds on the notions of thick and thin description elaborated by Geertz and looks at what descriptive methods have been used in the field of papyrology, a sub-discipline of classics that studies ancient manuscripts on papyrus fragments recovered through legal and illegal excavations in Egypt from the 19th century. Past generations of papyrologists have described papyri merely as resources to retrieve ancient ‘texts’. In the article I argue these descriptions have had negative effects in the way this ancient material has been studied, preserved, and also exchanged through the antiquities market. Through a series of case studies, I offer an alternative description of papyrus fragments as things, which have a power that can be activated under specific circumstances or entanglements. In demonstrating papyrus manuscripts’ unstable nature and shifting meanings, which are contingent on such entanglements, the article calls for a new politics and ethics concerning their preservation and exchange.
    • Development of the Manchester wide-awake hand trauma service in 2020: the patient experience

      Choukairi, Fouzia; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; N. A. Murphy, Ralph; Reid, Adam J.; Winterton, Robert I.; Bedford, James D.; Wong, Jason K. F.; email: Jason.k.wong@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-24)
    • Doing Dirty Theology: How Ensoiled Humans Participate in the Flourishing of All Earthlings

      Biddington, Terry; email: Terry.Biddington@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-10)
      Traditional theological ideas, language and imagery tend to take their cue and inspiration from the Beyond: from heaven; the transcendent realm and all that is ‘above us’ that we might inspire to attain. But, given that all life arises from and is dependent upon the soil/earth, what possibilities might exist for new ‘ensoiled’ forms of thinking and practice? We are all earthlings and groundlings and our human qualities and spiritual sensitivities and aspirations must, in an evolutionary sense, arise from our connectivity to the soil and earth. What then can the soil and the life it contains teach us about living harmoniously as part of a community of planetary flourishing? This article will explore how a theology influenced by the soil – an ‘edapho-theology’ – might offer fresh perspectives for re-engaging with the need to create a sustainable future for all life on the planet.
    • Effect of combined home-based, overground robotic-assisted gait training and usual physiotherapy on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke: A randomized controlled trial

      Wright, Amy; orcid: 0000-0002-7006-6465; Stone, Keeron; Martinelli, Louis; Fryer, Simon; Smith, Grace; Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; orcid: 0000-0002-0682-2270; Jobson, Simon; Faulkner, James; orcid: 0000-0002-3704-6737 (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-27)
      Objectives: To assess the effect of a home-based over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program using the AlterG Bionic Leg orthosis on clinical functional outcomes in people with chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Home. Participants: Thirty-four ambulatory chronic stroke patients who recieve usual physiotherapy. Intervention: Usual physiotherapy plus either (1)10-week over-ground robotic-assisted gait training program ( n = 16), using the device for ⩾30 minutes per day, or (2) control group ( n = 18), 30 minutes of physical activity per day. Measurements: The primary outcome was the Six-Minute Walk Test. Secondary outcomes included: Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using accelerometry. All measurements were completed at baseline, 10 and 22 weeks after baseline. Results: Significant increases in walking distance were observed for the Six-Minute Walk Test between baseline and 10 weeks for over-ground robotic-assisted gait training (135 ± 81 m vs 158 ± 93 m, respectively; P ⩽ 0.001) but not for control (122 ± 92 m vs 119 ± 84 m, respectively). Findings were similar for Functional Ambulation Categories, Dynamic Gait Index and Berg Balance Scale (all P ⩽ 0.01). For over-ground robotic-assisted gait training, there were increases in time spent stepping, number of steps taken, number of sit-to-stand transitions, and reductions in time spent sitting/supine between baseline and 10 weeks (all P < 0.05). The differences observed in all of the aforementioned outcome measures were maintained at 22 weeks, 12 weeks after completing the intervention (all P > 0.05). Conclusion: Over-ground robotic-assisted gait training combined with physiotherapy in chronic stroke patients led to significant improvements in clinical functional outcomes and physical activity compared to the control group. Improvements were maintained at 22 weeks.
    • Experimental and numerical study of helical auxetic yarns

      Gao, Yajie; orcid: 0000-0003-2726-1502; email: xiaogang.chen@manchester.ac.uk; Chen, Xiaogang; orcid: 0000-0001-5223-2397; Studd, Rachel (SAGE Publications, 2020-12-13)
      Auxetic materials, including textiles, exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR), which is of interest for many applications. This research aims to optimize the structural parameters of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs) and to evaluate the auxetic performance of these yarns. The research reports on the improvement of auxetic yarn quality and the yarn auxeticity through studying the effect of helical angles, diameter ratio and tensile moduli of the two plies, as well as the binder filament feeding. The maximum NPR of the optimized auxetic yarns was experimentally achieved as low as –9.6, with the helical angle of around 14.0° on average using the optimal machine setting. The optimized yarn parameters enabled the making of high-quality auxetic yarns with a wider range of machine settings than before. In parallel, theoretical and numerical studies were carried out for the engineering design of auxetic yarns, which enabled comparisons among the experimental results, calculated results and results from finite element analysis. The comparison showed that a lower initial helical angle, higher tensile modulus of the wrap ply and lower tensile modulus of the core ply led to a higher auxetic effect. A new finding is reported in that a concave relationship between the diameter ratio and the NPR was discovered. The results of this study could assist researchers in producing HAYs, and this type of HAY could be used for many potential applications, such as filtration and impact protection.
    • Exploring engagement with digital screens for collecting patient feedback in clinical waiting rooms: The role of touch and place

      Ong, Bie Nio; Sanders, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0002-0539-928X; email: caroline.sanders@manchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2019-12-09)
      Health service settings are increasingly installing digital devices to enable people to engage digitally with multiple processes, including automated ‘check-in’, as well as collecting feedback on experiences of care. In addition, policy is increasingly driving digital agendas to promote patient engagement with online services, management of health records and routine monitoring. While this tendency towards widespread digital diffusion has been viewed as a means of enabling greater empowerment of patients and improved responsiveness of services to ‘patient voice’, social scientists have provided critical insights on the use of digital technologies in practice. However, there remains limited understanding of the mechanisms and contexts for digital engagement. In particular, there is a need for further research on the sensory and spatial aspects of engagement that are integral to everyday use (or non-use) of technology in practice. This article reports new insights from detailed qualitative case studies utilising in-depth interviews with patients, carers and staff, in addition to ethnographic observations of different digital modalities and their usage in specific health care contexts. A sociomaterial approach and concepts of affective atmosphere and technogeography are drawn upon to analyse the role of touch and place in the collection of digital feedback in multiple waiting room settings for people with physical and mental health long-term conditions. The findings highlight how barriers to engagement varied by context such as particular concerns about privacy for those with mental health problems and physical and sensory barriers for those with physical impairments. The findings demonstrate how digital inequalities can play out in practice and have implications for the design and development of digital innovations and tackling inequalities that may be associated with implementation of new digital technologies in healthcare.
    • Friend or fiend? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of moral and relational orientation in authentic leadership

      guest-editor: Iszatt-White, Marian; guest-editor: Carroll, Brigid; guest-editor: Gardiner, Rita A; guest-editor: Kempster, Steve; Bradley-Cole, Kim; orcid: 0000-0003-0853-6080; email: kim.bradley-cole@winchester.ac.uk (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-14)
      Authentic leadership has been developed with insufficient empirical challenge to its definitional components, and alternative conceptualizations have largely been ignored. The theory remains heavily criticized and its distinctiveness from other higher-purpose leadership theories remains in doubt, leading to a circular debate as to its usefulness in practice. In response to the call to return to the definitional drawing table, this article presents the findings of an interpretative phenomenological study that reimagines authentic leadership as a two-component moral and relational model that is closer to Heidegger’s notions of ‘being true’ and ‘care’. The study inductively explores how leaders themselves make sense of authenticity in practice, when it is enacted by their own leaders within the social exchange relationship. It richly describes how managers perceive and attribute authenticity to their leaders within the lived experience of contemporary work. The study also identifies that working for a leader who is perceived as authentic feels like a friendship and is beneficial to followers’ own psychological experience of work, facilitates their own authentic expression and is worthy of retention as a distinct leadership theory that explains how performance is enabled within proximal leader relationships.